Metastatic Carcinoma Of The Breast

Inflammatory Breast Cancer Pictures
In women, the most common and fatal type of cancer is breast cancer.

Inflammatory Breast Cancer Pictures

Detection

There are often no symptoms in the early stages. Women should be aware of the screening recommendations and follow them. There are varieties of symptoms that may appear as the tumor grows such as:

- The breast changing in size or shape

- Breast skin becomes pitted or ridged

- Thickening or lump in the underarm or breast

- Discharge from nipple or the nipple turns inward

- Skin on the breast becomes red or scales

If you have any of these symptoms, have yourself examined by a medical professional. This does not mean you have cancer but you defiantly want to have this checked.

Before the age of twenty, is very rare to get it and not often diagnosed in women less than twenty-five years old. The chances of contacting climbs steadily after 25 and peaks around menopause age in women. It increases less after menopause but as they age, the risk to older women gradually increases.

Risk Factors

Nobody really knows what causes this cancer. Some of the elements that are thought to increase the risk are:

Gender: There are more cases of women than men

Weight: Overweight women are at higher risk

Age: From 25 to menopause, the chances increases.

Children: If a woman has not had a child, or had a child after 30

Family History: Women that have a family member that have or had it are at risk.

Male Breast Cancer

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Yes, it really does happen. It is certainly not as common as in women but approximately one to 1.5% happens to men. Older men most often diagnosed with it and are between sixty and seventy years old. If a man has had previous exposure to radiation, such as for cancer treatment, their risk increases. Approximately 20% of men with a mother, sister or other close female relatives with breast cancer are certainly at higher risk. Some of the symptoms in men includes swelling or a breast lump, retracted nipple or discharge and scaling or redness of the breast skin or nipple.

Statistics

The statistics are frightening. Each and ever year, over 182,000 women and 16,000 men are diagnosed with breast cancer. Over 400 men and 43,300 women will die from this terrible disease. During their lifetime, one woman out of eight has or will get breast cancer. Most people have family or friends that have or had breast cancer. Always give them your support and encouragement.

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Frequently Asked Questions

  1. QUESTION:
    what is the best alternative treatment for metastatic breast cancer?
    it all started as ductal carcinoma of the left breast. it would now appear to have spread to the lungs, and probbly other organs and the bones. of late, what appears to be metastatic spread in the lungs would no longer respond or react to the drugs introduce as chemotherapy

    • ANSWER:
      I'm sorry to hear that you or someone close to you has secondary breast cancer. Why do you say it 'appears' to have spread, is there a chance that it hasn't? What do the medical team involved advise regarding treatment?

      As far as alternatives go, there are alternative and complementary therapies that will make you feel better, but none that have been proven to be at all effective in treating cancer.

      I'm sure you know, since you've come this far, that wherever there's cancer there's someone waiting to make a fast buck out of people's desperation by selling ineffective and sometimes dangerous 'cures'. There are also well-meaning and caring people who will recommend diets, herbs etc. Then there are the cancer hobbyists who pop up on here most days - people who have never studied, had or been close to cancer but consider themselves experts because of something they've read or heard.

      If you are interested in any particular 'alternative', do a search on http://www.quackwatch.org before committing any time or money. And always be wary of unsubstantiated testimonials and anecdotes; you have no way of knowing if the person ever had cancer in the first place, much less was cured.

      If you don't use them already, I recommend these websites. Both have loads of information and both also have forums where you can talk to people who are or have been in the same situation as yourself, whether it is you or a loved one who has cancer

      http://www.breastcancercare.org.uk
      http://www.breastcancer.org

      Good luck

  2. QUESTION:
    Breast Cancer Treatment Stage IV?
    Dear All,

    My mother is a stage IV breast cancer patient and chemotherapy is going on. In this regard I am enclosing the details of investigations carried out on the patient along with details of treatment provided.

    1. Age : 49
    2. Height: 5 feet 5 inches
    3. Weight 65 Kg.

    Initially a lump was felt in the right breast and as per the advise of General Physian, she was on Vitamin E from March 2009 to June 2009. The lump appeared to reduce in size.

    The patient was on homeopathic medicine during July and August 2009. The patient found relief in pain and size of lump.

    On 1st September, we consulted the Cancer Specialist. The results of Investigation Reports conducted on his advice are enclose

    PET SCAN IMPRESSION: ON 15 SEPTEMBER 2009

    VIABLE PRIMARY PATHALOGY IN REGHT BREAST.
    ACTIVE METASTATIC LYMPHADEOPATHY INVOLVING

    •RIGHT CERVICAL , BILATERAL SUPRACLAVICULAR AND RIGHT SUBCLAVICULAR NODES
    •RIGHT AXILLARY NODES
    •B/L INTERNAL MAMMARY NODES
    •MEDIASTINAL NODES

    BIOPSY IMPRESSION: ON 24 SEPTEMBER

    Carcinoma breast-ER – Negative, PgR – Negative, Her-2 – Positive

    ER Allred score 0 +0 = 0
    PR Allred score 0+0 = 0
    Her-2 / neu = 85% tumer cells are positive (intensity 3+)

    Chemotherapy was started on 1st October 2009. The following Doses were administered:

    1st Chemotherapy on 1st October: 09 (WBC - 6300 tested on 1st Sept.09)
    Cylco 900 mg + EPI 90 mg + 5FU 900 mg through vein.

    2nd Chemotherapy on 8th October 09 - (WBC - 4000 tested on 7th October09)
    Cylco 900 mg + 5FU 900 mg through vein.

    Next Due date was 15 October but blood count was low (2100 ). Doctors give two injections.

    3rd Chemotherapy on 22nd October (WBC 4300 tested on 22nd October)
    Cyclo 900mg + 5FU 900mg + Adriamycin 90mg through vein.

    Next due date was 12th November but blood count was low (3200) Doctors give injection.

    Next due date was 14th November but blood count was low (3400) Doctors give Temoxifen

    On 16th November we gave 1 unit blood and next due date is 17th November 2009

    With the above details, your advice is solicited on the following points:

    1. Whether the line of treatment is appropriate.
    2. Quantity of medicines required for treating the patient.
    3. Status of the Patient i.e. whether the treatment is for curing the problem or for increasing the survival time. And how long will it take to cure the problem.
    4. Can we give homeopathic or ayurvedic medicine simultaneously with this treatment.
    5. Type of diet to be given to the patient and restrictios if any.
    6. Can we give alternative treatment along with chemotherapy (Graviola leaves or Papaya leaves tea) or any other alternative treatment?

    • ANSWER:
      Breast Cancer Stages: Stage IV
      Stage IV breast cancer occurs when the cancer has spread from the breast to other parts of the body. This is called metastatic breast cancer. Women with stage IV breast cancer often receive chemotherapy and hormonal therapy along with surgery and radiation. Radiation may also be used to control tumors in other parts of the body.

      No matter what breast cancer stage, if you or a loved one has been diagnosed with breast cancer and would like to discuss your treatment options with one of our Oncology Information Specialists, contact us at 800-641-9710. You can also chat with us online by following this link: Breast Cancer Stages Information.
      http://www.cancercenter.com/breast-cancer-stages.htm

  3. QUESTION:
    Has anyone been prescribed Xeloda for metastatic breast cancer?
    I was diagnosed with metastatic breast cancer in 2002, it was invasive ductal carcinoma stage 3, one lymph node was positive. I had lumpectomy, chemotherapy and radiation. I took tamoxifen for 5 years. I was then put on Femera. I changed oncologists who ordered a bone scan in 2008 but failed to look at the scan. I had a MRI of my spine done because of increases in pain, incontinence and an abnormal emg test. I had a severe work injury in which I tore my left rotator cuff damaged my right shoulder, avulsed my spinal nerves and developed reflex sympathetic dystrophy and bursitis of both hips, myofascial pain of my neck back legs.The cancer has now metastasized to my liver. I threw a pulmonary embolus . The pain was managed quite well on my current medications. I was receiving Abraxane and Pamidronate until I had a serious side effect to Abraxane. I have been taking Xeloda for 9 days and I have so much pain, more than I have ever had. I have taken 160 mgs of Oxycontin and 8 Percocet just to get up. I have put a call out for my oncologist. I am just asking is this normal? I'm not taking my morning dose. She started me on 2000 mg. twice day.

    Matador 89 I would greatly appreciate your medical opinion. I am a RN.

    Medications: I had never used my drug plan until 1997 so here I go
    Gabapentin 1500 mg BID for pain
    Lipidil 160 mg OD
    Zofran
    Flexaril
    Ditropan
    Effexor
    Clonidine
    Ramapril
    Glyburide
    Metformin
    Prandase
    Percocet
    Oxycontin
    Omeprazole
    Hydroclorathiazide
    Heparin 20,000 units
    Xeloda
    Pamindronate

    All answers thank you so much for taking the time to answer my question
    sorry I forgot to include that it had spread to my bones in 2008, not treated until 2009.
    sorry I forgot to include that it had spread to my bones in 2008, not treated until 2009.
    to the Madator, the reason why I include the year 1997 was because I had never needed any medications, that everything started after my work injury. My blood sugars went up after my first bout with cancer. still suffer with dystonia from the RSD and over the last 3 days it has gone completely out of control and my pain has increased sooo badly that this morning I took a total of 160 mg of oxycontin and 8 percocet. I was fortunate that my oncologist did call me back. She refers to my RSD as
    that " wonky" disorder. She is wonderful and agreed with me increasing my pain medication to take the Xeloda. She told me that she feels the Xeloda is working and will increase my pain medication.My 2 week cycle is over this Friday and on that day I will drink an alcoholic beverage.
    to the Madator, the reason why I include the year 1997 was because I had never needed any medications, that everything started after my work injury. My blood sugars went up after my first bout with cancer. still suffer with dystonia from the RSD and over the last 3 days it has gone completely out of control and my pain has increased sooo badly that this morning I took a total of 160 mg of oxycontin and 8 percocet. I was fortunate that my oncologist did call me back. She refers to my RSD as
    that " wonky" disorder. She is wonderful and agreed with me increasing my pain medication to take the Xeloda. She told me that she feels the Xeloda is working and will increase my pain medication.My 2 week cycle is over this Friday and on that day I will drink an alcoholic beverage.

    • ANSWER:
      Donna B,
      Briefly, YES! I shall try to explain. XELODA is usually taken together with another medicine called docetaxel for metastatic breast cancer - mBC - that has not improved after treatment with other medicines. These medicines include paclitaxel (taxol; onxol), which is classified as an antimicrotubule agent; it stops the growth of the tumour by inhibiting cell division // During mitosis, the cell uses structures called micotubules to move around the chromosomes; [in the 1990s, members of a family of drugs called the taxanes – which include docetaxel (Taxotere) and paclitaxel (Taxol) - were shown to be effective in the first-line treatment of advanced breast cancer as well as in the treatment of women who had developed resistance to the anthracyclines.] // and anthracycline-containing medicine such as doxorubicin. There is some controversy with regard to anthracycline. Studies have shown that there is only a small subpopulation of women who incrementally benefit from anthracyclines over non-anthracyclines in breast cancer. However you should be guided by your oncologist/specialist(s). I am not sure of your meaning when you state that you never used your drug plan until 1997. As you do not indicate why you had a drug plan before the date which you give for your mBC diagnosis, I must assume that your ‘severe work injury’ occurred previously to that date, and may be part of the reason, but this would not indicate why you had some diabetic meds on the list. (Unless of course, you have induced diabetes due to the cancer’s effects). Obviously anti depressants are understandable, given the circumstances. High BP can be a result of disease and medications. The omeprazole is likely for the “poly-pharmacy” and the protection of your stomach lining due to their combined effects. I have outlined, in brief, the uses for those meds on your list – about which I feel sure that as an RN, you are already aware! However, I am not sure if you are able to check adverse drug reactions. Utilising all those on your list, I note that there are some serious adverse reactions between some of those drugs. This you need to check with your prescribing doctor(s) and your pharmacist. I could list them here, but I am sure that, being quite extensive, space would not permit their inclusion. Gabapentin 1500 mg BID for pain = usually for epilepsy, diabetic neuropathy, postherpetic neuralgia, etc. Lipidil 160 mg OD= lipid level modifying. Zofran = prevents nausea and vomiting caused by surgery or cancer medicines. Flexaril = is a muscle relaxant. It works by blocking nerve impulses (or pain sensations) that are sent to your brain. Ditropan = an anticholinergic medication used to relieve urinary and bladder difficulties. Effexor = is an antidepressant of the serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor. Clonidine = used to treat high blood pressure, ADHD and anxiety/panic disorder. Ramapril = ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) inhibitor used for High BP, heart failure and prevention of heart attack and stroke. Glyburide = is used to treat type 2 diabetes. Metformin = is an oral antidiabetic drug. Prandase = is used in non insulin dependant diabetes to lower blood glucose levels. Percocet = is used to relieve moderate to severe pain. Oxycontin = is a narcotic pain reliever used to treat moderate to severe pain. Omeprazole = is a proton pump inhibitor. Hydroclorathiazide = for fluid retention in people with congestive heart failure, cirrhosis of the liver, or kidney disorders. Heparin = for preventing blood clots in the veins, arteries, or lungs. Xeloda = for metastatic breast and colorectal cancers. Pamindronate = used to prevent osteoporosis, and which may also be used when cancer has spread to the bone. As your last “Additional Details” specify this, that is why it is on your list. I wish you well.

      ALL ANSWERS SHOULD BE THOROUGHLY RESEARCHED, IN ANY FORUM AND ESPECIALLY IN THIS ONE. - MANY ANSWERS ARE FLAWED.

      It is extremely important to obtain an accurate diagnosis before trying to find a cure. Many diseases and conditions share common symptoms.

      The information provided here should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed physician should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions.

      Hope this helps
      matador 89

  4. QUESTION:
    Hi my mom has Metastatic Breast Cancer and other things?
    I just started my first semester at college this fall and in late november my mom became ill, my dad said it was just an pneumonia but when i came home to visit her in the hospital i overheard doctors talking to my mom about chemotherapy and when they would begin. I called my sister and she told me they wanted to wait to tell me when I came home in early december so I didnt worry during finals week. My finals are over, my mom has told me, and I am home. However i don't know how to find more information about it and probing her for answers doesn't seem wise she is already under a lot of stress.

    Her diagnosis is: Metastatic Breast Cancer, lung metastis Bilateral plural diffusion, Right auxillary lymph nodes, large neoplastic mass, Interductal cell carcinoma

    I don't know what any of that means!!
    I know her chemo is AC (4 treatments) and Taxol (4)
    Adria and Cytoxan second round of chemo 12/24/09

    can anyone help explain this to me? I don't care if its morbid, well I do. But at this point my mom is so selfless that she wants me to go back up to college, but I'd MUCH rather take next semester off if its not looking good.

    Please help, or let me know if you know where I can go to recieve help/advice if you know of any places. Thank you so much!

    • ANSWER:

  5. QUESTION:
    What's wrong with me? I'm exhausted, heart rate jumps to 110-140, excessive sweating after little activity.
    Also, short of breath with little activity and my bp goes up to 180 /100 easily and I've run a low fever now for 4 years on and off. I had "starburst" chest pain last february that I went to ER for, not heart attack, but no answer for the chest pain. They did put a 24 hour heart monitor on and had a 160/min heart rate after just walking. They kept asking me if I was doing strenuous exercise! I'm 46, 5'7", weigh 185 lbs now. Quit smoking 3 years ago when I first started feeling abnormal, but I've gained 20 lbs and feel even worse. I've been on bp meds last 4 years and think this could be making me feel so bad. New problems: knife pains in right back at bottom of ribs that comes and goes. If I press on my ribs at the bottom, I have severe pain. My thigh bones hurt so bad...comes and goes. I'm tired of trying to find a doctor who believes me when I say something is wrong. They all ask me if I'm depressed or it is menopause. I refuse to stop doing all that I love to do, quilting, painting, yardwork (weed eat 1/2 mile driveway), volunteering and on and on. When it first started I was exhausted by evening. Now, by 9 am I am exhausted, have to rest and then do something else if I can, or I have to wait until tomorrow. It has become almost normal to stay calm and cool if I have an evening thing to do. There is no way if I work on some activity during the day that I can do anything that night, because I will be hurting so bad....my bones ache. I can't wear make up, because with just walking downstairs to leave after getting ready, I will break out in a sweat and water is pouring down my face! If I sit still I don't sweat! My mom passed away when she was 41 (diagnosed when 40) cause of death metastatic carcinoma....bones and breast. I know somethings not right but can't find anything....any ideas of what to check for and recommend to my doctor I would GREATLY appreciate! THANK YOU

    • ANSWER:
      I can relate to most of your symptoms, i had a blockage in my aartery in 03 i have been ok , up till about 3 weeks ago and i started having spells like you said, i think my prob is i am not working and eating to many carbs, also doing a bunch of worring, hope you find out soon somthing, god bless

  6. QUESTION:
    What would be the life expectancy of someone who had:?
    Cribiform carcinoma of the breast, moderately differentiated and infiltrated, AND
    Metastatic breast cancer all over both lungs, and in ALL the bones of the body?
    My mother in law has been diagnosed with all of these in Mexico, but the doctors are not telling her anything. She has 6 kids who are trying to get answers, but they either don't ask, forget to ask, or accept vague answers from the physicians.
    Can anyone give me a survival rate for ALL of these?
    And please do not tell me that nobody knows...I'm just asking for a general idea.
    I know very little about cancer and how different cancers affect people's bodies.
    They haven't given a stage of lung cancer, either.
    Thanks so much!
    ALSO....she doesn't really feel bad, which surprises me. (other than pain in her breast where the tumor is, and she has problems with her hands.
    Yes, the doc said she had bone cancer in ALL her bones, which is a little hard for me to understand...(all the way to her toes?)
    Thanks for the great info....this brings me to my next question: What kind of pain is she in for in the next year, and what can we get for her/do for her to make her more comfortable???
    Thanks

    • ANSWER:
      Get a hospice referral for pain control. She is going to suffer greatly before this is over. She is terminal and her days are very limited. No chance of survival because its in her bones and lungs. Keep her comfortable.
      Im sorry. = (
      I also have to disagree with the writer below me. Once cancer reaches the bones, it becomes extremely painful and she will begin to have pain and fractures of her bony skelton. These fractures alone can be life threatening. The chances it will take her life soon is great because it has spread to her lungs. Think about it. 20% is horrible odds.
      I have worked with many cancer patients for many years. Im a nurse on an oncology floor and I lost my best friend to primary breast cancer with mets to the liver and lungs and bones in 2005. Ask the cancer registar what her medical background is. Doubtful she has ever worked with a living breathing cancer patient. She just knows how to use a computer.

  7. QUESTION:
    A question about breast cancer as pertaining to the liver?
    My diabetic mother in law has metastatic mammary carcinoma. It was in 8 of 10 of the lymph nodes removed. When discovered, it had already traveled to the pelvic bone, the spine, and along the outer chest wall on her left side. It had also traveled to the liver and pancreas. She has been through 3 different rounds of chemo and has tolerated it well. In November, she found a knot where the original site was. A petscan revealed that it was cancerous and it was back along the chest wall and had grown in the liver and traveled to the lungs. The doctor started her on a new chemo(thrid kind) and she her body totally rejected it. On Christmas Day we took her to the hospital and her Albumin was very low, her White blood count was down to 1900 and she had a severe bladder infection and the lower left lobe of her lung was collapsed and her blood sugar was over 500 and they found ulcers in her stomach and upper intestine(I think this was because of the oral cancer drug) which was negative for cancer cells. The doctor gave her amino acids and admitted her where we stayed for a week. her lung function got better, but she seemed very disoriented. Now it's the end of January and after a petscan the doctor says it is spreading in the liver and lung and that there are now pockets of cancer around the liver. she then started her fourth kind of chemo something they call the red devil. She took one dose and her blood suger went to 586, and her lbilirubin started to rise, while her white blood count stayed above 13,000. At the last bloodwork, her bilirubin was at 13, it has climbed from 6 to 13 from Monday to Thursday. I need to know if a liver can possibly re-start itself after this much damage. The chemo shrunk the tumors, but without the liver functioning we know there is no hope. How high can the bilirubin go before it is fatal?

    • ANSWER:
      The liver has an amazing capacity to heal "IF" the disease process affecting liver dysfunction can be stopped. The bilirubin level alone is not the best predictor of outcome.

      There is no chemotherapy agent known as the "red devil" - unless someone has used that term to describe a red liquid chemotherapy agent named Adriamycin which has been used for breast and other cancers since the 1970's. Adriamycin is usually one of the first drugs used for metastatic breast cancer.

      What you have described is a very far advanced stage of breast cancer which is not considered curable with any therapy yet known.
      If your description is accurate, the long term outlook is not good no matter how or where she is treated. Severe diabetes does not help the situation at all.

      I wonder what oral cancer drug is being blamed for the ulcerations in the stomach and upper intestine - Xeloda (capecitabine)?

      These are questions that the oncologist - who knows all the details of the case - should be explaining for the patient and the family members whom she designates to know her medical condition - which I feel sure would include her son. The best way to know what is going on is to be with her as much as possible when her doctors visit her and explain the situation in her special case. We are at a disadvantage trying to answer at this distance with such limited information


Metastasis In Breast Cancer

Pink Breast Cancer Ribbon Tattoo
Detecting the cancer stage is one of the most significant factors in choosing treatment alternatives. Pink Breast Cancer Ribbon TattooSome tests might be done to assist stage breast cancer including clinical breast examinations, biopsy, and particular imaging tests like a chest x-ray, mammogram, bone scan, CT scan, and MRI scan. Blood tests are employed to assess a woman's overall health and identify whether the cancer has extended to particular areas frequently follow imaging tests.

Breast cancer staging is convoluted, and the classification system at times alters as doctors find out more in relation to breast cancer. All the numbers and letters could be perplexing, but these facts assist you and your doctors understand as much as possible regarding your cancer.

Even though breast cancer staging is a complicated classification system that could alter as physicians learn more about the disease, it is useful for patients to know what factors physicians deem when identifying a diagnosis.

The most usual staging method, named the TNM staging system, consists of three main elements:

- Tumor (T). How big is the tumor, and has it extend to the skin or chest wall muscle? Tumor size is one of the most significant predictors of how a cancer will work.

- Node (N). Have cancer cells extended to neighboring lymph nodes? Doctors calculate how many lymph nodes beneath the arm (axillary lymph nodes) test positive for cancer, since their status powerfully relates to prognosis. Breast cancers might be illustrated as "node positive" or "node negative."

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- Metastasis (M). Has the cancer extended to other, distant parts of the body?

The intention of the staging system is to assist manage the different factors and a number of the personality features of the cancer into categories, so as to:

- best understand your prognosis (the most probable result of the disease)

- direct treatment judgments (in common with other areas of your pathology report), because clinical studies of breast cancer treatments that you and your doctor will take into account are in part organized by the staging system

- give a general method to explain the extent of breast cancer for doctors and nurses all over the world, in order that outcomes of your treatment could be evaluated and comprehended.

The 0 to 4 staging system, based on data from many people with breast cancer, approximates your possibility of surviving for as a minimum five years following your diagnosis. The numbers articulate likelihood, not certainty. With advances in detection and treatment, people with breast cancer are living longer than ever before.

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Frequently Asked Questions

  1. QUESTION:
    Is there hope for survival of my mother having metastasis breast cancer alongwith ulcerated growth in breast?
    my mother was detected breast cancer 4 years ago, she was taking ayurvedic medicines and living a healthy life,but just 4months back she got an ulcerated growth in breast which is now open and doctors say its a metastasis stage cancer has spread to liver, bones,brain.She is HER-2 positive, but still doctors say we cannot give any treatment to her.Shud we keep watching her die like this or can we do something please help me to save my mother.

    • ANSWER:
      Yes she can still be treated. What kind of doctor is she going to?!
      I don’t know why she did not get treatment 4 years ago and of course this is why the disease has progressed to the point it is no longer curable, but she can still survive many years with proper treatment.

  2. QUESTION:
    What are the chances of death and survival in case of a bony metastasis from breast cancer?
    Let's say the cancer spread to the humerus and vertebral column over a period of ten months.

    • ANSWER:
      Stage 4 breast cancer is not curable, but it can be treated for several years.

  3. QUESTION:
    Metastasis breast cancer, my mom's battle?
    I have recently lost my mom to breast cancer on 12/4/2010. My mom was first diagnosed with breast cancer summer of 2003. They took the tumor out and she was cancer free for 2 years. Unfortunately we did not do any research or know anything about cancer until it was to late. I spent hours and hours looking for a survivor. This was the end of my mom's 5 years... her cancer came back in 2005, but this time on her lungs. She did chemo and 2 tumors were almost gone and the third one was about the same. Her oncologist said my mom was going to be ok. That the tumors were not that bad... I ignored all the information i studied on line. Then June of this year, the tumors started growing, the clinical trials did not work and neither did the second round of chemo. Also a tumor came on her brain. She went to Reno to have to have the gamma knife to remove the tumor. We found a place in Mexico called Issels... they have hundreds of testimonials of curing terminal cancer patients. We gave it a shot, she left for 4 weeks in August. When she got home she started having major migraines... and the worst happened. In 2 1/2 months the cancer stole m mom from me. She had 13 tumors on her brain, one in her spine, sinus, kidney, and had 3 on the surface of her skin. Her new oncologist gave us hope, i truly think my mom knew it was the end. She did radiation everyday on her back and brain for 4 weeks, and started 2 types of chemo... she withered away.
    On thanksgiving we went to the ER because she was coughing so bad, they said she had an ammonia ... i was still in denial thinking she was going to be ok.
    I don't mean to go on and on... i'm just still trying to cope with this. So i was just wondering if there is anyone out there that is a survivor from metastasis breast cancer.... has anyone personally been treated at Issels??? I hate to believe that place is a scam.
    THANK YOU

    • ANSWER:
      I am so sorry for your loss. I've been imagining myself in your position for 12 years since my mom's original breast cancer diagnoses. She was in remission for about 5 years when they found it spread to her lungs. Since then it has also spread to her hip bone, liver and colon with a second breast cancer diagnoses inbetween. My mom's been on chemo and Herceptin every week for over 5 years. The most recent mets is in her colon and it doesn't look like the treatment is working after 4 months, per CT scan she just had done. But we still have hope.

      She's never been to any "outside" treatment centers or doctors, she's gone to the same one since day one. Either she has alot of faith in her doctors or doesn't want to go into debt traveling for a treatment that might not work any better than what she is on.

      It sounds like your mom was a fighter and that is very admirable. I'm sure she loved you VERY much but she is in a better place now. God bless.

  4. QUESTION:
    Anyone here with breast cancer metastasis to the liver?
    My aunt was diagnosed and by the time she noticed the lump in her breast it had spread to her liver she has about a dozen lesions on her liver.They haven't done much with the mass in her breast they have said the main concern is her liver at the moment.She is taking chemo treatments every week and the breast mass has shrunk in size and she is doing well considering.Her blood work has been coming back normal every week except last week her white blood cell count was high and she could not have chemo.Iam wanting to talk to people who has went thru this or is going thru this same situation .What was/is your course of treatment? how are you doing? I know this is serious and would lover more info from someone knowledgeable. Also her breast cancer is 98% estrogen positive,mildly differentiated.
    She goes back for another round of tests wensday since having chemo to see if its working and Im just really worried.She is like a mother to me and I want to be there to support her and just understand all I can.
    edit sorry i meant*the tumor in her breast is a Grade 2. The cells are somewhat abnormal (moderately differentiated).

    • ANSWER:
      I’m sorry about your aunt, but metastatic breast cancer is not curable, it can often be managed for several years though. She is getting the standard course of treatment and it looks like she is responding well if the tumors are shrinking. It is also good the tumor is moderately differentiated and ER positive, which means the tumor will likely respond to hormone therapy as well. She does have a long road ahead of her. She will still need a mastectomy, possibly more chemo and radiation, before hormone therapy. Best wishes to you both.

  5. QUESTION:
    How would angiogenesis and invasion influence tumor growth and metastasis in a patient with breast cancer?

    • ANSWER:
      Angiogenesis: new blood vessel growth, which is imperative for growing cancers as the vessels bring in needed supplies to sustain the cells
      Invasion: a defining ability of malignancies, allowing the cells to disregard normal cellular barriers and disrupt nearby tissues

      Cancer cells are able to produce local cell signals which "call" for new blood vessel growth, obviously advantageous to these cellsas growth can be sustained longer as new "food" keeps coming in in greater and greater quantities. Think of it as building 8 lane highways instead of a dirt road- more traffic is possible.

      This question is a bit broad, so not sure if I am answering your question to your satisfaction. In any case, there are whole textbooks written about this topic.

      God bless, best wishes

  6. QUESTION:
    Is it possible to get Breast cancer metastases after 17 yrs?
    CT scan recently showed problems on the lung pleura and a 5.9cm mass in or on the Spleen. The docs are saying possible metastases but I find that hard to believe after all this time. I do have bad pain in the Spleen area and my doc says there is something nasty going on. I've been referred to St. Vincents Oncology dept. Waiting to hear appt. date. I'm hoping someone with medical knowledge will answer this. Thanks.

    • ANSWER:
      I'm a young doctor in Romania and I have medical knowledge to answer this.
      Unfortunately I saw a case of breast cancer metastases after 18 years. The person had a mastectomy 18 years ago for a mucinous breast carcinoma and after 18 yeras developed metastases in her lung.
      But I find this case extremly rare and I don't belive it's the first thing you should think about. Probably it's something else and your oncologist will know the next step in fing out what it is. I advise you to try a biopsy, or even a splenectomy if he is recommending you such things because it is very important to know what you are dealing with.
      Good luck, and I wish to find more about this when you will know more.
      Cristiana
      P.S. Also, if you want, read my blog about cancers:
      http://www.newcancerguide.com/tag/women-and-cancer/

  7. QUESTION:
    Breast Cancer and Metastasis to Brain?
    I have some questions. My mother had breast cancer 10 years ago and the treatment she followed was surgery (only a slice of her breast), it was followed by radiotherapy and ended with chemiotherapy. Six months ago another tumor was found on her breast and the treatment followed was surgery (whole left breast removal) and chemiotherapy. Two days ago she had strong headache and after a scann of her head, a metastasis was found. She cannot move her right arm and leg. My father somehow hides information to me. My mother is 66 years old. I don't know where in the head is located.

    I have few cold questions.

    - I heard the size of the tumor is about 4 centimeters. I am not sure if that is the blood that exploded of the tumor or the tumor itself. If that is the tumor, is that considered big?

    - I heard surgery is not an option, so she will go for radiology. Is brain metastais painfull to her? Is she going to recover movement on her arm and leg?

    - What is life expectancy in months or years after radiology?

    Any advice would be appreciated.

    Thank you

    Mauricio

    Can doctors may not seen the tumor in the brain after the last chemotherapy?
    If is a primary, can it grow that fast? I mean, the hair is just growing back.. slower than the tumor then.
    What is easier to fight, a metastasis from breast to brain, or a primary in brain?

    • ANSWER:
      4 centimeters is considered large.
      Brain mets are not typically painful.
      There is a good chance she will regain movement in her arm and leg once the tumor has shrunk, as it is often the pressure, due to limited space in the skull that causes the symptoms.

      Your last question is the hardest to answer partially because there isn’t enough information, but primarily because I don’t think it is metastatic disease. All cancer patients have metastatic workup before chemo is started. If she had brain mets they would have been found then. The only way they could have been missed is if they were too small.

      During the months that followed your mom was undergoing chemo, so obviously metastatic disease or not, this tiny little tumor grew very fast and quite large. This behavior coupled with the fact is was not all affected by chemo for breast cancer indicates it is not metastatic from the breast. I suspect it is a brain primary.

      I know this is probably not what you expected to hear and probably causes more questions for you than I was able to answer. I think if you want accurate information and answers you are going to have to speak directly to your mother’s oncologist. Best wishes.

  8. QUESTION:
    Metasyases Breast Cancer spread in LIVER now detected JAUNDICE is it curable OR only relieved? any medicine?
    My sister is suffering from Metastases Breast Cancer stage IV,she was advised for Oral Chemo & she started the doses but while routine blood test it was found that she is having JAUNDICE infection in LIVER.[ The cancer is already spread in her LIVER,BONES.] so Drs stopped her all medicines & aked her to take heavy diet food [ mostly sweets] .. is there any alternative medicine for this? please suggest. Can anybody tell what is the life span of this patient?

    • ANSWER:
      Bhumiamla (Phyllanthus niruri):
      Charaka mentions the plant. In ayurveda the expressed juice of the fresh plant is given for a sluggish liver and also for chronic liver diseases. It is commonly and widely used for dysentery and intestinal colic.

      It is safe lipotropic drug and its primary action is on the liver. Blumberg showed in inhibition of DNA polymerase of Hepatitis b virus and a viral-agglutinating activity.

      Ghritkumari (Aloe vera) :

      Used for liver & spleen disorder.

      Promotes & regulates menstrual period.

      Hair vitaliser.

      Liver disorder: Indian aloe is a form of cactus. After peeling the hard skin, the pulp to be cored from inside. Take a leaf from the pulp with black salt and ginger juice every morning for 10 days.

      Kakmachi (Solanum nigrum):

      Parts use for : leaves, whole plant, fruit.

      It is used for: Viral hepatitis Swollen joints.

      Diet :

      Go for the boiled & spiceless diet. With vegetables- radish leaves, tomato, lemon . And dry fruits- dried dates with almonds & Cardemoms

      Have plenty of sugarcane juice, orange juice, bitter Luffa and barley water.This enhances urination which helps eliminate excess bile pigments in the blood.

  9. QUESTION:
    My aunt is recently diagnosed with secondary bone metastases from breast cancer which was succesfully..?
    ..cured 8 years ago. One CT scan the only affected organ are the back bones and the ribs but not the liver and lungs. The lymph nodes are also clear. In my aunt's case, what will is the stage of this cancer?
    No mass is found in both breasts.

    • ANSWER:
      General Information
      Bone Metastasis

      Bone Basics

      Cancer Facts

      Future Outlook

      Frequently Asked Questions

      Bone Metastasis
      The bone is a common site for metastasis. Bone metastasis or "bone mets" occurs when cancer cells from the primary tumor relocate to the bone. Prostate, breast, and lung cancers are most likely to spread to the bone. However, other cancers are not excluded. Bone metastases do not begin from the bones but move there from the primary tumor site. On the other hand, primary bone cancers are rare cancers where the primary tumor actually starts in the bone. Therefore, bone cancer and bone metastases are not the same.
      http://www.cancer.med.umich.edu/cancertreat/tissue_bone/bonegeneral.shtml#three

  10. QUESTION:
    Breast Cancer - how likely is metastasis?
    My mom was recently diagnosed with breast cancer. She has a screening every year, so they're saying it must be fast acting. She has a 5cm lump in her breast and a similar sized tumor is verified in just one of her underarm lymph nodes. Shes having a lumpectomy and getting her lymph nodes removed Monday.

    I've looked at all of the staging information on almost every website imaginable, so no need to link me to any of that.

    I'm looking for any sort of statistics that link a positive cancer diagnosis in the lymph nodes to metastasis. I want to know what I should expect. Everyone keeps telling me "it's definitely stage 3 cancer", yet they have no idea if metastasis has occurred yet - so how can they conclude it isn't stage 4?

    A 5cm tumor in the a lymph node is pretty large. I realize doctors and family are all trying to be positive, but I hate not knowing what to expect. Everyone makes it sound as if she just has these great chances, but my research tells me something else. It will be easier for me to be positive and supportive when I know what to expect.

    Sorry about the ramble, but back to the question - does such a large tumor already present in one of the lymph nodes make metastasis very likely?
    I've told you guys all I know, and all I've been told by doctors and both my parents. You seem as confused as I am.

    I guess I'll just wait and find out.

    Honestly I'm looking for any shred of hope that just because another big, 5cm tumor has formed in one lymph node, it doesn't necessarily mean it has spread. In my medically uneducated mind, It seems like a tumor that has had time to grow that much in a node will most likely have metastasized.

    To answer some of your questions:

    1. I believe they've chosen to perform a lumpectomy because of the location of the tumor. I trust this doctor, he's very renown and successful. He's at the top of his game.
    2. I don't know what if the cancer is in stage 3A, B or C. The doctor's said we'll know after a PEP test and the surgery.

    • ANSWER:
      J.A,
      I would disagree with “Everyone keeps telling me it's definitely stage 3 cancer." You state that you have researched the details and do not require any further links. So be it. The description that you give, and I quote, is “She has a 5cm lump in her breast and a similar sized tumour is verified in just one of her underarm lymph node.” To the best of my knowledge, provided the tumours are NO LARGER than 5 centimetres, that describes Stage II B (2 B) invasive breast cancer, in which the tumour is larger than 2 but no larger than 5 centimetres and has spread to the axillary lymph nodes, (this next part obviously does not apply - OR the tumour is larger than 5 centimetres but has not spread to the axillary lymph nodes – because it apparently has done so). It is impossible to answer your question with any degree of accuracy when you do not supply all of the possible information. Doctors use a staging system to determine how far a cancer has spread. The most common system is the TNM staging system. Size (T stands for tumour). Lymph node involvement (N stands for node). Whether it has metastasized (M stands for metastasis). Given that the tumour in the breast and the axillary nodes is no larger than 5 cms, we know about the T. The numbers N1-N3 describe the size, location, and/or the number of lymph nodes involved. The higher the N number, the more the lymph nodes are involved. You appear to indicate that there is only one node involved. It is now necessary to know the M, because the M (metastasis) category tells whether there are distant metastases (whether the cancer has spread to other parts of body) - MX means metastasis can't be measured or found. M0 means there are no distant metastases. M1 means that distant metastases were found. It is possible for further metastases to present and your doctor/oncologist would be able to check if the tests on your mother showed any. The regularity of her routine screening may likely be increased for a period after her lumpectomy. I wish you both well.

      ALL ANSWERS SHOULD BE THOROUGHLY RESEARCHED, IN ANY FORUM AND ESPECIALLY IN THIS ONE. - MANY ANSWERS ARE FLAWED.

      It is extremely important to obtain an accurate diagnosis before trying to find a cure. Many diseases and conditions share common symptoms.

      The information provided here should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed physician should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions.

      Hope this helps
      matador 89

  11. QUESTION:
    Tumor Found in Supraclavicular Node 8 months after breast cancer treatment, could this be metastasis? ?
    Diagnosed March 2007 with Stage 1 breast cancer, right breast. Axillary node removed, negative for cancer. Went through chemo and radiation, finished in February 2008. Went to follow-up October 13, first time for follow-up needed a break from doctors for a while. Complained of pain which I have had for the last 2-3 months from top of right breast to over shoulder and down the back. Sono showed tumor in supraclavicular node, right side. I have a CT scan on Thursday the 30th.
    What does a CT scan show? Being that I just finished cancer treatment seems metastasis is the likely answer?

    • ANSWER:
      A CT scan shows increased metabolism. This can be cancer, it can also be infection, it can also be swelling from your previous surgery.

      I would say that since it is in this position and it is a lymph node (the way that many cancers spread) it is pretty possible it is a metastasis. Hopefully your nodes are just inflamed from fighting the cancer and your surgery.
      Good luck, I will think of you.

  12. QUESTION:
    Confused about breast cancer metastases? My mom had breast cancer twice, once in each breast 10 years apart?
    I know that for example my mom was diagnosed with breast cancer 12 years ago and it spread to her lungs and bone so it's a metastases of the breast cancer...NOT lung and bone cancer. But when she was diagnosed again 2 years ago with cancer in the other breast her oncologist said it's new cancer....not the other breast cancer spreading. What's odd is that it was the same exact type of cancer. I'm not sure of the specifics besides they were both hr+. It then spread to her liver and colon and they were unable to tell which breast cancer had caused it, hence them being same types.

    Is this always the case, each breast considered new cancer? Or only in certain circumstances?
    http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index;_ylt=Av6Sz1y0duOqyj7PpoLuLY7ty6IX;_ylv=3?qid=20101115215540AARSmQ2

    http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index;_ylt=AlfR4uba8bgpZTIzWgqtynDty6IX;_ylv=3?qid=20101116100723AAvwq76

    • ANSWER:
      I know have answered at least 2 of your previous questions explaining this to you, but I cannot seem to find them. That is usually a sign to me that you do not want to hear what I have to say, but it appears that you asked her doctor about what I said, as you now understand your mother was not diagnosed with more than 2 different cancers.
      If you delete this question as well I will assume you do not want to hear from me and I will stop answering your questions so that you can receive the answers you do want.
      The odds of someone being diagnosed with the same type of breast cancer twice are high as over 80% of breast cancers are ductal carcinomas and this is usually the case.
      Breast cancer only spreads to the contralateral breast via the skin and this would have been noted when she was diagnosed 12 years ago. Breast cancer nearly always spreads in an orderly fashion and would involve the lymph nodes on the same side of the body closest to the cancer before spreading to other sites.
      Because I report cancer for a living I can tell you that yes this is always reported as a second breast cancer, unless it has spread to the contralateral breast via the skin.

  13. QUESTION:
    What to expect in the final stages of metastasis lung and brain cancer?
    I am 37 years old. I had breast cancer 4 years ago. Six months ago i found out i have metastasis lung and brain cancer. I had one large tumor removed from my brain. But still have lots of small tumors scattered in my brain they cannot remove. I want to know what i will expect in my final months or weeks. I have short memory loss, slight headaches, nausea and tiredness at the moment. Will i get to the stage of not been able to move, speak, see, hear etc?

    • ANSWER:
      Hello, I'm a doctor. Use topamax. I think that you want to get more info about it. Please go to ----> http://webmd39.notlong.com/AANb1SR

  14. QUESTION:
    Pericardial effusion due to breast cancer....life expectancy?
    My mother in law has peridardial effusion due to breast cancer.
    They have offered to aspirate. Obviously, she doesn't want to do that.
    They gave her Lasix for one week.
    Based on your personal experience, do you think she will be fit for her first chemo after taking lasix, or will this just remove the symptoms, and let her survive a while longer without chemo?

    I had read somewhere that most people who had pericardial effusion from metastases of breast cancer only survived about 6 months.

    Do you have any anecdotal input as to her prognosis when this happens?
    She is being treated in mexico. They already did physical harm to her when they did the lung aspiration, and we are very worried about malpractiice. She has waited since thanksgiving for her first chemo treatment. Their socialized healthcare is a nightmare, and we aren't getting ANY answers from the doctors.
    Thank you.
    My mother also died of lung cancer, and experienced pleural effusion.
    However, your mom was luckier (maybe) than mine...my mom died 2 weeks later. They aspirated the pleural space 3x during 5 days.

    My mother in law has breast cancer in her lungs, but no effusion there, luckily.
    This is why the pericardial effusion is confusing me.

    • ANSWER:
      Hi.

      First of all, thoughts and prayers to your mother-in-law. This must be very difficult time for your family.
      Thank you for being concerned about your mother-in-law's health and well-being. I was my mother's caretaker and I know how difficult these issues are to understand and process.

      Speaking from my mother's experience (Stage 4), we found out she had significant pleural (lung) and pericardial effusion in August 09. She spent one month in the hospital. She had surgery and was given a pericardial window as well as a chest tube to drain the fluid from around her lungs and heart. It took many days to completely drain all the fluid.

      She was placed on Lasix (40 mg daily) and in three subsequent trips to her cardiologist, the fluid never reappeared in a significant amount. There was a small amount of accumulation but not enough to be concerned about (not serious enough for another invasive procedure). Her last trip to her cardiologist was December 17.

      Unfortunately my mother passed away Jan. '10 but it was not from the pericardial effusion. It was actually from a pulmonary embolism.

      The main thing is to avoid any invasive procedures. I think, depending on the amount of fluid surrounding her heart, the Lasix may be effective. Her diet will play an important role in this process as well. Be certain she is limiting her sodium intake as too much sodium will make her retain fluid.

  15. QUESTION:
    Anyone have any information on treatment for triple negative stage 4 breast cancer?
    My sister, 55yrs old, diagnosed with triple negative breast cancer in April 2010. Had mastectomy, 3 positive lymph nodes (under arm), had 12 weeks of grueling chemotherapy and 5 weeks of radiation treatment. Now found out she has lung metastasis and bone. Just when our family thought she'd beat this disease. Interested in hearing from a survivor or an oncologist. Any promising clinical trials? She lives in LA and is a wonderful person.

    • ANSWER:
      As you know, this is now stage IV breast cancer and is considered incurable.
      The goal now is to buy as much good quality time as possible.
      Here's an excellent review from an Sept 30,2008 journal.
      http://www.cancernetwork.com/triple-negative-breast-cancer/content/article/10165/1340727
      - - - -
      http://www.medscape.org/viewarticle/569483
      - - - -
      http://www.webmd.com/breast-cancer/news/20090602/new-drug-for-hard-to-treat-breast-cancer

  16. QUESTION:
    how to get immediate admission into Tata Memorial TMC cancer hospital without any delay?
    unfortunately my Mum has been diagnosed with breast cancer Carcinoma breast with extensive metastasis. My Mum live in Bangladesh. She is not getting any help in that country and hasn't started any treatment yet. I am living in Australia. I want to take her to TMC Mumbai and get treatment started immediately without any delay. Pls help pls..anyone with advising me how to get ball rolling for the admission into TMC so that as soon as she arrives there, she gets help.

    • ANSWER:
      Subrata
      Just open their web site and write all your problem to breast oncologist and fix appointment.
      Tata Memorial Hospital, Dr. E Borges Road, Parel, Mumbai - 400 012 India. Tel. +91-22- 24177000, 24146750 - 55 Fax: +91-22-24146937
      E-mail : info@tmc.gov.in
      They have round the clock online patient service facility.
      Good luck

  17. QUESTION:
    Why doctors don't operate on the breast in case of breast cancer if there are already metastases in liver?
    My mother was diagnosed with breast cancer very late. So late that she already has metastases in her liver. Doctors refuse to make a surgery on her breast and do chemotherapy instead, saying they have to kill the metastases in the liver first.The results are not inspiring- the breast "bomb" is growing and the metastases in the liver also increase. Is this a malpractice of a free medicine and should we search another country where doctors do it differently? Or shall they really cut ASAP the original tumor and then deal with the metastases, Who has similar experience and can give an advise- please do so !
    Thanks for any help, Anya

    • ANSWER:
      Ι think it is better seeing a doctor in person to answer this kind of questions.

  18. QUESTION:
    "White" appearance of Breast and both Kidneys' on CT scan.?
    Have been diagnosed w/ stage 3b inflamatory breast cancer. (The breast cancer is evident in the skin and invasive ductal, has infiltrated the lymphatic system of the skin [T4]) Undergoing chemo. treatments.Could this indicate a metastasis of the breast cancer to the kindeys'?

    • ANSWER:
      Please see the webpages for more details on Breast cancer. Metastasis of the breast cancer is higher compared to other types of cancer.

  19. QUESTION:
    How long can a person live with UNTREATED Breast Cancer?
    And also am I right in saying that malignant tumors in the breast are not life-threatening within itself because of the nature of the breast tissue (i.e. compared to other organs such as the brain, the pancreas and the kidneys, which are largely responsibility for keeping us alive), which is for women primary milking-producing, but the higher incidence of metastasis to far-reaching organs like the ones listed above that make breast cancer so deadly. One of the reasons why i am asking this is because when i think about breast tissue i don't immediately think be all and end all in the sense that a person could live without breast tissue but not a brain, or both kidneys or a pancreas.

    I am really interested to hear from medical professionals on this...

    • ANSWER:
      There are many different types of breast cancer some more aggressive than others. Its when it metastasizes that you have the lethal issues. That is why it is so important to have regular health checkups. Upon finding a lump it is important to have it diagnoses quickly. Skin cancer is another type of cancer in your category of you can live without a section of your skin. But once it moves then you are in trouble.

  20. QUESTION:
    What might be causing these mysterious rib bone fractures?
    A friend has been having mysterious fractures of her ribs, with no significant bone pain prior to them. She is in her 70's and had breast cancer a few years ago, which appeared to have been treated successfully. She has been to several doctors and had many diagnostic tests including a needle biopsy, but so far no definitive diagnosis. Now they are are recommending an open biopsy.

    What could be causing these fractures? One obvious possibility is bone metastases from her breast cancer, but the symptomatology seems somewhat atypical for that.

    • ANSWER:
      It is very likely mets from her breast cancer. See it happen all the time.
      Have they done a PET scan?

  21. QUESTION:
    My sister has breast cancer, is she considered Stage IV?
    My sister was diagnosed with breast cancer last year. Turned out she had bc cancer cells in 8 out of 10 lymph nodes after surgery (pretty simple lumpectomy otherwise).

    After failing to finish chemo (she didn't deal with chemo well), they biopsied her bone marrow and found bc cancer cells there.

    Because she's estogen +, they elected to remove her ovaries and again, found bc cells there too.

    So, our question is this - is she considered Stage IV? She does NOT have tumours in places other then her breast, that we know of obviously, but they are finding cancer cells everywhere.

    Our job is to listen to her, give her support and optimism and not pry for info she doesn't want to give. She's a fighter and optimistic and she really doesn't like talking about the "numbers" too much.

    So any help? Would she be considered IV with just bc cells and not tumours elsewhere?? The info out there on staging doesn't detail exactly what entails 'metastasis.'

    Thanks

    • ANSWER:
      Single cells found elsewhere is metastasis. 2 cells form a micro-tumor.

      This is stage 4 and she should reconsider finishing her chemotherapy.

  22. QUESTION:
    Is cancer really curable?
    I had breast cancer last year when i was 26 and now i am cancer free. Although i am cancer free now i feel that it does not mean anything. I feel that i am going to die from it in the next few years. It seems to me as though no one survives this disease.

    And unfornately i had the worst kind of cancer called Triple Negative. This type of cancer is very difficult to treat. Chemo is the only thing that will cure it, but it seems to me as though chemo does not work. If it does then how come so many people have recurrences? It is EXTREMELY difficult for me to go through this with a positive attitude when i see everyone who gets cancer have a recurrence and most of them end up dieing from it.

    My chemotherapy oncologist have already informed me that if the cancer returns again that i am going to die. Since she has said this i do not feel any need to go to any of my follow-up appointments now. It is just useless to go. People with triple negative breast cancer have a higher rate of developing metastasis cancer later and dieing from it. I feel that there is no hope for me. i feel that i might as well be realistic and just prepare myself to die in the very near future. I hate that it has come to this. I am only 27 years old and now i am going to die. I hate that there is nothing i can do about this.
    The main reason my doctor is saying that if the cancer returns again it will be incurable because triple negative cancer is so aggressive that when it does return, next time it will likely come back in my brain, lungs, bones, or liver.

    • ANSWER:
      I am so sorry you feel this way, I truly believe that fighting cancer has a lot to do with attitude, faith, and trust. I am very familiar with "Triple Negative Cancer" because it is what my wife is fighting now.

      And her oncologist (which is rated one of the best in the Pacific Northwest) believes that this kind of cancer is very cure-able. Quite the opposite of your oncologist, that I cannot believe told you that you would die if it returns.

      In fact our Oncologist Dr. Vinn of the Swedish Medical Center in Seattle told us that with the treatment prescribed her chance of the cancer returning is less than 3%.

      My wife was diagnosed with Stage 2B Triple Negative. The treatment was 15 weeks of Adriamycin and Cytoxin. Then because there were no clear margins she had a mastectomy. Now we are on week 10 of 12 weeks of Taxol. Then we will rest a week and a half and begin Radiation treatments for 6.5 weeks.

      After her mastectomy they found from the lab that the cancer found in her breast was the size of a small grain of rice reduced from the size of a fifty-cent piece. Before treatment she had 3 lymph nodes with cancer after her first treatment of chemotherapy there was found only one lymph node that showed cancer and it was the size of a large grain of rice. It had not ruptured and showed no sign of entering the blood stream.

      Right now, I asked my wife how she felt about her cancer after she had the mastectomy done and she replied that she felt she was cured. She see's herself now as being cancer free. And with her oncologist saying that it has less than a 3% chance of reoccurance she feels great about the treatment.

      I believe as already know that fighting cancer is hell, it takes a lot out of you physically and emotionally. The attitude you have as you fight cancer is very important to your outlook. Staying positive about the disease will improve the probability of you surviving it.

      In life we make our own reality, what we believe happens will happen. Change that record that is playing in your mind because your body will hear the message and it will become reality.

      Don't let your future be held hostage by what an oncologist says, I could hardly believe that she uttered those words.

      Here is a true story of what happened to my grandfather. He was fighting skin cancer. He had gone through 12 weeks of chemotherapy. His doctor on the day of his last treatment told him that he could not believe how well a 94 year old man is doing so well with chemotherapy. He said so many of his patients would be very sick by now.

      That night he went home, got sick and died. That is how powerful a the words of a doctor could be. Don't give that power to anybody. Doctor or not, it is your life, you have been a year free of cancer, and you will live to see your grandchildren's graduation from college.

      What you believe will happen will happen, so believe only the positive and have faith that God has healed you. Don't play what your doctor said ever again in your mind. Enough already!

  23. QUESTION:
    Who is the best medical oncologist in tata memorial hospital mumbai?
    My mother has advanced stage breast cancer with metastasis

    • ANSWER:
      DR.ADVANI
      TMC MUMBAI.

  24. QUESTION:
    How long will someone live with metastic breast cancer.?
    My mom was diagnosed in Nov. '09 with bone metastases. There is a couple small lesions in her pelvis. She has is being treated with Zometa I.V., every three weeks. Nothing in her organs or any other bones. (Her original cancer was lobular breast cancer treated with chemo diagnosed three years before the metastases) She has some pain and is nauseated at times from the Zometa. I was just wondering how long she has. Her oncologist says 3-10 years, and my mom says he won't be here next year at this time. I think she is wrong and that she will still be here five years from now. Thank you for your time.
    She just had a bone scan that showed no spread of the lesions. And her tumur markers went down to very low levels.
    BillParkhurst-My mom is not doing chemo, and as for a "natural remedy" my grandfather did that and died exactly one year after starting his "natural" treatment. My mom has survived 11 years total since her original diagnosis, I did not mention that because it was not relevent. She was diagnosed in early 1999 with ductal carcinoma, treated with chemo and did great until 2006 when she was diagnosed with lobular breast cancer.

    • ANSWER:
      Sorry to hear about your mom. But, no one can say for sure how long she has. Honestly, the person who would know best would be her doctor because he has her medical history or access to it.

      Metastasis is not a good sign. If someone's going to get cancer, you want to find out it's not metastatic. Your chances are much better.

      Her oncologist has said 3 - 10 years. If she continues treatment and begins to improve, it might even be longer than that. They have no way of telling for sure, can only give you an educated guess.

      It sounds like she's depressed too if she thinks she will die within the next 12 months. You might gently urge her to talk to her oncologist about this. But, keep in mind the only person who knows just how your mother feels is her.

      Cancer is devastating to the entire being. Physically and emotionally. I hope your mom finds a way to enjoy her life, no matter if she has a year left or 30!

      My thoughts go out to you. Good luck.

  25. QUESTION:
    Does anyone have any information on Escozul a very promising cure for cancer in Cuba?
    My mom has been diagonised with breast cancer and has metastasis, she is currently under treatment with chemotherapy but I have been reading of this promising cure for cancer that is generated in Cuba from blue scorpions. I want to know is this only offered in Cuba like it says in the website and there is apperantly three labs that offer that one is called Labiofam in Havana, Cuba and the other two are in Guantamo and Matanzas..which is the one that offers the original one? Also can you obtain this product anywhere else? Do you have to go pick it up to the lab in Cuba or can it be mailed to you? I have been emailing with a person who says is a doctor working in Labiofam in Havana and I just want to know this is not a scam or if its just best to travel to Cuba personally to obtain this? If anyone has any information regarding this please let me know or if you have had experience anything with any of the labs please let me know since we are very interested in this product but I dont want to take part of some sort of scam.

    • ANSWER:
      It is good to explore and try to find the facts.

  26. QUESTION:
    Mum with breast cancer: Chances of Recovery?
    My mum's pathology report just came out. doesnt look good, im damn worried....

    she's 47 years..
    she just went through masectomy 2 weeks ago, but it appears the lymph nodes appear to be infected...

    Right Axilarry Content: 21 out of 22 show turmour metastasis

    Left Axillary COntent: 14 out of 16 show tumour metastasis

    Left Sentinel Node:1 tumour show tumour metastasis

    I know it's bad, but how bad? She's going for chemo soon maybe in a month's time....
    what are her chances? I worry everyday, and sometimes cry for her. Im so worried...

    • ANSWER:
      Even with Lymph node involvement, the recent success rates of breast cancer are still very good. I know a few women who went through the same thing, and all of them beat their cancer.

  27. QUESTION:
    Mum with breast cancer?
    My mum's pathology report just came out. doesnt look good, im damn worried....

    she's 47 years..
    she just went through masectomy 2 weeks ago, but it appears the lymph nodes appear to be infected...

    Right Axilarry Content: 21 out of 22 show turmour metastasis

    Left Axillary COntent: 14 out of 16 show tumour metastasis

    Left Sentinel Node:1 tumour show tumour metastasis

    I know it's bad, but how bad? She's going for chemo soon maybe in a month's time....
    what are her chances? I worry everyday, and sometimes cry for her. Im so worried

    • ANSWER:
      She needs chemo and radio therapy. Motly the cancer is controlled with treatment anf patient can live few more years.
      Prays for her!

  28. QUESTION:
    Hi, This is the case of my mom-in-law. She was operated for breast cancer in 2008 and it spread to her liver?
    Metastasis to liver and bone in Oct 2010. She was doing okay but since last two months, she has gone drastically down with weight loss, general weakness and latest was feeling drowsy and slept for long hours during day. Last week, She vomitted on two separate days, some loose motion too, and edema - leg swelling. Sonograph revealed fluid in liver and yesterday extracted around 3.5 litres of fluid as she could not have any food at all. Now we understand that she has to be repeatedly drained. Jaundice was seen a week before this in eyes and it later disappeared. Yesterday, her face and hands and slowly mostly all parts of body is yellow. Doctor says liver is not functioning normal and she has only` few weeks to few months.' Please help me by advising what else should I expect will happen as I feel she should not suffer much. She has thinned so much. Will she have lot of pain due to this liver malfunctioning ? Will the bones give her hard time ? How fast will the fluid accumulate ? Will the jaundice affect the heart since bilirubin is high ? Sorry, i asked so many questions. This will also help me extend my leave and care for her. Thanks for your valuable answers, dear brothers and sisters.
    She is 67 yrs old.

    • ANSWER:
      Sorry but she has disease in advanced stage.
      Treatment is very limited and just palliative and to be frank her prognosis is very poor.
      You all must get mentally prepared.

  29. QUESTION:
    Calcifications were seen on mammogram of a 2 time breast cancer patient?
    My mom has been diagnosed with breast cancer twice, 10 years apart, most recently being back in 2008 and has had many metastases. She went for a mammogram a few weeks ago and and just told me that they found 3 calcifications. One doctor said it's ok, just nothing but her oncologist wants to run more tests.

    I try not to worry but it seems like every time a doctor thought it was nothing, her "asthma" diagnoses was really mets in her lungs and her "arthritis" was mets in her bone. What are the odds that calcifications in a two time breast cancer patient are benign?
    She has been on chemo and Herceptin every week for 6 years, with small breaks in between chemo rounds. It has metasticized to her lungs, hip bone, liver and now colon in those 6 years.

    • ANSWER:
      I too am a breast cancer survivor and continue to show calcifications. I have bone pain as well...sometimes I wonder if it is more to worry about. It is always in the back of my mind. Let her oncologist run the tests....it's better safe than sorry.

  30. QUESTION:
    help for a liver cancer?
    I am Italian and I am suffering from breast cancer with liver metastases and bone, I'd like to know the best center in America for the treatment of this disease, I heard about the memorial sloat kettering is it a good center? I'm put to the person right? sorry but my English is not good .. thanks in advance

    • ANSWER:
      I am sorry that you are suffering from cancer. One of the best resources is the Cancer Center of America. See their website below . To talk to someone about your condition click on the "contact us" box. You can telephone them, chat on-line or use email. Three of my close relatives had cancer so I have some idea what you are going through. My sister, father and grandmother all had different forms of cancer. My sister had ovarian cancer last year and after an operation and a six months course of chemotherapy she is cancer free. My grandmother died from liver cancer in 63 years ago. My father died from mesotheiloma (a type of lung cancer) 30 years ago. Treatment has come a long way since then. If they cannot help you directly the cancer center may be able to refer you to a treatment clinic in your area. Best of luck to you.

  31. QUESTION:
    Kidney stones - how long can a stone remain in your kidney?
    had CT scan in 2003 and 2007and recent ultrasound, both show small non-shadowing echogenic structure in left kidney. Neither report could confirm renal stone. Slight increase in size of since 2007 report. 2x breast cancer survivor. Concerned with metastasis.

    • ANSWER:
      I believe it is possible to retain stones in the renal pelvis for years, but you say the scans did not confirm stones. "Echogenic" sounds cystic. These sound like renal cysts. I know more about breast cancer than urology and radiology. Breast cancers do not often show up as initial metastatic disease in that location - - the kidneys. We do see adrenal gland mets, but these are often very late with widespread metastatic disease. Metastatic breast cancer is much more likely to show up in the bones, lungs, liver, brain, and then adrenal glands.
      Your oncologist should be answering this question for you. It's a part of our job. Much of my time was spent explaining scan results, lab results, path reports, and so on. It is important to allay understandable anxiety that patients have regarding their reports. Many people access their own reports and do not have the years of training to fully understand what the reports mean.
      I hope you can go over this report with the medical oncologist who knows your case. That would be best.
      I spent plenty of time going over scans with radiologists so I could explain the findings for my patients. I often showed the scans to patients and any family they brought with them so they would know what we are looking at. This is time consuming but important in my opinion.

  32. QUESTION:
    Anyone interested in a Cancer Cure that WORKS?
    I see some people had asked some months back about "Budwig Protocol", and all answers have been in the negative, including derogatory comments about this doctor being a hoax!

    Budwig Protocol is a method that WORKS to cure cancer in almost all stages, including terminal-end-4th-stage cases. In defense of this claim, I would like to present some NIH backed research data (you can download the papers at these links).

    My intention is to spread awareness of this method as much as possible. If you do not agree with this post, please go ahead and refute the research done by world's most premier research organization (at your own risk). Otherwise please spread the word, a lot of people will thank you for having saved their or their loved one's lives!

    1. "Dietary Flaxseed Alters Tumor Biological Markers in Postmenopausal Breast Cancer":
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/queryd.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=15897583

    2. "The inhibitory effect of flaxseed on the growth and metastasis of estrogen receptor negative human breast cancer xenografts is attributed to both its lignan and oil components":
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/queryd.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=15849746

    3. Education, Protocol and Support group (find all information on Budwig here):
    http://health.groups.yahoo.com/group/Flaxseedoil2
    People like BEAU: Please try to be logical and refute NIH if you can instead of submitting puerile answers! Secondly, without any understanding of the protocol, you say people in middle east or Egypt still get cancer despite having cottage cheese. But you haven't done your research - the answer is in MIXING CC and Flax Oil making it water soluble; not one or the other ingredient.

    Deriders: Please do some BASIC and MINIMUM research and follow the links that I have painstakingly put for your behalf - do not post just to get your 2 points here!

    READ THE POWERFUL, CONCLUSIVE RESEARCH LINKS and then answer! Deal?
    Let me answer the two people who have posted rational responses.
    1. lo_mcg: You post without reading the link that this is not a double blind placebo test. But if you had read a little, this is what you would find: "This study examined, in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial". Also, the intention of NIH is NOT to validate BP but to study the main ingredient of BP namely the flaxseed/flaxoil, which is proven very significantly in the result. The rest of your message doesn't contradict any research I provide (note, the support group is not a research link, it is an actual site for people following the protocol).

    2. Panda: You say: "how do you know that you aren't ending up killing these people by having them delay treatment that has been scienfifically proven to work": Do you prefer chemo to kill you faster after making you a pauper so that drug companies make a bigger profit? After all chemo success rate for terminal cases are around 5%! More in another post.
    Panda also states: "I wish we had laws to hold people accountable for misinformation and delays that place another persons life in jeopardy". This would entail putting almost the entire chemo industry in jail. Please research chemo effectiveness and the misinformation carried by the drug industry before posting homilies.

    In any case, you have NOT refuted the findings, your only case seems to be that this is research dating to 2005. So what?!!!

    "I know you are convinced . .but you probably don't have metastatic cancer or if you do . . you don't mind experimenting on yourself . .but would you experiment on someone elses child."

    I am "experimenting" on my mother who has stage4 metastatic cancer, so there goes another conclusion. If I got cancer, I would reject chemo and do this myself. Knowledge is power and ignorance makes you believe in stuff that doctors themselves do NOT believe in.
    Panda also says: If this product or diet works than do the responsible thing and encourage more research, clinical trials, and find out exactly". This is exactly my intention - spread awareness so that more people demand this, spread the knowledge, put pressure on the Industry. I hope you didn't think I have the clout to make the drug industry to do clinical trials on my own!

    • ANSWER:
      The clinical results do look promising. I certainly hope that Flaxseed and the others substances at the very least help individuals fight their cancer. Along with traditional methods, such as chemotherapy and radiation it may make the difference in a positive outcome. Thanks.

  33. QUESTION:
    Stage 4 cancer ( What is ck 6 and p63 negative in biopsy Please HELP! )?
    " Metastatic poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma consistent with metastasis of duct carcinoma "

    My mom has a stage 4 breast cancer mets to liver , lungs and bones bur no cavitation found in ct scan report , She has a great will power and she's highly positive and doing well with a good health.
    Is there any Hope to live longer
    WHAT is " Metastatic poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma consistent with metastasis of duct carcinoma "

    • ANSWER:
      Metastatic means it spread to this location from somewhere else in the body.
      Poorly differentiated means the cells are aggressive and little to no resemblance of a normal cell.
      Adenocarcinoma is a cancer of an epithelium that originates in glandular tissue and is the most common type of cancer there is.
      “Consistent with metastasis of duct carcinoma " doesn’t really make sense. I believe it should be DUCTAL carcinoma which is a type of breast cancer.
      CK6 is a cytokeratin stain and p63 is a gene. The cells from this biopsy were checked for these things to help the pathologist determine the primary site. Breast cancer would be negative for both.

  34. QUESTION:
    Cancer Treatment Followup-- Is this proper protocol?
    I'm 28 years old. In March of 2010, I was diagnosed with Stage III triple negative breast cancer. I was given all kinds of testing back then, CT scans, bone scans, X-rays, and probably some other stuff I can't remember.

    In August 2010, I finished up 8 rounds of ACT chemo and then had lumpectomy surgery. I was told my margins were cleared. I finished up 6 weeks of daily radiation around February 2011.

    I had two followups with my oncologist, one in April, and one in July, where all we did was sit and talk about how I had been feeling. Then in August 2011, only one year since finishing chemo, I checked myself into a different emergency room with chest pains. I thought maybe my dog had tackled me too hard, lol.

    It turns out that my original cancer has spread to my lungs. IT'S ONLY BEEN A YEAR, and there are approximately 10 different nodules! I'm pretty pissed because I don't understand why my oncologist never did any followup scans, and had I never gone to the emergency room, no telling when the metastasis would have been found--if ever.

    My question is this-is it really normal for doctors not to do any followup testing after chemo and/or radiation treatments? All my doctor is telling me is that they didn't think my situation was LIKELY enough to require testing because I never complained about symptoms. It just seems logical to check to at least make sure no internal organs were accidentally damaged during all these powerful dosages, but hey, I'm no doctor.
    @ Sunny Hill- When my tumor was removed, the surgeon also removed a small margin surrounding the actual tumor.That margin, along with three lymph nodes from under my arm, was dissected by a pathologist. The pathology report is what determined that I was (allegedly) cancer free.

    • ANSWER:
      Possibly a medical professional will be able to explain why your follow up appointments were as they were.

      My experience is as an older woman with stage 3 oestrogen positive breast cancer - a very different case from your own.

      I found my follow up check-ups pretty pointless - they were a few questions and a quick physical examination. The onus was really on me to report any worries or concerns I had, which were then investigated.

      I'm disturbed that a woman with triple negative breast cancer at such an extraordinarily young age didn't have more thorough aftercare - but I'm no doctor either.

      I'm sorry you find yourself in this situation. Best wishes to you

  35. QUESTION:
    my gma has stage 4 liver cancer?
    My husbands gma is 96 and has been diagnosed with stage 4 liver metastasis, large quantities of tumors in her lungs and swolen lymph nodes. she is going to a skilled nursing facility and is also going to be starting hospice care while there, as she has requested there be no treatment given. The dr. said the outlook is anywhere from 2 mo - 1 yr, but we live 1000 miles away and didn't know if there was even a smaller time frame we are looking at. She is already suffered huge weight loss and is yellowing, however the dr said it was a "slow growing" cancer - pain is only to the touch of the abdomen, but she had a masectomy 10 years ago for breast cancer, and about 4 years ago she had tumors in her urethra and received some kind of radiation treatment. She has bacteria in her lungs that the dr says will never clear up she has not responded to 3 different types of antibiotics. Any info would be great. We just don't want our sweet grandma to suffer.

    • ANSWER:
      Your grandmother is about to go home to be with the Lord. All you can do is make her as comfortable as possible and be there to show her love as you are doing. Don't let the doctors treat her with stuff that will destroy any decent time she has left to share with you all. She is 96, very sick, and about all the doctors can do with their drugs is make her worse.

  36. QUESTION:
    Nerve damage at site for weekly IV chemo?
    My mom has been fighting cancer for over 13 years now, originally breast cancer with metastases to the lungs, bone, liver and colon with a second breast cancer diagnoses in between. She has been on chemo and/or Herceptin every week since about 2006. We talked on the phone last night and she mentioned her hand is starting to feel "different". She said sometimes it feels like there's something in her vein, it gets really hot or really cold. We're afraid it's nerve damage.

    She goes for chemo tomorrow and is going to tell the nurse. I assume the will start using a different vein, since they use this particular one 3 out of 4 sessions. She has had 2 metaports and a hickman catheter but there were complications and infections, to the point she almost died once, so they've been going directly through the IV for a few years.

    Is it likely the nerve damage will be permanent or will she regain full feeling after they stop using this vein? Any advice is appreciated. Thank you.

    • ANSWER:
      This is called peripheral neuropathy it is common with some chemo drugs. She needs to talk to her oncologist about it. Sometimes it takes awhile for the feeling to come back and it can become painful so the sooner the doctor knows about it the better.

  37. QUESTION:
    Can a collapsed lung reduce the amount of O2 one uses when receiving oxygen therapy?
    My mom is on 3 Liters of oxygen. Two lobes are collapsed in the right lung. Her MD signed off for her to get a new regulator (?) for her O2 tanks to make them last longer. She was receiving continuous O2 but with the new regulator (I think it's called a conserving device or something like that) she only gets O2 when she breathes in.

    Her respiratory therapist told her that one tank should last about 4 hrs on 3L but one tank has lasted her almost 24 hrs. Could her partially collapsed lung be the reason why one tank is lasting her much longer than normal?

    BTW...not sure if this will make a difference but she has metastatic breast cancer with metastases to the right lung.

    • ANSWER:
      how does she feel? if she is tired then could be the lack of oxygen.

      maybe you can call the provider of the tanks and ask how long they last.

      accompany your mother to her appointment and ask for a 2nd opinion or a straight forward answer.

  38. QUESTION:
    Can you PLEASE help me solve these!? 10 extra points*?
    I'm taking my health class online and I have no clue what these questions mean!
    PLEASEPLEASEPLEASEPLEASE
    HELPP MEE!!!

    What is a typical reason that a two-year-old should see a health care provider?

    to be assessed for cancer
    to receive an immunization
    to have a Pap smear
    to have blood work for cholesterol done

    An injection of which of the following can help to the body improve one's own immunity and life-long resistance to specific types of infectious diseases?

    hormones
    vaccinations
    chemotherapy drugs
    antibiotics

    Which health care professional would be responsible for providing an ultrasound to a pregnant woman to visualize the fetus and its development?

    phlebotomist
    registered nurse
    dietitian
    radiologic technician

    Which birth defects occurs when the roof of the mouth does not fuse together?

    Muscular Dystrophy
    Spina Bifida
    Down's Syndrome
    Cleft Palate

    The loss of which hormone contributes to osteoporosis?

    insulin
    oxytocin
    estrogen
    thyroxine

    Which of the following behaviors will not help reduce your risk of cardiovascular disease?

    using sunscreen
    maintaining a healthy weight
    exercising regularly
    eating a low-fat diet

    When the body doesn't produce insulin, what is the effect?

    cells absorb too much glucose and the blood sugar is low
    cells don't absorb enough glucose and the blood sugar is high
    cells produce too much glucose and the body uses fat for energy
    cells don't produce enough glucose and the body stores fat

    What can people do to reduce their risk of developing type 2, or adult-onset, diabetes?

    reduce salt intake
    wear sunscreen or protective clothing when outside
    take insulin regularly
    eat a healthy diet and maintain a proper body weight

    What can people do to reduce their risk of developing skin cancer?

    reduce salt intake
    wear sunscreen or protective clothing when outside
    take insulin regularly
    eat a healthy diet and maintain a proper body weight

    What is the most prominent and preventable risk factor contributing to lung cancer?

    air pollution
    no insulin produced
    lack of exercise
    smoking

    What is the single, most effective means of breaking the chain of infection?

    wearing gloves when in direct contact with people
    using disposable tissues for the cold or flu
    washing hands frequently throughout the day
    cooking and storing foods at their proper temperature

    A fifty-two-year-old woman feels a squeezing, crushing pain in her chest. The pain also extends to her left arm, neck, and shoulder. She is short of breath. What is she suffering from?

    diabetes mellitus
    a stroke
    a heart attack
    breast cancer

    What is metastasis?

    swelling because of fluid retention in the abdomen
    cancer cells leaving a tumor and invading other parts of the body
    breathing into an inhaler to open up the airways
    using a balloon on a long tube to flatten plaque in an artery

    Which of the following best increases the chance of surviving nearly any type of cancer?

    chemotherapy
    radiation
    early detection
    surgery

    What infection is transmitted by mosquitoes and is relatively new to the United States and can cause flu-like symptoms that can result in encephalitis?

    West Nile Virus
    lung cancer
    heart disease
    Alzheimer's disease

    There have been documented cases of HIV being passed through all these ways except which of the following?

    excessive sweating
    breast-feeding
    blood transfusions
    sexual intercourse

    Which of the following is a myth about HIV and AIDS?

    There is no cure for HIV infection.
    Only homosexual men get AIDS.
    The virus that causes AIDS attacks the immune system.
    Many HIV-infected people look and feel fine.

    What is the most common way hepatitis A is transmitted?

    fecal-oral route
    sexual contact
    contaminated needles
    breast-feeding

    How does HIV affect the body?

    It infects red blood cells, decreasing the amount of oxygen the blood can carry.
    It infects certain white blood cells, destroying the immune system and making the body susceptible to infection.
    It infects the alveoli of the lungs, reducing lung capacity and the effectiveness of the respiratory system.
    It infects blood-forming cells in the bone marrow, producing anemia and destroying the immune system.

    • ANSWER:
      1. to receive an immunization
      2. vaccinations
      3. radiologic technician
      4. Cleft Palate
      5. estrogen
      6. using sunscreen
      7. cells don't absorb enough glucose and the blood sugar is high
      8. eat a healthy diet and maintain a proper body weight
      9. wear sunscreen or protective clothing when outside
      10. washing hands frequently throughout the day
      11. smoking
      12. a heart attack
      13. cancer cells leaving a tumor and invading other parts of the body
      14. early detection
      15. West Nile Virus
      16. excessive sweating
      17. Only homosexual men get AIDS.
      18. fecal-oral route
      19. It infects blood-forming cells in the bone marrow, producing anemia and destroying the immune system.

  39. QUESTION:
    How do I take care of my grandmother?
    My grandmother has lung and breast cancer. She's 78. There are metastases from, luckily, the breast cancer. She has a growth in her hip that makes moving it excruciating. She can walk on it relatively easily. By easily I mean she isn't crying in pain. However, she needs help getting into a seated position to stand up, and she needs help getting into cars, among other things. My home is the best place for her, my mother works in a VA hospital, and everyone there is at least 65. She specializes in elderly care, and things of that nature. But, she isn't here all the time. My Dad doesn't know what to do, so he always dumps my grandmother on me. I'm fourteen, I do what I can. She starts crying when trying to sit up and the stuff I mentioned before. How do I move her properly? When she feels pain while I'm helping her sit up and stuff should I stop, or try to keep going and make it as quick and possible? Any other old people tips would be nice. She' s well taken care of in my house, I assure you, but I want some help for the things I'm not quite certain about.

    • ANSWER:
      You are very young to have this responsibility alone. Please contact your nearest Hospice in your area. Your mom should be able to find one since she is working in the medical field. As long as your grandmom is no longer going for any treatment she is eligible for this. She is probably getting Medicare & they will pay for Hospice. A nurse will come out to help you & do an assessment on your grandmom. They also will supply a nurses aide for 2 hours a day (Mon. - Fri.) who will help you learn how to handle & care for her. The nurse will order pain medication & a hospice doctor also will come out to see her. Also a social worker & religious person to help you deal with this. Medicare also pays for medical supplies including a hospital bed, commode, wheelchair, and cane if she needs these things. Since she has lung cancer she may need oxygen later to help her breath & Hospice also will get that too. You need support & Hospice will give you this. A Hospice Nurse will be on call 24 hours a day if you have any questions or need her to come for an emergency. The nurse usually will also visit 2 to 3 days a week to check on her status & help you. It sounds like you need instruction & pain medication for your grandmom. Please call for help is available. Good luck.

  40. QUESTION:
    Is my aunt going to die?
    Months ago, my aunt had breast cancer, the doctors removed both breasts, they made her chemotherapies and radiations. Finally they said that she wouldn't longer have cancer.

    But now she did another test and the doctor said that she had cancer in the same area, but now she hasn't breasts, then, where is cancer?

    It can be something like metastasis? do you think that the cancer is in the lungs, bones, or something like this :( ?

    I am desperate and would like to see answers before I know the truth.

    Sorry for my bad english, I speak Spanish :(

    • ANSWER:
      aw lo siento. Hablo Inglés, pero puse esto en un traductor de español porque dijiste que hablan español. Espero que no está mal. el cáncer es acortar la vida de las personas. tal vez sea en los pulmones, los médicos darse cuenta de eso antes. tienen que saber dónde está, pero se cuelga allí. espero lo mejor para su familia!

  41. QUESTION:
    Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis - Testosterone, DHEA Progesterone, Estriol Supplementation?
    There seem to be two views points on Testosterone and DHEA:

    (a) Testosterstone and DHEA Supplementation can worsen prostate cancer.
    (b) Testerstone harms only at less less than adequate levels (whose T levels are stuck in the middle - less than nomal but not minimal). Both in very low levels and at high levels these harmones will help in combating cancer.

    We know that in majority of cases Testosterone blockade helps control the disease.

    There is some anecdotal (http://www.mercola.com/1998/archive/natural_progesterone2.htm) evidence that Progesterone local application has benefitted advanced prostate metastasis.

    Has any research been done with Testosterone/DHEA Progesterone supplements on Advanced PCa persons.

    I am interested to know if anyone with advanced Prostate malignancy or breast malignancy on the bone has tried DHEA and/or Testosterone, Progesterone, Estriol supplementation and has perceived benefits.

    Accurate info will be of great relevance.

    Sammy

    • ANSWER:
      For a fact, testosterone supplementation will worsen prostate cancer

      I don’t know if DHEA supplementation or HGH injections will worsen prostate cancer. If anybody knows, I am interested in the answer myself. Please reply to this question. It is a good one. Reply to this posting and to allanbrandt@yahoo.com

      Androgen depravation using Lupron or castration is first line treatment of prostate cancer if it has spread, even if it has spread to the bone. If that is not enough, sometimes they will add a second line hormonal treatment such as high dose Ketoconazol to quickly lower your testosterone level to almost zero, but monitor weekly for liver damage using high dose Ketoconazol. (I learned this the hard way). Usually there is a response from the above treatments, but only temporarily.

      Estrogen based treatments such as Megace which contains progesterone, or DES which contains estrogen, are not effective treatments if prostate cancer is already in the bone. Estriol supplementation may be similar. Not effective but cant hurt. Prostate cancer hates all female hormones.

  42. QUESTION:
    What could a palpable mass in lower abdomen be?
    My mum went to her doc yesterday (routine checkup) and they found a palpable mass in her lower abdomen - about 1-3 inches below her naval and slightly to the right. I could even feel it...it was at least 1-2 inches and hard, lumpy and not painful. My mom said she noticed it for a few weeks. What possibly could this mass be? We are scheduling a follow up appt with the surgeon as advised.

    Additional details: She has a history of breast cancer (triple negative) in 2006 with no metastasis and clean lymph nodes. She also had a transverse colon resection surgery 2 months ago after a routine colonoscopy showed a mass. The surgeon only had to remove 3 inches of the transverse colon (which is above the naval) during a laproscopic procedure. The final pathology from the resection came back benign. My mum is not sure if she noticed the new palpable mass before or after this surgery.

    So my question is, what could the palpable mass be? Cancer, scar tissue, other ????
    MAYBE my question is too long for some people. However, in it I stated .....SHE JUST SAW HER PRIMARY CARE DOC. She is scheduling an appt with the surgeon. SHE IS UNDER MEDICAL CARE.

    I'm just looking into gathering possibilities of what it might be so I can research and ask the correct questions when we see the surgeon.

    • ANSWER:
      You seriously want some one on this forum to diagnose whether you may have cancer. Get real and go to the doctor , they get paid to make that kind of decision.

  43. QUESTION:
    Off course some cancers are curable but there is no sure shot dialogue but it's a trial & error method to trea?
    Thank you, all of YOU. for valuable opinions/experiences, which were an eye-opener to me. I welcome one and all replies. By the grace of Lord, so far so good, after half century of life, that too in India, during post-military life encountered and experienced many troubles and turmoils. I've most of the times, experienced the fate by being, bed-side doing free-service to patients, throughout the period (without expecting) and revealing some hidden facts of un-fortunate souls. Every morning, the 'poor soul', expressed anguish/agony for a re-birth but in vain. After a laborious and painstaking efforts for treatment which proved futile before revealing some hidden facts for your reference please :
    a) Deadly metastasis has no end and live few months,
    b) Stage-III breast cancer some-how pulling on since 5 Yrs.
    c) Wrong diagnosis by oncologists caused death,
    d) Downtrodden medical ethics and commercial oncologists,
    e) Wrong selection of CT drugs,
    f) Over dosage of Cobalt RT using age-old machines,
    g) Poverty and high cost of treatment,
    h) Shortage of time spared by oncologists,
    i) Poor attention for post-operative cases etc.,
    By taking into account of all above aspects / facts and being a non-medico a wrong picture was embedded in my mind. I praise the Lord first then all of you who lived healthier healthier and healthier with valuable replies. Many more wonderful sun shine years to one all. Bye.. Bye... Basu....

    • ANSWER:
      I won't presume to know much about other cancers or treatments other than my own. With me and my lung cancer, all treatments, even proven semi-successful ones are still a hit and miss. Some others with stage iv lung cancer went thru the same chemo I did, they are now N.E.D. (no evidence of disease) but in my case, it pretty much just held my cancer in check for nine months after the six rounds of treatment. I then had another six rounds of a different chemo, again, no change to the tumors but again, held my cancer stable. So no treatment is sure-fire, each of us are different and react differently to medication treatments. Surgery is always a plus, if they can remove the infected lobe of the lung, then recovery chances are greater. In my country, the oncologists would not mis-diagnose, at least its highly unlikely as a biopsy is performed before the onc even sees us. But many times we are misdiagnosed by our family doctors. Lung cancers are often confused with pneumonia, bronchitis, etc.. early warning signs of shoulder or back pain are treated with muscle relaxants.. its up to us to dig deep and keep after our doctors to find the cause and insist on further testing with scans.
      True many times wrong selections of CT drugs are used, but again.. what works on some, may not work on others. They pretty much know what chemo will be most effective on which cancers.
      Long strides have been made in cancer treatments, we still have a long way to go.. but we have many success stories of survivors now. Where I live, nine years ago we weren't even offered treatment for lung cancer. Now we are given the chance of life and often years are added for us. All we can do is try, stay as positive as possible and leave no stone unturned til the last pebble has been exposed., and then.. start over again.

  44. QUESTION:
    my mom is taking femara and herceptin injection is there a chance shell have remission?
    my mom have breast cancer stage 3b last 2004 after chemo she had radiation and was given tamoxifen even she is a negative receptor after 2 years she have a skin metastasis that was diagnosed early she has taken xeloda or oral chemo and now after oral chemo she takes femara and herceptin injection is anyone have the same situation i just wanna know the truth if there is a chance of remission in her case? and is it true that when u have a remission the stage of the cancer also hightens there level does that mean my mom is stage 4 already after having skin metastasis please need aswer she is 42 years old for now she is a 4 year cancer survivor she is experienceing osteoarthritis migraine and weakened muscles i know its only a side effect of femara but could dis affect the remission if ever?

    • ANSWER:
      Each cancer is different and people will react differently to treatment. Without all the blood details, I can't really help. However, I'm not going to lie to you there is a chance of remission either in the breast or in some other part of the body. That doesn't mean she is going to die. For instance, I have this patient who had one lung removed, as well as her spleen and pancreas, she is fine, even though she also has bone cancer. Weaken muscles, etc... can be a side effect of chemo but it can also be cancer progressing. Just remember to always be positive about it, and be there for your mom, no matter how crazy or weird she can get (chemo will do that to people). Hope that helps! xoxo

  45. QUESTION:
    Biololgy questions about DNA?
    Which of the following statements concerning cancer cells is most accurate?
    a. Proto-oncogenes are part of the regulatory section of a chromosome.
    b. Tumor cells have lost their ability to stop dividing.
    c. Proto-oncogenes help control runaway cell division.
    d. Benign tumor cells usually spread only to adjacent organs.
    e. Metastasis is the spread of benign cells.

    I think it's B.

    ERBB2 is a
    a. type of membrane receptor
    b. proto-oncogene
    c. gene on chromosome 17
    d. gene that mutates causing a tpe of breast cancer
    e. gene that may be over-expressed resulting in a type of breast cancer.

    I thought a, b, c, & d were all right....so I went with D.

    The snipping out of specific introns for troponin production by muscle cells is an example of what type of gene expression control?
    a. transcriptional
    b. transcript-processing
    c. transcript transport
    d. translational
    e. post translational

    I thought it was B.

    The conversion of proteins by the removal of a protein of polypeptide chain is an example of
    a. transcriptional control
    b. transcript processing control
    c. transport control
    d. translational control
    e. post-translational control

    I thouht it was B

    Translational controls of gene expression affect
    a. initiation factors
    b. ribosome components
    c. mRNA stability
    d. mRNA longevity
    e. all of these

    I thought it was E

    The development of organisms is based on
    a. which genes are active in a given cell
    b. when the genes function
    c. what gene products appear
    d. the amount of cellular products generated
    e. all of theses

    I thought it was E.

    I've been seraching through countless books and websites, yet I can't find these answers. Any help would be appreciated!

    • ANSWER:
      1. I agree with B.

      2. This question is really weird -- A, B, C, and E are all correct (E is actually the cause of cancer, not D). I have no idea which I would choose. I guess the most "accurate" one would be E. It is overexpression rather than a mutation of this gene that causes some types of breast cancer.

      3. I agree with B.

      4. I would say this is E. post translational control because it deals with a gene product at the level of the protein (after translation by the ribosome). An example of this would be the conversion of proinsulin to active insulin inside a secretory vesicle.

      5. I agree with E. C and D are both correct, which makes all of them correct.

      6. I agree with E. A and B are correct, so all of them must be correct.

      Hope that helps!

  46. QUESTION:
    Please please answer...Treatments for lung tumour besides chemo (my mother is too weak for that)?
    Treatments for lung tumour besides chemo (my mother is too weak for that)?
    My mother has breast cancer in her right breast. She went through a mastectomy.
    But the cancer may have spread cos there are now tumours in many parts of her lungs.

    She has been very healthy and strong, even stronger than me. But now the tumours in her lungs makes breathing difficult. She's too tired to wal over 3 metres. .
    She never smoke in her life (ashtma) so could this tumour be a result of metastasis?

    The Doctor only knows about chemotherapies and said my mother is too weak for chemo so there is no hope.

    Please advise me on solutions other than chemo. If it can't cure, treatments that will prolong her life is alright.

    Thank you very much for your answer. God bless you.

    • ANSWER:
      I am sorry to hear of your mothers`illness. Unfortunately, it sounds like the breast cancer has metastasized into the lung. That does not have a very good prognosis, especially if she is too weak for chemotherapy.

      I wish I could tell you there is some "alternative" treatment that would work, but the truth is, none of them have been shown to do anything.

      Yes, you will find lots of people giving testimonials, but that isn't evidence. Unscrupulous people will try and sell you some concotion. Coffee enemas and high dose Vitamin C advocated by some of your other answers are complete nonsense, and have been clinically proven NOT to work.

      Depending on where the tumour is, radiotherapy may shrink it, but it would just be palliative, not curative.

      I am just being honest with you, and not offering false hope as others no doubt will.

  47. QUESTION:
    Treatments for lung tumour besides chemo (my mother is too weak for that)?
    My mother has breast cancer in her right breast. She went through a mastectomy.
    But the cancer may have spread cos there are now tumours in many parts of her lungs.

    She has been very healthy and strong, even stronger than me. But the tumours in her
    lungs makes breathing difficult. She's too tired to walk.
    She never smoke in her life (ashtma) so could this tumour be a result of metastasis?

    The Doctor only knows about chemotherapies and said my mother is
    too weak for chemo so there is no hope.

    Please advise me on solutions other than chemo. If it can't cure, treatments
    that will prolong her life is alright.

    Thank you very much for your answer. God bless you.
    my mother wants to live.

    • ANSWER:
      well there is one more thing called radiation.......ask the doctors....visit this site for more information.......
      http://www.cancerquest.org/?gclid=CPzFgumYjZMCFQEYewodIyqRTw

  48. QUESTION:
    Patient Educations Sheets?
    My office manager went on vacation, I miss her! I need some assistance in locating the following things (online preferably):

    I am in search online for patient information sheets, not the web format, but something I can print off at my office.

    Primarily cancer, chemotherapy as well as drugs Zometa, recombinant erythropoietin, patient awareness regarding neutrophil, chemo-induced anemia, explaining in plain English bone metastasis from breast primarily.

    For some reason my office doesn't have this in our patient packet, and I wish to rectify that. (or we ran out and I don't know where the master is). Also, anyone aware of any CD's about specific cancers, the ACS here in my town didn't have any, but I am very certain that there is something out there for our patients--just where is the key.

    • ANSWER:
      You can look through the following directory that lists almost all known websites about cancer.

      DMOZ: Cancer Directory
      http://dmoz.org/Health/Conditions_and_Diseases/Cancer/

      good luck

  49. QUESTION:
    PSA and Tumor Markers for Prostate Bone Metastasis?
    This message pertains to the utility of Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA), for the treatment of Advanced Prostate Cancer.

    PSA writes Dr. John Lee (Harmone Balance for Men) is produced both within the Prostate Gland and the Breast Tissue. He further writes that the normal cells produce PSA, an anti angiogenesis defence when there are abnormally growing cells in the prostate. This seems to indicate that the PSA has no correlation with what is happening in the bone and anywhere outside prostate. Is this correct?

    There are further questions:

    (a) How do we monitor bone metastasis and other situations where the cancer has escaped out of prostate. (non-Bone Scan/MRI options)

    (b) Are there other prostate tumor markers that can tell us the tumor loads/tumor activity in non prostate areas such as the bones.

    (c) Will Acid Phosphatase levels inform us the status of prostate metastasis on bone.

    (d) Are Osteoblastic/Osteocystic/Osteocytic rates right parameters to track.

    Sam

    • ANSWER:
      There are a few misconceptions here.

      * PSA is manufactured almost exclusively by prostate cells. Although there are a few other cell types that can make minute quantities of it, their contribution is so small that PSA is indeed, for all practical purposes, a prostate-_specific_ marker.
      However, that doesn't mean it measures only cells that reside in the prostate gland.

      * In a person with normal prostatic health, prostate cells reside only in the prostate gland. But in a person with advanced prostate cancer, most of his prostate cells have traveled to areas outside the prostate, typically the bones and lungs.

      Therefore, for men with advanced prostate cancer, PSA is normally the single best way of tracking the cancer, since it correlates so well with the number of prostate cells in the body -- both within the gland (if it's still there) and outside the gland, and thus presumably cancerous.

      (a) To specifically find bone metastases, one would normally use an imaging technique, such as a bone scan, a CT scan, and/or a PET scan (preferably one that uses 11C-choline rather than 18F-FDG). It's unclear why someone would try to monitor bone metastasis without any attempt to image the bones, so I don't know what prompts the question. (Not all imaging techniques use radioactive tracers, for example. And if expense is an issue, then maybe consider simple X-rays.)

      (b) There are indeed other tumor markers, but none of them are specific to rogue prostate cells that are in the _bones_, as opposed to rogue prostate cells generally. Such tumor markers include: PSMA, PAP, NSE, CGA, and CEA.

      (c) Yes and no. PAP (prostatic acid phosphatase) is useful as a tumor marker, but no tumor marker, so far as I know, can possibly differentiate betwee bone and non-bone metastasis.

      (d) Yes and no. If you're focusing only on the bone, then you are interested in overall rates of bone-building (osteoblastic) and bone-resorption (osteoclastic) activity. But you won't know _where_ the activity is occurring.

      Most importantly: In a person has advanced prostate cancer, bone issues are one of the consequences. But it's much more important to tend to the cancer itself than to focus on only one of its consequences. If a car is heading downhill and its brakes are failing, one of the consequences will be tiretread left on the roadway. Rather than trying to measure and track the tiretread, it's more important to find a turnoff, or a soft ditch, or (best) an alternate braking system.

      Good luck!
      (BTW, I'm now also a member of the PCa tribe.)

  50. QUESTION:
    A family member, 56 yrs female, was diagnosed with Carcinoma left breast in 2001. Underwent mastectomy...(((?
    A family member, 56 yrs female, was diagnosed with Carcinoma left breast in 2001. Underwent mastectomy, received chemothearapy & radiothearapy. Things went pretty fine until last year in April, the cancer resurfaced as skin & bone metastasis. Again, she was administered chemothearapy & radiothearapy. Still, her life went on pretty much alright, without much pain. However, in February this year, she was yet again diagnosed with Inflammatory breast Carcinoma, which turned our world upside down. Doctors disapproved surgery, the pain mounted gradually, ever morphine failed to provide much relief. Now, last month, her brain CT scan showed the involvement of Brain metastais. She has now lost most of her consiousness; does not speak anything at all, is catherised & is fed through Ryle's tube. Yesterday, she got the last shot of radiotherapy. At times, she makes painful groans, her respiratory rate in very slow. She holds her breath for a minute or so, before inhalation. WHAT BEST CAN BE DONE?

    • ANSWER:
      i am very sorry to here about your family member. i have worked as a cancer nurse for over two years now and unfortunately, it sounds as if she is near the end. sometimes thats the hardest part of cancer (worse than all the treatments combined) if morphine is not helping her i would ask the docs for some type of continuous medication to keep her pain free. they offer those medications for at home use as well (not sure if she's home or where she is) but most meds can be given continuously at home. try the very best you can to keep her comfortable, let her know you are there for her, and just be a family. there are nurses who come to your home to help during these times as well. i hope things go well


Carcinoma Of Ovary

Abnormal Ovarian Cysts: Types, Causes And Treatments
One must be careful about differentiating between the two types of cysts which form. There is the functional cyst and there is the Abnormal Ovarian Cyst. As is obvious from the nomenclature, the latter variety results from the abnormal growth of cells. The various types of Abnormal Ovarian Cysts such as dermoid cyst, endometrioma cyst, adenoma cyst and "polycystic ovarian disease" all occur because of the imbalance of "female hormones" i.e. progesterone and estrogen.

Most of these abnormal cysts are really benign and not cancerous but nobody has, till now, been able to identify the reason for these abnormalities. In most instances, these cysts do not cause any problem but stay within the body for a lifetime. However, in rare cases, they do burst and consequently require immediate surgery. Let us now study the various types of ovarian cysts in detail.

Dermoid Cysts

These cysts are filled with various types of tissues including skin and air. In medical terms, it's a "cystic teratoma" containing mature skin filled with sweat glands and hair follicles, long hair clumps at times and very often, pockets of blood, sebum, cartilage, eyes, teeth, nails, bone, fat and thyroid tissue. Because they're composed of mature tissues, dermoid cysts are almost always benign. However, in rare instances, they turn malignant and "Squamous Cell Carcinoma" develops in adults. In babies and children, it usually leads to the development of "Endodermal Sinus Tumor".

Periorbital Dermoid Cysts

Sometimes dermoid cysts develop in small children, and they usually form near the eyebrow's lateral aspect and have a rubbery feel to them. One has to be careful because disruption of a dermoid cyst results in "Inflammatory Reaction". Doctors sometimes just keep a watch on them and sometimes excise them, but there is a possibility of recurrence if the cyst is not excised completely. The trouble is that such complete excision isn't always possible because the cyst could be in a "Dumbbell Configuration" meaning that there is an extension through the skull's suture line.
Cannot Be Equated With Pilonidal Cyst

Sometimes it becomes difficult to differentiate a tiny dermoid cyst which has appeared somewhere on the head i.e. skull sutures, under tongue, palate, nose, sinus or coccyx from a pilonidal cyst. The reason is that both these cysts are "full of hair". A pilonidal cyst is basically a pilonidal sinus which has got obstructed. And a sinus might develop from any teratoma adjoining the surface of the body. Such developments might also take place in the form of clusters. A pilonidal cyst is also known as "Sacrococcygeal Fistula" and may form as a dermal infection which adjoins the tailbone. These can be very painful.

Differential Diagnosis

It is important that a correct diagnosis is made of a cyst because a pilonidal cyst is very similar to a dermoid cyst, the most significant resemblance being the presence of Germ Cell Tumor. And the reason for taking care is that if there is teratoma, surgical excision is required and the surgery must be done without any sort of spillage. It would therefore be wise to consult a reputable oncologist.

Endometrioma Cyst

This cyst is better known as chocolate cyst of endometriosis and forms when tissues which are identical to the uterus lining get attached to ovaries.

Adenoma Cyst

This forms on the outer surface of ovaries and is an ovarian cyst which develops from cells. The Mucinous Cyst Adenomas in particular is the biggest that can form on human beings and an Ovarian Mucinous Cyst adenoma can weigh as much as 328 lbs. or 149 kgs. Mostly, these cysts form on young persons and there's no apparent reason as to why they form. While they do not usually turn malignant, this has also been known to happen so it is wise to treat them appropriately when discovered.

Mutinous Cyst Adenomas generally falls in the category of asymptomatic cysts, and tend to occur in patients with some abdominal mass. It is therefore essential to carry out a gynaecological examination of female patients if they complain of abdominal uneasiness. And all areas should be studied carefully by the doctor during pelvic pathology tests.

Polycystic Ovarian Cyst

A cyst sometimes forms from the build up of "Follicle Cysts" and results in a thickening of ovaries. It is called Polycystic ovarian cyst. Enlarging occurs in the ovaries due to the thickening and the outer end becomes covered causing ovulation to come to a stop. Naturally, this causes fertility problems in women who develop this kind of abnormal ovarian cyst, usually referred to as PCOS.

Holistic Approach

All these abnormal ovarian cysts can be cured by choosing to avail of the holistic approach. Its divinity causes the abnormal ovarian cyst to get cured. The holistic approach is being favorably considered by more and more people nowadays because this treatment is harmless. Further, the holistic approach tends to make people physically and mentally strong.

Since the cause of cysts can vary from imbalances in hormones to something quite different such as emotional stress, a holistic approach to healing needs to include measures which balance the mental, emotional and physical aspects of a patient. This approach recommends for instance a regular regimen of exercises also. That is the way that the holistic approach to healing abnormal ovarian cysts works.

Frequently Asked Questions

  1. QUESTION:
    What does "carcinoma of ovary" means?

    Joanna: Is it wrong to ask questions that I really don't know, & what are you worrying about??

    • ANSWER:
      Ovarian cancer.

  2. QUESTION:
    Looking for some one who can offer medical information regarding cause of death?
    A mother of a friend has recently passed way, One of the causes of death has been:
    obstructive uropathy secondary to carcinoma ovary (Many apologies is the spelling is incorrect)
    Please can anyone advise what this can is. In simple terms? Can't really find anything helpful on the internet

    • ANSWER:
      Obstructive uropathy is a condition in which the flow of urine is blocked, causing it to back up and injure one or both kidneys.

      Carcinoma ovary is ovarian cancer.

  3. QUESTION:
    Is there a doctor that can explain to me a little more about my cancer diagnosis?
    These are the areas of cancer. I was told I was stage 1C so it sounds like they are treating it like dual primary.
    Cancer 1 I had a large tumor in my left ovary that was removed. The pathology report states moderately differentiated endometrioid adenocarcinoma with extensive necrosis. 21 cm
    Cancer 2 uterus. Detached fragments of endometrioid adenocarcinoma
    Cancer 3 endocervix detached fragment of endometroid adenocarcinoma
    Cancer 4 appendical carcinoid 1 cm negative for metastasis.
    Cancer 5 right ovary endometroid carcinoma

    I had my left ovary, appendix, and omentum removed before we knew it was cancer. I am going back Thursday for a complete hysterectomy and more lymph node removal. Then most likely chemo. I didn't ask enough questions of my doctor because I was focused on just getting through surgery but now that I have time to process I am trying to get my head around everything I was told. It sounds really bad but then it is still stage 1 but how can that be when it is in 4 places? can you explain that to me?
    pathologic stage pt1c ptNX PMX
    left ovary capsule not intact
    histologic grade G2/moderately differentiated
    They did say they wouldn't know a whole lot til after the second surgery when they tested the lymph nodes.

    • ANSWER:
      When I was told I had cancer all I said was OK. I didn't ask too many questions and really didn't worry about it too much for a while.
      The doctors that are handling your case are the best source for the answers to your questions. They will be happy to answer anything you want to know if you ask. At this point, the best thing for you to do is stay calm and positive. Trust that the professionals in charge are looking out for your best interests and that everything will become clear in time.
      If they don't know a lot right now, you won't find out much more here and you may get the wrong information as well.
      You could Google up some of your diagnosis to become better informed, but the best thing you can do is stay positive and believe that you will get through this OK. It's the MO for 99% of cancer survivors.

  4. QUESTION:
    How can I prevent these classifications of cancer?
    Carcinoma: malignant tumors derived from epithelial cells. This group represent the most common cancers, including the common forms of breast, prostate, lung and colon cancer.
    Lymphoma and Leukemia: malignant tumors derived from blood and bone marrow cells
    Sarcoma: malignant tumors derived from connective tissue, or mesenchymal cells
    Mesothelioma: tumors derived from the mesothelial cells lining the peritoneum and the pleura.
    Glioma: tumors derived from brain cells
    germ cell tumours: tumors derived from germ cells, normally found in the testicle and ovary
    Choriocarcinoma: malignant tumors derived from the placenta

    Live Long
    Live STRONG

    • ANSWER:
      According to WHO website, there are more than 100 types of cancers; any part of the body can be affected.
      In 2005, 7.6 million people died of cancer - 13% of the 58 million deaths worldwide.
      More than 70% of all cancer deaths occur in low and middle income countries.
      Worldwide, the 5 most common types of cancer that kill men are (in order of frequency): lung, stomach, liver, colorectal and oesophagus
      Worldwide, the 5 most common types of cancer that kill women are (in the order of frequency): breast, lung, stomach, colorectal and cervical
      Tobacco use is the single largest preventable cause of cancer in the world.
      One fifth of all cancers worldwide are caused by a chronic infection, for example human papillomavirus (HPV) causes cervical cancer and hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes liver cancer.
      A third of cancers could be cured if detected early and treated adequately.
      All patients in need of pain relief could be helped if current knowledge about pain control and palliative care were applied.
      40% of cancer could be prevented, mainly by not using tobacco, having a healthy diet, being physically active and preventing infections that may cause cancer.
      Please see the webpages for more details on Cancer.

  5. QUESTION:
    Is Chemotherapy needed?
    My mother was diagnosed with "cyst adeno carcinoma" in her ovary, and was Grade 1 stage 1 at an initial stage without organ involvement of any kind. Doctors advised surgical removal of both ovaries along with uterus, debulking surgery of pelvis, removal of omentum and lymph nodes dissection, and so were carried out successfully 6 months ago. Since then, her cancer test reports have been coming clear at every clinical follow-up, such as tumor-marker, CT Scan and MRI reports. Doctors had previously recommended Intravenous chemo or a wait-and-watch option. Does she need IV Chemo or Radiotherapy ? If so, is Chemo or radiotherapy painful ?

    Thank you in advance. God bless you :)
    Recommendation for Chemo was just a caution-step, according to Doctors.

    • ANSWER:
      The radiotherapy itself doesn't really hurt, but the aftereffects can be pretty bad. I sure didn't like it when I had some, and I had a fairly low radiation dose.

      Chemotherapy will usually be quite bad, in the sense that one feels like crap all the time, complete with nausea, dizziness, and so on.

      I think you should trust your mother's oncologists rather than take the random opinion of people on Y!A when it comes to this, though.

  6. QUESTION:
    Life management skills help Male not home work online exam?
    What is the prognosis for testicular cancer if found in the very early stages of the disease?

    Testicular cancer is often curable.

    The cure rate is about 50/50.

    The cancer is considered terminal regardless of the detection time.

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Question 2

    Risk factors for prostate cancer include each of the following except:

    age

    ethnic origin

    having a low fat diet

    family history

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Question 3

    Prostate cancer typically:

    grows slowly

    begins with small changes that may go unnoticed

    occurs in very young men

    choice 1 and choice 2 only

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Question 4

    What is the purpose of TSE?

    to determine the location of a contagious viral infection

    early detection of cancer

    early detection of cowper gland carcinoma

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Question 5

    Testicular cancer almost always occurs in both testes, either at the same time or successively, and about 2-3 percent occur in one testis.

    True
    False

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Question 6

    The acronym PMS stands for:

    papas, mamas, and siblings

    pre-menstrual syndrome

    pre-menopausal syndrome

    pre-medical syndrome

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Question 7

    Which is not one of the four stages in the menstrual cycle?

    ovulation

    menstruation

    fertilization stage

    resting phase

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Question 8
    One of two small organs where the eggs cells are stored is called the:

    uterus

    endometrium

    ovary

    fallopian tube

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Question 9

    TSE should be a part of every young man's health routine.

    false

    true

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Question 10
    A pattern of behavioral, emotional and physical symptoms that appear before the start of the menstrual cycle and end the first day of a woman’s period is known as:

    pre-Menstrual syndrome

    pre-Menopausal syndrome

    endometriosis

    ovulation

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Question 11

    TSE is best performed:

    first thing in the morning after waking up

    after a cool shower or bath

    after a warm shower or bath

    at the end of the day before bed

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Question 12

    The most common symptom of testicular cancer is:

    a lump in the testicle

    nausea

    a severe skin rash

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Question 13

    Testicular cancer is most often found in what age group?

    men over 40

    men between 15 and 25

    men under 20

    men between 15 and 40

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Question 14
    A male’s risk for testicular cancer increases with all of the following except:

    being between the ages of 15 and 45

    having a family history

    having two undescended testicles at birth

    being involved in contact sports

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Question 15
    Testicular cancer self-exams should be continued through out life.

    false

    true

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Question 16

    How often should TSE be performed?

    once each week

    bi-quarterly

    once per month

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Question 17

    Which of the following symptoms is usually not associated with testicular cancer?

    pain and/or bleeding during urination

    loss of size in one of the testicles

    a feeling of heaviness in the scrotum

    a dull ache in the groin or lower abdomen

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Question 18

    Which race has the highest occurrence of prostate cancer?

    Asian-American Males

    Caucasian Males

    African-Americans Males

    Mexican-American Males

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Question 19

    The purpose of menstruation is:

    it allows the lining of the uterus to thi

    • ANSWER:
      Life management skills help Male not home work online exam?
      this is a non sequitur query

  7. QUESTION:
    carcinoma...can you help?
    My daughter, who has just turned 45 was diagnosed with cancer four months ago. Found a small lump in her groin which turned out to be cancerous. Since then, she has PET scan, Radiation scan and every other scan available. Now has been told, she has a lump in the Thyroid, small lump in the Liver, 2 in the ovaries, 1 on the pancreas and another one in the groin. The first one had been removed from the groin but the second one was very deep and had overnight stay in hospital Was initially told it was Lymphoma but now calling it Carcinoma. They can't find where the Primary cancer is and told her the cancer was in the Lymph nodes mentioned.
    Wanted to put her straight into hospital, but after telling her that she would have to be cut from underneath the breast, down through the stomach to the ovaries and down the right leg to the knee was horrified. Was told if she didn't have the operation, would only have 12-16 mths to live..
    Before finding the first lump in the groin, she had a lot of trouble with her knee and sometimes walked with a limp as it could get very painful. I have a feeling it started from there as why would they have to cut her down to her knee. Surgeon has also told her that nurses would help her to drain leg after the operation and show her how to do it.
    Have heard terrible stories from unqualified people .....how she's always going to have a leg like an elephant and it will always seep etc etc.
    Now she has been told she has to have a PET scan this week and want to put into hospital for this major operation within three weeks time as she shouldn't wait any longer.
    My daughter,had previously said NO to any operation and wondering if it comes down to 'quantity or quality of life. Has three wonderful sons 19, 18 and 11 who are devastated and she does want to do the right thing as they are so very close. Has also tried other alternative medicines etc but seems to be a waste of money. If anyone has knowledge of this cancer I would really appreciate hearing from you. As her Mum, I have shed so many tears as can't bear to think of life without my beautiful daughter.

    • ANSWER:
      Because she is still operable, she should have the operation. This will likely be followed by chemotherapy and radiation. This will not damage the quality of life. She will recover from the surgery and her life span will increase most likely by 2-5 years.

  8. QUESTION:
    Help me to interpret this medical report.?
    Final Anatomical diagnosis- Omentum-Peritoneal serous carcinoma ,low grade.
    B Right Ovary- capsular deposits of malignant cells noted over ovarry. the tube. C-lube ovary-malignant cells present on capsular surface of left ovary and within the left ovary and with the left tubular lumen. Soft tissue ,NOS.
    Please explain to me about this cancer that my sister in law suffered. Anyone out there have this experience to share ,good or bad news please share with us.
    Hope there is cure.

    • ANSWER:
      It's Peritoneal carcinomatosis . It's usually caused by seeding of malignant tumoral cells over the peritoneal surface . It's usually detected in patients who suffer from ovarian adenocarcinoma , but it may be seen with any other cancer invasions such as : primary peritoneal carcinoma , gastrointestinal tract carcinoma , . . .
      Your pathology report guide me to the : Left ovarian carcinoma spreading to the peritoneum .
      The prognosis , with the invent of newly approved chemotherapeutic agents is good for about 3 to 4 yr ( regarding to the "low grade" report ) .

  9. QUESTION:
    what does Metastatic high grade serous carcinoma mean?
    Swollen lymph nodes under the arm required a biopsy. The biopsy revealed "pathology consistent with ovarian cancer". Officially, the pathology report reads, "metastatic high grade serous carcinoma". She followed up with a vaginal ultrasound, which revealed solid masses and cysts of both ovaries. She is 49 and had a hysterectomy in her 30's. They haven't told her she has cancer, but referred her to a gyno-oncologist, which the fastest she can get in is in 10 days! This sounds like it's terrible (Stage III-C) or worse, and has spread. Any comments? Why aren't they talking about this to her? Does she have cancer?
    This is my best friend- as close as a sister. she told me first, then her husband.
    LW- I dont understand where I'm supposed to go to- can u give me the web address? Thank you
    She has been told that "the pathology of your biopsy is consistent with ovarian cancer". She received the written biopsy report, which says "Metastatic High Grade Serous Carcinoma". She's seen the surgeon who did the biopsy, and the gyno who did the ultra sound and told her she has solid masses on both ovaries. Neither Dr. has told her, "you have ovarian cancer," but said that they would refer her to a gyno-oncologist. She "thinks" she might have it, but doesn't know because they haven't come out and said, "you have ovarian cancer and that means.... and this is what we will need to do."
    ughhh.let me try 2 put this another way. if a dr. told u that a test was "consistent with ovarian cancer", would you assume that you have it? or would you think, "well, if it was absolute that I have ovarian cancer, surely he would have said, you have ovarian cancer, and not say, "your pathology is consistent with ovarian cancer". why didn't she ask ?s. well, she was stunned, alone, and expecting that she had an infected lymph node, as the three other dr's before her had told her. the next day, the report was faxed to her and showed "metastatic...." and yes, she is calling drs, and trying to get appointments. the question is, it looks like she clearly has cancer, and why won't her dr tell her that. is he waiting for the oncologist to do it, or are her test inconclusive???

    • ANSWER:
      I don’t understand. If she hasn’t been told she has cancer than how did you find out?

      “High grade” refers to a grading system of the tumor. In ovarian cancer it is the percentage of undifferentiated cells present in the tissue. High grade means more than 50% of the cells are undifferentiated, meaning they do not resemble a normal cell.

      Serous carcinoma is a type of epithelial ovarian cancer, which is the most common kind of ovarian cancer. If this was found in her axillary nodes her cancer is a stage 4.

      EDIT: Sorry I don’t mean to frustrate you, but if a doctor told me "your pathology is consistent with ovarian cancer", I would know I had ovarian cancer, maybe it’s just because I work in the field I don’t know, but the path report is very clear about it. This is not inconclusive she absolutely has cancer. I’m sure her doctors believe she is aware of it and don't know there is some question in her mind about it.

  10. QUESTION:
    Chemo verses Radiation?
    Okay I have a dilema here - I need some additional points of view from people who have walked this way before and from those who are in the profession of knowing. IF you are game, will you help?

    Dx of Endometrial Carcinoma
    Surgical Removal of Ovaries, F. Tubes, Uterus, Pelvic Lymph Nodes, and ParaAortic(?) Nodes
    Waiting for Staging

    Recommendations for Radiation is normal at stage 1 but at stage 2 chemo can be advised.
    I want to know the pros of taking localized radiation verses generalized chemo

    Does taking generalized chemo help keep other cancers from forming in the years down the road?

    Is there benefit of one method over the other?
    I know nothing at this time other than its
    a
    grade 2 adenocarcinoma
    there were three small tumors inside the uterus as well but it was the scrapings that were biopsied not the tumors.

    All was removed Monday and am awaiting official results. The surgeon said by eyeball it looked good but that did not count as it is only under the scope that we could really tell.

    does this help?

    • ANSWER:
      There is way too much information missing here and most of it will not be known until after surgery and that is when treatment options should be discussed with you. I suggest you take someone with you to that meeting as it can be overwhelming for patients.

      There are several factors that go into determining the best treatment for a patient and what worked well for one person may not be the same for another, so take any information you receive from other women lightly. What helps determine the best treatment :

      The type of endometrial cancer you have.
      Your age.
      Tumor size.
      The stage of the disease.
      The grade.
      Hormone receptor status.
      Vascular invasion.

      Patients with a stage 1A or 1B with a grade 1 or 2 tumor less than 2cm do not need chemo or radiation. A patient with a stage 1C grade 1 adenocarcinoma will do better and needs different treatment than a woman with a stage 1B small cell carcinoma. So you can see your question is not so simple to answer. I can tell you chemo will not prevent other cancers in the future. Chemo is used to hopefully destroy any cancer cells that may remain and prevent a recurrence of this cancer.

      After you meet with the oncologist to discuss your treatment options get a second opinion and that should help you make the best decision for you. Best wishes.

  11. QUESTION:
    Mom has ovarian cancer.. 10 cm tumor?
    I was hoping someone with experience could help me out here. My mom 2 months ago went into surgery because she had a 10 cm (a little larger than a grapefruit) "cyst" on her ovary. Biopsy showed it to be a squamous cell carcinoma. It was also fused to her bladder and intestines, so they weren't able to remove it all because of risk of perforating one of those walls. After 2 months of ridiculous doctors and testing, they seem to be in conclusion that it is squamous cell ovarian cancer. She has surgery in the next couple weeks to remove her ovaries and fallopian tubes (she doesn't have a cervix bc of a hysterectomy 20 years ago). They are going to stage it then, but I am just worried because I know often times ovarian cancer doesn't get diagnosed until its already in a late stage. Seeing as the tumor was 10 cm, ON her ovary and fused to her bladder and intestines.. is it probably in a late stage? A colonoscopy showed that she had "precancerous squamous cell" polyps in her colon but they removed those. She had a full body PET Scan that didn't seem to show cancer anywhere else, but I read that with ovarian cancer it either metastisizes directly outside the ovary to other surrounding organs, and/or into the close lymph nodes.

    Does anyone have any experience with this? I would appreciate some good answers from people who really know what they are talking about.. thanks.
    I am definitely not mistaken in what the doctors have told her. Squamous cells cover your skin and all holow organs, and yes they said whatever cancer it is, it is "rare" considering the cells. From what I've seen, squamous cell ovarian cancer accounts for about 1-2% of cases.

    We are frustrated with the doctors too. At first when she had the surgery to remove what they thought was just a cyst, he told us everything was fine because of the way it appeared but still sent it to be biopsied. My mom signed a piece of paper giving the permission to remove her ovaries during that surgery, but they didnt'. And the size of the mass the left in there is still 4 cm. And at the time of surgery, ovarian cancer was the one thing they ruled out - so since then its been trying to figure out what kind of cancer it is. We are all frustrated with how long its taking - 2 months? No one gets it, and it also showed masses and mural nodules and a mass on her vaginal ..cusp?

    • ANSWER:
      I don’t know if you are mistaken, confused or getting incorrect information from somewhere, but if your mom has squamous cell carcinoma she does not have ovarian cancer and it should have already been staged. What have they been doing the past 2 months? What was her fist surgery for? It doesn’t make sense to have not taken her ovaries at that time. To answer your question – yes it is a late stage cancer regardless of the kind of cancer she has.

  12. QUESTION:
    Can i get treatment of ovarian cancer at kgmu lucknow?
    sir,
    my wife has been diagnosed by ovarian cancer stage 2c at king george medical university lucknow,
    her chemo therapy cycle 1 completed.
    Do u think that this kind of cancer can be treated here at kgmu.
    Where as doctors are confident.
    They will give 3cycles chemo therapy and then surgery.
    Do u tnink we are on the right path of treatment.
    She had a mass on her right ovary and ascites fluid which is moderate.
    This ascites have been tested and findings of adeno carcinoma in that fluid.is this suffiecient in staging a cancer of ovary. Very moderate peritonial implants as reports of ct scan
    Kindly help as my wife is only 32yrs of age
    Kindly help

    • ANSWER:
      No this is not sufficient to stage her cancer that can only be done after surgery.
      I’m not sure why they are doing chemo before surgery, but they should have given you a reason.
      Ovarian cancer is hard to treat anywhere, but I would not want to be treated anywhere in India.

  13. QUESTION:
    please help me with these questions!!?
    Question 2 (Multiple Choice Worth 5 points)

    What is the purpose of TSE?

    to determine the location of a contagious viral infection

    early detection of cancer

    early detection of cowper gland carcinoma

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Question 3 (Multiple Choice Worth 5 points)

    The purpose of menstruation is:

    it allows the lining of the uterus to thicken

    it allows for fertilization to take place

    it allows ovulation to take place

    to shed the lining of the uterus

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Question 4 (Multiple Choice Worth 5 points)

    A pattern of behavioral, emotional and physical symptoms that appear before the start of the menstrual cycle and end the first day of a woman’s period is known as:

    pre-Menstrual syndrome

    pre-Menopausal syndrome

    endometriosis

    ovulation

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Question 5 (Multiple Choice Worth 5 points)

    _______________ occurs when a mature egg is released from the ovary.

    Menstruation

    Menopause

    Pregnancy

    Ovulation

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Question 6 (Multiple Choice Worth 5 points)

    A male’s risk for testicular cancer increases with all of the following except:

    being between the ages of 15 and 45

    having a family history

    having two undescended testicles at birth

    being involved in contact sports

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Question 7 (Multiple Choice Worth 5 points)

    How often should TSE be performed?

    once each week

    bi-quarterly

    once per month

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Question 8 (Multiple Choice Worth 5 points)

    Prostate cancer typically:

    grows slowly

    begins with small changes that may go unnoticed

    occurs in very young men

    choice 1 and choice 2 only

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Question 9 (Multiple Choice Worth 5 points)

    Which race has the highest occurrence of prostate cancer?

    Asian-American Males

    Caucasian Males

    African-Americans Males

    Mexican-American Males

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Question 10 (Multiple Choice Worth 5 points)

    TSE should be a part of every young man's health routine.

    false

    true

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Question 11 (Multiple Choice Worth 5 points)

    Risk factors for testicular cancer include:

    having an undescended testicle

    having a family history of testicular cancer

    being White

    all of the above

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Question 12 (Multiple Choice Worth 5 points)

    For all the reproductive disorders, there is one preventive measure that is recommended for each. It is:

    prescription drugs

    exercise

    warm baths

    chicken soup

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Question 13 (Multiple Choice Worth 5 points)

    Which is not one of the four stages in the menstrual cycle?

    ovulation

    menstruation

    fertilization stage

    resting phase

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Question 14 (Multiple Choice Worth 5 points)

    One of two small organs where the eggs cells are stored is called the:

    uterus

    endometrium

    ovary

    fallopian tube

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Question 15 (Multiple Choice Worth 5 points)

    The release of progesterone will cause which of the following:

    ovulation

    menstruation

    build up of endometrium

    maturing of ovary

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Question 16 (Multiple Choice Worth 5 points)

    This cancer is one of the most common cancers in men 15 to 34 years of age.

    Prostate cancer

    Testicular cancer

    Kaposi's Sacroma

    Leukemia

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Question 17 (Multiple Choice Worth 5 points)

    Risk factors for prostate cancer include each of the following except:

    age

    ethnic origin

    having a low fat diet

    family history

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Question 18 (Multiple Choice Worth 5 points)

    Testicular cancer is most often found in what age group?

    men
    its nothin i need to learn i just have to finish this course cuz i cant quit in the middle off it or it will bring my GPA down PLEASE!!!

    • ANSWER:
      You've got a computer, use it to research the answers. You will gain nothing from your education if you get others to do the work for you.

  14. QUESTION:
    one of my aunty have tumour in breast please say what it will be?
    According to docters report,

    ASPIRATION REPORT:
    Aspiration from the scan with residual lump of right breast shows occasional groups of cohesive begin ductal cells admixed with many multinucleated giant cells and a few lymphocytes in a background of blood.

    SURGICAL PATH(REVIEW)REPORT:
    Diagnogsis:
    * Intracystic and intraductal papillary carcinoma. grade II-breast with micropapillary areas.
    *Uterus with adenomyosis, chronic papillary endocervicitis with squamous mataplasia.
    *Corpus luteum-ovary.

    pls say the exact meaning for this 2 report.

    • ANSWER:
      she has stage 2 breast cancer

  15. QUESTION:
    One of my aunty have tumour in breast please say what it will be?
    According to docters report,

    ASPIRATION REPORT:
    Aspiration from the scar with residual lump of right breast shows occasional groups of cohesive begin ductal cells admixed with many multinucleated giant cells and a few lymphocytes in a background of blood.

    SURGICAL PATH(REVIEW)REPORT:
    Diagnogsis:
    * Intracystic and intraductal papillary carcinoma. grade II-breast with micropapillary areas.
    *Uterus with adenomyosis, chronic papillary endocervicitis with squamous mataplasia.
    *Corpus luteum-ovary.

    pls say the exact meaning for this 2 report.

    • ANSWER:
      Carcinoma means cancer. She has stage 2, which is fairly early caught. Adenomyosis is when the tissue that lines the uterus grow into the muscle wall and is painful but harmless and ends with menopause, normally. Endocervicitis is inflammation of the mucous lining of the uterus. Metaplasia usually occurs in hyperplastic endometrium, which I think is caused by polycystic ovarian disease.

  16. QUESTION:
    Guys, help! what stage of cervical cancer do you think this is?
    My mom was recently diagnosed with cervical cancer. Because of this, i was eager to know more about this illness and i just found out that this cancer has different stages. I just want to know what stage the cervical cancer is...

    The diagnosis was this:
    Squamous cell carcinoma, large cell, non-keratinizing type with infiltration to the whole thickness of the cervix, 4.0cm, extending to the lower half of the uterine corpus.
    Lympathic vessels in the myometrium, positive for tumor. All three(3) right external illiac lymph nodes, postive for metases. The following are negative for tumor: endometrium, both tubes and ovaries, both parametria, one left external iliac lymph node and two right obturator lymph nodes.

    Based on the cancer stage will determine the survival rate.. According to the daignosis,what stage of cervical cancer do you think this is?Please help and another question.. what is a parametria?
    sorry there was a wrong spelling
    metases should be spelled as metastases

    • ANSWER:
      Hope this is useful it is information I found on a review on Carcinoma of the cervix. According to their table, your mum's carcinoma is stage IB2 (Clinical lesions >4 cm) with lymphatic metastasis and potential of spreading.
      I am very sorry to hear that....

      The nonkeratinizing carcinoma is characterized by squamous cells with somewhat hyperchromatic nuclei and a moderate amount of cytoplasm growing in discrete nests separated by stroma. In the center of some of the nests, the squamous cells appear to differentiate and degenerate.

      During the transition from in situ to invasive carcinoma, tumor cells penetrate the epithelial basement membrane and enter the underlying cervical stroma. Once
      the cervical stroma is invaded, the lymphatics and blood vessels are accessible, and dissemination beyond the cervix is possible.

      The most important prognostic factors in patients with cervical cancers is lymph node status and size and extent of the primary. In patients with early disease, 5-year survival rate drops to 60% with three or more positive nodes and to 25 to 30% with positive para-aortic nodes. Cervical cancers of comparable size may have a very different metastatic potential, depending on their intrinsic aggressiveness and histologic cell type. Cervical carcinomas also invade directly. Disease may extend to the lateral pelvic walls, into the bladder and/or rectum, or into the vagina as the cancer grows.

      According to FIGO staging, it is possible to identify the following stages in the cervix carcinoma:

      0 Carcinoma in situ, intraepithelial carcinoma. Cases of stage 0 should not be included in any therapeutic statistics for invasive carcinoma.

      I The carcinoma is strictly confined to the cervix (extension to the corpus should be disregarded).
      IA Invasive cancer identified only microscopically. All gross lesions, even with superficial invasion, are stage IB cancers. Invasion is limited to measured stromal invasion with a maximum depth of 5 mm and a width no greater than 7 mm.
      IA1 Measured invasion of stroma ≤3 mm in depth and ≤7 mm in width.
      IA2 Measured invasion of stroma >3 mm and ≤5 mm in depth and ≤7 mm in width.
      IB Clinical lesions confined to the cervix or preclinical lesions larger than stage IA.
      IB1 Clinical lesions ≤4 cm.
      IB2 Clinical lesions >4 cm.

      II The carcinoma extends beyond the cervix but has not extended onto the pelvic wall. It involves the vagina but does not extend as far as the lower third of the vagina.
      IIA No obvious parametrial involvement.
      IIB Obvious parametrial involvement.
      III The carcinoma has extended onto the pelvic wall. On rectal examination, there is no cancer-free space between the tumor and the pelvic wall. The tumor involves the lower third of the
      vagina. All cases with hydronephrosis or a nonfunctioning
      kidney should be included unless they are known to result from another cause.
      IIIA No extension onto the pelvic wall but involvement of the lower third of the vagina.
      IIIB Extension onto the pelvic wall or hydronephrosis or nonfunctioning kidney.

      IV The carcinoma has extended beyond the true pelvis or has clinically involved the mucosa of the bladder or rectum.
      IVA Spread to adjacent organs.
      IVB Spread to distant organs.

  17. QUESTION:
    Multiple choice question?
    18. Which of the following is a controllable factor in preventing atherosclerosis?
    A) age
    B) sex
    C) heredity
    D) diet
    19. The respiratory system consists of:
    A) the lungs.
    B) the chest.
    C) the conducting airways.
    D) all of the above.
    20. Common signs and symptoms of asthma include:
    A) wheezing.
    B) fever.
    C) dyspnea.
    D) a and c.
    21. The lymphatic system includes:
    A) lymph ducts.
    B) lymph vessels.
    C) lymph nodes.
    D) all of the above.
    22. The most common cause of glomerulonephritis includes:
    A) strep infections.
    B) staph infections.
    C) E. coli.
    D) Klebsiella.
    23. The adrenal glands sit on top of the:
    A) lungs.
    B) pancreas.
    C) kidneys.
    D) ovaries.
    24. The ovaries secrete:
    A) progesterone.
    B) testosterone.
    C) estrogen.
    D) a and c.
    25. A goiter is a growth on the:
    A) pancreas.
    B) parathyroids.
    C) pituitary.
    D) thyroid.
    26. The parts of the brain include:
    A) the cerebrum.
    B) the cerebellum.
    C) the brainstem.
    D) all of the above.
    27. A cataract is a clouding of the:
    A) cornea.
    B) iris.
    C) lens.
    D) conjunctiva.
    28. The layers of the skin include:
    A) the epidermis.
    B) the dermis.
    C) the subcutaneous layer.
    D) all of the above.
    29. Herpes varicella is also known as:
    A) chickenpox.
    B) shingles.
    C) cold sores.
    D) fever blisters.
    30. A highly contagious skin disease caused by Staphylococcus and Streptococcus bacteria is:
    A) folliculitis.
    B) impetigo.
    C) erysipelas.
    D) cellulitis.
    31. What is the outermost layer of the skin?
    A) stratus corneum
    B) epidermis
    C) subcutaneous tissue
    D) dermis
    32. What is the windpipe?
    A) larynx
    B) epiglottis
    C) pharynx
    D) trachea
    33. The thyroid gland secretes T3, T4, and ____________________.
    34. The most important function of the respiratory system is the inspiration of ____________________ and the expiration of carbon dioxide.
    35. Skin cancers are the most common cancers in the United States. They include basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and __________________

    • ANSWER:
      18. Diet
      19. All of the above
      20. Wheezing
      21. All of the above
      22. Strep Infections
      23. Kidneys
      24. A &C: Progesterone and Estrogen
      25. Thyroid
      26. All of the above
      27. Lens
      28. All of the above
      29. Chickenpox
      30. Impetigo
      31. Epidermis
      32. Trachea
      33. Calcitonin
      34. Oxygen
      35. Melanoma

  18. QUESTION:
    I need help with this?
    18. Which of the following is a controllable factor in preventing atherosclerosis?
    A) age
    B) sex
    C) heredity
    D) diet
    19. The respiratory system consists of:
    A) the lungs.
    B) the chest.
    C) the conducting airways.
    D) all of the above.
    20. Common signs and symptoms of asthma include:
    A) wheezing.
    B) fever.
    C) dyspnea.
    D) a and c.
    21. The lymphatic system includes:
    A) lymph ducts.
    B) lymph vessels.
    C) lymph nodes.
    D) all of the above.
    22. The most common cause of glomerulonephritis includes:
    A) strep infections.
    B) staph infections.
    C) E. coli.
    D) Klebsiella.
    23. The adrenal glands sit on top of the:
    A) lungs.
    B) pancreas.
    C) kidneys.
    D) ovaries.
    24. The ovaries secrete:
    A) progesterone.
    B) testosterone.
    C) estrogen.
    D) a and c.
    25. A goiter is a growth on the:
    A) pancreas.
    B) parathyroids.
    C) pituitary.
    D) thyroid.
    26. The parts of the brain include:
    A) the cerebrum.
    B) the cerebellum.
    C) the brainstem.
    D) all of the above.
    27. A cataract is a clouding of the:
    A) cornea.
    B) iris.
    C) lens.
    D) conjunctiva.
    28. The layers of the skin include:
    A) the epidermis.
    B) the dermis.
    C) the subcutaneous layer.
    D) all of the above.
    29. Herpes varicella is also known as:
    A) chickenpox.
    B) shingles.
    C) cold sores.
    D) fever blisters.
    30. A highly contagious skin disease caused by Staphylococcus and Streptococcus bacteria is:
    A) folliculitis.
    B) impetigo.
    C) erysipelas.
    D) cellulitis.
    31. What is the outermost layer of the skin?
    A) stratus corneum
    B) epidermis
    C) subcutaneous tissue
    D) dermis
    32. What is the windpipe?
    A) larynx
    B) epiglottis
    C) pharynx
    D) trachea
    33. The thyroid gland secretes T3, T4, and ____________________.
    34. The most important function of the respiratory system is the inspiration of ____________________ and the expiration of carbon dioxide.
    35. Skin cancers are the most common cancers in the United States. They include basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and __________________

    • ANSWER:
      Hamdiya,
      If you did bother to answer any of these relatively easy questions, you need more than help, you need higher personal standards. If you are taking this course as a career path, please redirect your attention to another area of study because when we answer your questions and learn something along the way, that doesn't help you do anything but cheat your way to a grade you don't deserve to a profession to which you do not belong. You can do better. .
      Selecting a few questions, would indicate that you have done some studying and really do need help. But help is not giving you the answers, it is explaining or clarifying what you don't understand.
      This is basic information which requires 15 minutes of online reading.
      18. Which of the following is a controllable factor in preventing atherosclerosis?
      A) age
      B) sex
      C) heredity
      D) diet <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
      19. The respiratory system consists of:
      A) the lungs.
      B) the chest.
      C) the conducting airways.
      D) all of the above. <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
      20. Common signs and symptoms of asthma include:
      A) wheezing.
      B) fever.
      C) dyspnea.
      D) a and c. <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
      21. The lymphatic system includes:
      A) lymph ducts.
      B) lymph vessels.
      C) lymph nodes.
      D) all of the above. <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
      22. The most common cause of glomerulonephritis includes:
      A) strep infections. <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
      B) staph infections.
      C) E. coli.
      D) Klebsiella.
      23. The adrenal glands sit on top of the:
      A) lungs.
      B) pancreas.
      C) kidneys. <<<<<<<<<<<<<<
      D) ovaries.
      24. The ovaries secrete:
      A) progesterone.
      B) testosterone.
      C) estrogen.
      D) a and c. <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
      25. A goiter is a growth on the:
      A) pancreas.
      B) parathyroids.
      C) pituitary.
      D) thyroid. <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
      26. The parts of the brain include:
      A) the cerebrum.
      B) the cerebellum.
      C) the brainstem.
      D) all of the above. <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
      27. A cataract is a clouding of the:
      A) cornea.
      B) iris.
      C) lens. <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
      D) conjunctiva.
      28. The layers of the skin include:
      A) the epidermis.
      B) the dermis.
      C) the subcutaneous layer.
      D) all of the above. <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
      29. Herpes varicella is also known as: Trick question Varicella zoster virus (VXV) is 1/8 herpes viruses
      A) chickenpox. in children <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
      B) shingles. in adults <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
      C) cold sores.
      D) fever blisters.
      30. A highly contagious skin disease caused by Staphylococcus and Streptococcus bacteria is:
      A) folliculitis.
      B) impetigo. <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
      C) erysipelas.
      D) cellulitis.
      31. What is the outermost layer of the skin?
      A) stratus corneum
      B) epidermis <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
      C) subcutaneous tissue
      D) dermis
      32. What is the windpipe?
      A) larynx
      B) epiglottis
      C) pharynx
      D) trachea <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
      33. The thyroid gland secretes T3, T4, and _Calcitonin <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
      34. The most important function of the respiratory system is the inspiration of _oxygen <<<<< and the expiration of carbon dioxide.
      35. Skin cancers are the most common cancers in the United States. They include basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma <<<<

  19. QUESTION:
    Is taking Zofran, Ativan, Compazine, and Oxycodone ok to use with Marijuana?
    my sister has cancer, signet ring cell carcinoma, its last stage cancer, and they couldnt get all of it out, they took out her ovaries, parts of small intestine, and tons of bits and pieces of other organs down there. now they are gonna put her on chemo soon, but theres so many things wrong with her, for one she was never normal weight, even at 27(current age) she was about 89 lbs b4 surgery, shes probably about 70 something now seeing as childrens clothes dont even fit her now. she keeps throwing up and cant keep down food which i guess thats your explanation of her weight loss. but she also smokes alot of pot, on top of her prescription drugs. i don't think she understands how what grave danger shes already in, and to be using drugs on top of it. and i dont believe in medical marijuana + i live in new york, so all answers about that please keep it to yourself just cut to the point. are all those drugs safe to use with smoking pot every day. and if so why. if not, also why. thank you.

    • ANSWER:
      Actually, the marijuana is probably helping her symptoms MORE than any of those other things (all of which I also took during my cancer treatment).
      Her doctor needs to be aware that she is using marijuana, but beyond that, no, marijuana does not add a whole lot of risk on top of everything else. In fact, that combo rxed narcotics is far more dangerous than the marijuana. But, through cancer treatment, its to be expected that she will be on a lot of narcotics. Using the marijuana and less of the other narcotics will allow her some relief while remaining alert and awake.

      If she is concerned about the legality, she should have her doc write her an rx for marinol... its a synthetic thc that comes in pill form.

  20. QUESTION:
    Recent Gyno pathology diagnosis given then 24 hours after the diagnosis I was called for more tests- an MRI?
    Recent gyno diagnosis of
    high grade squamous intraepitheleal lesion,
    severe squamous dysplasia / carcinoma in situ III,
    atypical glandular cells not otherwise specified,
    endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ,
    atypia cytologic nos.
    I was told that this means that I need a hysterectomy - it was not cancer, but it can be years from now. My age is 34 and the doc says I can leave the ovaries in. I asked to remove everything to be on the safe side and he agreed. We discussed a few side affects and he was positive and comforting. We scheduled surgery for 1 month later and I left feeling good about the diagnosis and treatment,
    THEN less then 24 hours later I was called by the nurse stating ' the doc has re-reviewed my case and feels I need an MRI of pelvis and abdominal region asap.' I questioned why and was told this is a precaution just to be sure there are no surprises during surgery next month, however the test needs to be asap. I'm confused because we reviewed the tests yesterday together. He explained what everything meant and drew pictures for me of where each area of concern was. He said yesterday that this is not cancer and not really concerning, There was no need for additional tests or consults, just the hysterectomy.
    Why now the MRI

    • ANSWER:
      He probably was talking to one of his colleagues about your case and some more information was brought to light that he might not have considered when he was discussing this with you. I think the fact that he consults with his peers and gets more ideas is a great thing for you. I would rather do too much testing than not enough and have them miss something.

  21. QUESTION:
    Cancer patients, are you in denial that you have cancer, even if its months after you found out you had it?
    I think I am in denial that I have cancer. I was diagnosed with stage 2B cervical adenosquamous carcinoma in July. It was spreading quickly (poorly differentiated) and my staging process was difficult. Within a month it went something like this...

    Pap test came back as HSIL-->Biopsies came back microinvasive/CIN3/CIS/AIS and unsatisfactory colposcopy-->after oncologist exam, staged with 1B adenocarcinoma, told I needed a hysterectomy-->PET scan revealed lymph node and parametrium involvement, increasing my stage to 2B, told I was no longer getting a hysterectomy and instead radiation and chemo, and can never have kids, my ovaries would even be fried after this so no egg retrievals in the future-->8 weeks of chemo and radiation, fatigue and mild nausea, 30 lbs weight loss off of my already thin frame-->here I am a couple months later feeling pretty good, had a PET scan showing no more lymph node involvement but one tiny speck left on the cervix which might just be inflammation-->pap last week (first since treatment ended) came back as atypical cells-A high grade lesion cannot be ruled out-->denial.

    I think I am in denial. I've never let myself feel like a cancer patient. When I was sitting in chemo or in the waiting room at radiation, I always felt out of place like I was visiting, not a patient. Everyone else looked so sick. I even had a few people tell me that they couldn't believe I was a cancer patient because I looked too good to be so sick. (by good I mean healthy, not sickly). I also don't have any major issues since treatment, even during treatment the worst thing was fatigue. The only side effect I've noticed since treatment is acid reflux which I never had before and my oncologist said is probably related to the radiation portion of treatment. Its easily controlled with just Prilosec OTC. I actually feel better than before treatment. I am full of energy and I no longer have cramps and abnormal bleeding which I was always told was a result of my BC pills (I found out otherwise obviously). I feel great.

    But theres a chance I still have cancer, and I've been told that even if I am cleared of any active cancer in my body I'm still considered to "have cancer" and I will only be in "remission" once cleared, then theres a waiting period of several years before I can say I don't have cancer.

    I just can't seem to put the words cancer and my name together. I am totally in denial, I don't know how I will ever come to accept that I have cancer.

    Did any of the cancer patients here go through this? Did you ever accept that you have/had cancer? And if so, when did it finally hit you that you actually have cancer?

    I don't know what it is, maybe I am still in shock, but I've never come to accept it and it's been over 7 months since my diagnosis.

    • ANSWER:
      It's good that you're not bemoaning this. You have to have a positive attitude. It's what keeps you going. I was diagnosed with stage 3 colon cancer in mid-September. I had surgery October 1, and even started chemo before they normally do because I was doing so well. I have the fatigue too, and my hands hurt if they get cold, but other than that I'm doing great. I'm already thinking of myself as a cancer survivor. If you obsess over it, you're wasting time worrying about whether you're going to die when you could be doing all you can to live.

  22. QUESTION:
    Extremely thin Mom starts Chemo.. worried ?
    My mom was diagnosed with an extremely rare form of cancer. About 1-2% of all cancer patients have this.. they are calling it "squamous cell carcinoma non primary origin". She had a squamous tumor bigger than a grapefruit in her pelvic area with no origin.. it was attached to her ovaries, fallopian tubes and colon - they removed all those and part of her colon. She had another squamous tumor with no origin behind her vagina around the rectum..

    Through all the surgeries she has had lately (total of 2 in the last 2 months, plus 2 colonscopies) and recovery, she is down to 104 pounds. She doesn't have an appetite right now as it is, and she is to start chemo and radiation in 4 weeks. Radiation 5 days a week, 5 hour chemo drip one day a week. I am extremely worried about the side effects with her, seeing as she is already 104 pounds! She is 5'4.. and I know she is only going to lose more weight.

    They are treating her with the chemo drugs normally given to patients with cervical cancer, even though she hasn't had a cervix in 20 years. This is the best guess they have to treating her seeing as they aren't real familiar with this type of presentation.

    Does anyone have experience with this? I'm worried that if she loses too much weight it could potentially be life threatening..
    They want her drinking boost nurtional supplement 3-4 days to try and gain weight before starting treatment.. but she just keeps losing?

    • ANSWER:
      This certainly is an unusual presentation for a squamous cell cancer. My guess is that the fact that the tumor was bigger than a grapefruit is an indication that the tumor was very slow growing which is an indication of a favorable prognosis. Also, there is no mention of metastasies. If a tumor has grown this large and not yet metastasized, that is another indication of a favorable prognosis. You occasionally see this with renal cell cancers. With all the tumors removed I find myself wondering how they can tell whether the radiation or chemo is doing anything at all.
      As far as the weight loss goes, if they need to they will give her parenteral nutrition.
      Your mother's case is one for the books. Keep your hopes up. Your mother may surprise everyone.


Metastic Bone Cancer

Secondary Bone Cancer Survival Rate
Well, although they are something that we don't usually take much notice of, our bones are just as susceptible as any organ in the body made of soft tissues. Secondary Bone Cancer Survival RateThis disease is caused by irregular growths within the bone itself and primarily targets children or adolescents whose bones are still undergoing development, as opposed to adults whose bones have reached their full maturity. When adults are diagnosed it usually stems from cancer cells in another part in the body.

As with any other tumor, the ones that develop within the bone can either be benign or malignant. Although they go by a number of types, this does not stop bone cancer symptoms from showing. For example, both the primary and secondary bone tumors can cause pain in the afflicted area, hence why it's one of the most visible signs to watch out for. This type of pain is deep, nagging and ongoing, which is why some young people may attribute it to growing pains. They can, however, get bad enough to cause insomnia. Other symptoms are not as easy to spot, like swelling of the limbs or joints which can easily be put off as a sprain. Fragile, brittle bones are also a symptom, causing fractures even if you only suffer the mildest of accidents.

Other things to watch for can include nausea, vomiting, abdominal pains and even confusion. This can be harder to determine with women though, especially if they have painful menstruation.

Lung Cancer Secrets Revealed Click here

Some of these signs can be caused by calcium deposits from the bones making their way into the bloodstream, raising calcium levels to such a height that their build-up causes a tumor.

Remember that things like swelling can be a major cause for concern. This is because they only become noticeable once the tumor has grown. These can also be hard to spot because their source may lie deep inside the tissues, making them hard to notice until it's too late.

Bone tumors that develop near the joints, whether benign or malignant in nature, can cause difficulty in movement even causing you to walk with a limp. The effects can be even worse when the spine is affected because it may lead to paralysis.

Of course, there are other less common bone cancer symptoms that you should watch out for. They include tiredness, weight loss and high fever. Though these things can be caused by other illnesses, when they are coupled with deep-seated pains or swelling it's a good idea to have them checked out by your doctor right away.

lung cancer treatment breakthroughs Click here

Frequently Asked Questions

  1. QUESTION:
    My mother is in her mid 60s she has metastic bone cancer that started in her breast ...right now she has it ?
    In her arms, legs, ribs andevery bone in her spine ...what kind of life expectancy does she have?

    • ANSWER:
      She doesn’t have metastatic bone cancer. She has metastatic breast cancer.
      A lot depends on her hormone receptors and if she chooses to continue treatment. The 5 year survival rate is 20%, but I have seen patients survive as long as 10 years.

  2. QUESTION:
    If a bone scan 'lights up' on certain spots can that be evidence of metastic breast cancer?
    My wife had stage 4 breast cancer and is now in remission. She had a bone scan (needed for a new clinical trail) and the scan 'lit up' in places that previously there was cancer. I don't want any surprises when we see the oncologist next week. So, can it 'light up' because of bone damage, reoccurence of cancer or both?

    • ANSWER:
      Do not listen to ill advice. Only a doctor can tell you that. We, on this site, can NOT SEE the scan, so therefor, we CAN NOT DIAGNOSE anyone. As you well know, there is always a chance of cancer returning. My dad had it. So far, so good. You should wait and see what your oncologist has to say. It could be other things instead of cancer. I wish you and your wife the best and do not assume the worst even though that is sometimes hard to do. I am the same way.

  3. QUESTION:
    What is the life expectancy for metastic lung cancer?
    The cancer has stread to the pluerea, lymph nodes, brain and bones, and is in a 4th stage!!! My mother is 75 and is now very very depressed! This is from 2nd hand smoke as my mother is not a smoker!!!

    • ANSWER:
      I'm so very sorry for you and your mom. People that have never smoked or been around smokers also get lung cancer, so I wouldn't put blame on someone else if they are a smoker.

      You can only get this answer from your mom's doctor. Please make a list of questions (so you won't forget any) and give them a call. I bet they will be happy to take your call and answer your questions.

      I'm very sorry.

  4. QUESTION:
    How long will someone live with metastic breast cancer.?
    My mom was diagnosed in Nov. '09 with bone metastases. There is a couple small lesions in her pelvis. She has is being treated with Zometa I.V., every three weeks. Nothing in her organs or any other bones. (Her original cancer was lobular breast cancer treated with chemo diagnosed three years before the metastases) She has some pain and is nauseated at times from the Zometa. I was just wondering how long she has. Her oncologist says 3-10 years, and my mom says he won't be here next year at this time. I think she is wrong and that she will still be here five years from now. Thank you for your time.
    She just had a bone scan that showed no spread of the lesions. And her tumur markers went down to very low levels.
    BillParkhurst-My mom is not doing chemo, and as for a "natural remedy" my grandfather did that and died exactly one year after starting his "natural" treatment. My mom has survived 11 years total since her original diagnosis, I did not mention that because it was not relevent. She was diagnosed in early 1999 with ductal carcinoma, treated with chemo and did great until 2006 when she was diagnosed with lobular breast cancer.

    • ANSWER:
      Sorry to hear about your mom. But, no one can say for sure how long she has. Honestly, the person who would know best would be her doctor because he has her medical history or access to it.

      Metastasis is not a good sign. If someone's going to get cancer, you want to find out it's not metastatic. Your chances are much better.

      Her oncologist has said 3 - 10 years. If she continues treatment and begins to improve, it might even be longer than that. They have no way of telling for sure, can only give you an educated guess.

      It sounds like she's depressed too if she thinks she will die within the next 12 months. You might gently urge her to talk to her oncologist about this. But, keep in mind the only person who knows just how your mother feels is her.

      Cancer is devastating to the entire being. Physically and emotionally. I hope your mom finds a way to enjoy her life, no matter if she has a year left or 30!

      My thoughts go out to you. Good luck.

  5. QUESTION:
    Metastic Breast Cancer Diagnosis?
    Hi, my mum was diagnosed with breast cancer 6 weeks ago. She had a biopsy and the tumor was found to be estrogen receptive. Her Bone Scan showed that the cancer had spread to her 7th rib and the CT Scan showed a small lesion in her lung, lymph nodes under armpit and lymph nodes in chest.

    The oncologist said that cancer is controllable but not curable. She has to stay on hormone therapy for the rest of her life and cannot receive surgery as the oncologist said the wound wouldnt be able to heal as their is cancer cells in the chest. She also wont be receiving chemotherapy as the oncologist said the hormone therapy is as just as good.

    Surely if the hormone therapy is stopping the cancer cells from surviving then surgery is an option? And is radiation not also an option for the other sites of cancer?

    What do you think of the prognosis? Does it look like a bad outcome?

    Please dont spare details to not hurt my feelings. I can take it!

    Thank you

    xx

    • ANSWER:
      This therapy potentially makes complete sense. If I may restate her case, your mom is suffering with metastatic, estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer, which is present in her bone and lymph nodes, ? small lesion in lung.

      In patients who are ER+, we go to great lengths to maximize benefit from hormonal therapies, because in fact they do work just as well (or better) than chemotherapy many times, and are so much easier to take/tolerate. Patients would generally receive chemo if they have organ-threatening disease (extensive lung or liver involvement for example) or other occasions where a more rapid response from chemo is desired.

      I am not sure what specific surgery you are inquiring about, but since her disease has metastasized, surgery is not going to cure her; we normally rely on the medicine therapy to control disease. Radiation could be used to painful bone sites if needed. The hormone therapy will potentially treat all of her disease.

      She may well need chemotherapy at some point, but it looks like your doc doesn't think so now. Getting a second opinion is always reasonable, though, but also just sitting down and talking over your concerns with the current oncologist may be sufficient.

      Prognosis-wise, survival can be several years even with widely metastatic disease, sometime longer.

      God bless, best wishes

  6. QUESTION:
    If you have Ewing's sarcoma cancer(specifically metastic), will you definitely have a lump or fever?
    i am 14.i did a lot of research on cancer cuz i have extreme pains(often) in my elbow and wrist that radiate through my lower arm. other times in my chest. after a minute the pain disappears. until a few days, weeks or hours later. in the metastic type of Ewing's sarcoma cancer, the pain spreads. i looked and looked on google. i am always tired even though i get 8 hours of sleep every night though i am tired for many hours later, i have shadows under my eyes, i don't think I'm losing weight, i have pains in my chest(all of my pains feel the same, nothing triggers the pain, it just happens), i don't feel lumps, and i don't have fevers(but i do get dizzy), i have persistent fatigue. i found that it can be in your bone marrow. if its in your bone marrow, would you feel lumps? also, would you necessarily have a fever?

    • ANSWER:
      You can’t diagnose yourself over the internet and even if you could, you could not treat it anyway. Even doctors go to doctors when there is something wrong. If you are truly concerned that is what you should be doing.

  7. QUESTION:
    Metastic breast cancer question...?
    My mom was diagnosed with breast cancer in late 1999,had her lymphnodes removed and was eventaualy in remission.Just after 5 years later,we found it metasticized to her lungs in early 2005.She had been on chemo and Herceptin for 2 years when we found it metasticized to her bones (primarily right hip) just in February.She had intense radiation and is being treated with stonger chemo,but have had problems with it lowering her white blood count.Two of the past 4 weeks of her new chemo they had to cancel it so they could give her a shot 3 days in a row to try to boost it back up.Just very recently,she's been having headaches,diarrhea,and very pale complexion.Though it could possbily be the side effects of the stronger chemo, she had an MRI done yesterday morning but won't find out the results until next week.My sister and I are afraid the cancer has spread to her brain,but she acts like nothing is wrong like she did just a few months ago when she knew the cancer had spread to her hip....
    They could not remove the legions on her hip since the cancer was metastatic, only chemo and radiation. IF it has spread to her brain, what are the chances treatment would work? I've heard once cancer metasticizes to the brain it's very hard to control. Anyone with experience/advice? My sister and I are both grown and know when our mom is lying about her being "fine", not knowing is driving us crazy. Since breast cancer primarily spreads to the lungs, bones and brain, there is a good chance it has spread to her brain. What are her chances of beating it for the 4th time?

    • ANSWER:
      get a pet scan done.. it will help u detect where exactly the cancer has spread in the entire body.. also in the case of metastatic cancer, please do not rely only on allopathy as your only option. this is the time when u start looking at other options like, homeotherapy, ayurveda, yoga etc..About her blood count, give her lots of wheat grass juice or even pomogranate juice..and yes go for a PET SCAN for a final answer. sometimes, even MRI is not able to detect a lot of things. my mother is undergoing the exact same thing..


Liver Canser

Liver Cancer Signs and Symptoms of Liver Cancer
Liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma) is a cancer arising from the liver. It is also known as primary liver cancer or hepatoma. The liver is made up of different cell types (for example, bile ducts, blood vessels, and fat-storing cells). However, liver cells (hepatocytes) make up 80% of the liver tissue. Thus, the majority of primary liver cancers (over 90 to 95%) arises from liver cells and is called hepatocellular cancer or carcinoma.

Primary liver cancer is rarely discovered early and often doesn't respond to current treatments thus, the prognosis is often poor. Even when treatments fail to provide much improvement in the liver cancer itself, pain and other signs and symptoms caused by liver cancer can be aggressively treated to improve quality of life. But the most important news about primary liver cancer is that you can greatly reduce your risk by protecting yourself from hepatitis infection and cirrhosis, the leading causes of the disease.

Secondary Liver Cancer Most of the time when cancer is found in the liver it did not start there but spread to the liver from a cancer that began somewhere else in the body. These tumors are named after the place where they began (the primary site) and are further described as metastatic. For example, cancer that started in the lung and spread to the liver is called metastatic lung cancer to the liver. The rest of the information given here covers only primary liver cancer, that is, cancer that starts in the liver.
Signs and Symptoms of Liver Cancer

Most people don't have signs and symptoms in the early stages of liver cancer, which means the disease may not be detected until it's quite advanced. When symptoms do appear, they may include some or all of the following:
Abdominal pain, especially in the upper right part of your abdomen, that may extend into your back and shoulder. Pain that occurs in the right upper area of the abdomen. The liver is a very nerve rich organ and can be sensitive to changes.

Appetite - People with liver cancer may experience a continuous loss of appetite or feel very full after a small meal.

Worsened hepatitis or cirrhosis symptoms - More severe symptoms in people who have chronic hepatitis or cirrhosis are signs of liver cancer. These symptoms could include fluid in the abdomen, a symptom known as ascites, or the need for more and more water tablets (diuretics) to control the amount of fluid in the abdomen.

Abdominal pain is a very common symptom, and also common in children. Unfortunately, because there are so many possible causes of abdominal pain, and many cases are not serious, many cases of acute appendicitis are misdiagnosed each year as gastroenteritis or some other similar condition, especially in children and infants. Although appendicitis is an uncommon condition, it can be fatal. And there are many other serious conditions that may cause abdominal pain.

Jaundice (yellowing of the skin and the whites of the eyes caused by an accumulation of bile pigment -bilirubin- in the blood).

Esophageal varices (occurs when the tumor invaded and blocked the portal vein and the blood drains through esophageal veins).

Rarely: bleeding problems. Many of the proteins required for proper blood clotting are created in the liver. Remove these proteins and blood clotting decreases.

Chronic weight loss or wasting. The liver processes all the building blocks. If it fails to process, the body fails to maintain itself.

Frequently Asked Questions

  1. QUESTION:
    what causes liver canser in horses?
    mine died of it.
    She never drank, and she only got ill 4 months before her death.

    • ANSWER:
      We don't even know what causes cancer in us.

  2. QUESTION:
    is acetaphetamin causing liver canser cause im feeling a little discomfort were my liver is at in my stomac.?

    • ANSWER:
      yes amphetamine causes liver cancer.. you need to stop taking it.. liver pain is on the right side of your body.. under your breast on the side// do you have yellow color on the whites of you eyes? yellow skin? if so see a doctor ASAP

  3. QUESTION:
    if sorafenib is in india ....at which cost it get....how long it take for liver canser?

    • ANSWER:
      Sorafenib is a drug available in many countries. If your doctor thinks you need it they will administer it to you. You should not be concerned with finding your own drugs.

  4. QUESTION:
    is liver desease a form of canser in dogs?

    • ANSWER:
      Other way around. Liver disease means that the liver in your dog is affected by some sort of abnormal process. Many things can be wrong with the liver or affect the liver negatively. Saying the liver is diseased is like saying, "My grass is dying, " it doesn't indicate why the liver or grass is dying. Did I forget to water it? Did I pour bleach on it? Is it infested with weeds or bugs?
      Cancer is one type of disease that may affect the liver (and there are many types of cancer affecting the liver, just to compound things).

  5. QUESTION:
    can i claim for some benefits in my husbands work after his death.he was ill with canser?
    my husband worked in "morissons"for more than 4 years.in august this year he got ill with liver cancer and was at home.all the time he got ssp he died on april3rd.i heard,that i can claim for some benefits from his company.i made a call to them,but they even dont want to talk to me.will you be so kind an explain me what i have todo in my situation.
    thanks.

    • ANSWER:
      It depends on many factors. You really need to pay a lawyer for an hour of his time to see if you have any options...and you need to do so quickly because there are time limits on such things.

  6. QUESTION:
    what are the chances of surviving canser twice?
    my mom was diagnosed with canser about 2 years ago,the doctors told her it was in gods hands now that her brest canser was at the worst level and she had 0percent chance of living...1year later she rung the bell at the hospatial stating that she was canser free....now a year later its back in her liver and nef nodes (sorry about the spelling) and she looks worst then shes ever looked............ i love my mom so much and if you can help me with some information that would be great..........what is here chances do people usally survive the second round......thank you!

    • ANSWER:
      I am very sorry to hear about your mom. I am a cancer survivor and the news you have had must be devastating. All you can do is offer support to her and try to hide your dismay a bit (this will be hard for you but you can do it). The treatments now are so much better than they used to be so she could come through this. If you need more encouragement read "Its not about the bike" by Neil Armstrong - that guy was literally at deaths door but he survived awful treatments.
      Try to remain hopeful because she needs your positive attitude to help her. I think you should contact a cancer support group and tell them your problem. I am sure they will help you with lots more info than I can give and would be a source of support for YOU because you need it too.

  7. QUESTION:
    Can somebody transplant new lungs if he/she have metastatic lung canser at the final stages?
    My girlfriend before a year or so discover that she had thyroid canser. A little later made metastasis to the gull blater (it is removed) and the liver that docs take out a very small piece. Everything seemed ok but this ...thing went to the lungs too. Right now everything is clean (thyroid, liver) exept the lungs. The docs said she has maybe 1 year of life left and that they can give her chemo so strong at this point, that is ging to effect her quality of life very bad, and that it dont worth it cause she has no change ...as they say. She is a very healthy girl (no smoke, no drink and stuff) but she is dellicate and tired from chemo so far. Can she make a lung transpant like this? Is this happening to that situations? We know is going to be difficault but what changes we have to safe her life?

    • ANSWER:
      Nothing will help, I'm sorry. A transplant won't help either. A lung transplant would only respread the cancer throughout her body. Only chemo will help, but she's now not strong enough to be able to cope with it.

  8. QUESTION:
    are the coils supposed 2 be there?
    My uncle has liver canser and they did surgery...then couple weeks ago they did an mri and the couldn't see anything and said he had medal in his stomach. then we found out they were coils, medal coils. the doctor saud they "Forgot 2 tell us they put them in" are they supposted to be there??? can we they be sued for not telling us that???if so how much $$$??? plz answer ...srry bout the spelling im a tween :]

    • ANSWER:
      Yes if they forgot to tell you that and your uncle underwent an MRI well they definitely made a mistake for not telling you. You better get a medical lawyer as I do not know the protocols and the cost of such.

  9. QUESTION:
    what is the metastatic canser?
    metastatik tomors in liver we cant find its source we did andescopy colonoscopy and biopsy. blood hormon test hasnot show any signal serogikal test show a highSGPT and SGOPT

    • ANSWER:
      Jen has the right answer and the right advice - please follow it.

      Metastasis means that it's moved from the primary site and started to form secondary tumours. The primary site may have been very small and therefore not easily discovered. Cancer cells can migrate through the blood or more usually via the lymphatic system (immune fighting lymph nodes) to other areas of the body.

  10. QUESTION:
    how can i sell my husband's paintings?
    my husband was a born with the god gifted tallent of art.he love to draw from very early age,but never went to any school for learning the art.he was very good in portrait paintings.and did so many imaginary paintings.he wanted to sell his paintings,but my younger daughter who is also born artist,never let her father to sell any paintings,thinking that when she will have enough paintings of her then she will combine and will have an art exsibition,but my husband god liver canser,and died five years ago.my daughter took some of his paintings and the rest are with me.i can't hold them because my two other kids have no interest if i die the will throw in garbith.so i need to wind up by seeling them to pleas his sole,to the art loving people with the reasonable price.there might be fifteen to twenty paintings.he painted each and every one of our family,including himself.i will keep my portrait and my husband's only, and the rest to go.please help me to find the place or person to buy all.

    • ANSWER:
      i strongly suggest etsy.com which specializes in handmade stuff (art, jewelry, paper goods). eBay charges too much for listing items and listed items are only for 10 days. Etsy charges 8 cents for every listing and gets a 3.5% from every sale. plus the community is really nice.

  11. QUESTION:
    I'm moving out soon, but my mother is not well ,and I want to leave her with 5 grandkids to feed, now what?
    Well I'm older and able to move out, but my mother has liver canser and I don't want to leave her with 5 grand children to feed, and she hardly ever eat, and their mother don't give any thing about them all worry adout it the new baby that's coming and her self. I need to make a life for my self, but I need to stay and help my mother, but I'm not growing, or going any where living there, I don't know what I should do. What should I do?

    • ANSWER:
      Family should always come first....your mother in all honesty does not have much time{sorry a very aggressive cancer}...your Sister needs her butt kicked and take care of her own kids + stop having them if she can not take care of them......I think you should stay with your mother and make her last days/months happy,stress less,loving,caring....And when she is called home you will have time to reflect on where you are going.....tell your Sister to come get her kids NOW!!!!! LOVE your Mother and cherish her she will need you.. you think you are not growing but you are learning a valuable lesson in life...My blessings and hug your mom for me.......

  12. QUESTION:
    if you belive in prayer..and healing...and if you belive there is hope...please read!?
    hi my name is ashley......
    my mom was dianosed with canser about 3yrs ago is was breast canser stage 4..

    one day she came home with tears in her eyes, me my brothers and sister ran up to her in a hurry to see what was wrong...her replied to us IM DIEING ...a doctor had told her it was in gods hands now and that her chances of living were not likley....after many surgeries and chemo she was anounced canser free....

    i would never forget that year she was my hero she was going throw chemo and still finding the time to take care of her family and go out and work on the yard (somthing she loved to do) ....she went to church every chance she could get to worship our father and prayed...she was so strong ....

    it was about a year later or 2 months ago..that she started feeling pain near her stomac...she thought the the swolling was from her past surgeries but a trip to the doctor had let her know that it was from an enlarged liver causing her pain...soon to find out that it was her canser that came back also in her lympatic system and bone and in her lungs....
    ofcourse we said she could get through this because she is so strong and she would tell all of us that she knows she will be okay..but she started looking so sick....she even went on strick diets but things just look worst and last week she went to the doctor for a normal visit and they told her that she had paceriseidus and that they couldnt treat it so she was transferd to a nether hospatil....they gave her meds to treat it but it didnt work as planned...today i found out that it caused both of her kidneys to stop working.... tomorro there going to hook her up to a machine in hope that her kidneys well start working again...

    so please pray for my mom , i need her with me in my life i dont know what ill do with out her....she is my everything...and i love her so much i would give anything in the world for her to get better...she has 5 kids me ashley im 17 my sister nikki she is going to be 16 on the 30th ..my little brother joseph he is 15 my younger brother samuel who is 7 and my baby brother deloyd who she calls baby is 5yrs old.....please find anyone you can to pray for her...her name is cynthia and all i want for her is to come back home and for things to be like they used to be she is only 39 she has so much time she sopose to live and i dont think my dad could take it.....they have been together since she was 18 and they worked so hard and to rasie us and we have a nice home she loves and everything was so perfect until now and we all need her in our lives...there is nobody that could ever replace her........we all love her so much so please pray for her... she is such a good person and does not deserve this one bit.........thannk you for taking the time to read this........please help pray how ever much you can.......

    • ANSWER:
      i will pray for you and your mother.

  13. QUESTION:
    Are religious people against SINGLE organ cloning?
    Ok i know allot of people are against cloning (that includes me) But are you the religious group against Single organs being cloned to replace damaged ones?

    I'm really loving this idea of being able to give new organs to people with canser or who just lost them on an accident. But i saw that Bush cutted budget on this and there are allot of people blaming the religious community for this. I don't think this is true, this is why i am confirming this.

    Are you against getting a new heart, lung, liver or mere veins if yours breaks down?

    No unborn died on purpose you know, it is just a matter of improving technology. I'm not saying we can do this today.
    "Its god plan" Hey if god made us smart enough to extend our life for 10 more years, we should thank him and help each other live longer!

    • ANSWER:
      The only kind of cloning im against is human cloning.


Bone Cancer Death Rate

Secondary Brain Cancer Survival Rate
Types of brain tumors
Secondary Brain Cancer Survival Rate
First class of categorizing of brain tumors is based on whether they are benign or malignant in nature. Benign brain tumors do not consist of cancer cells and do not metastasize. The malignant brain tumors are composed of cancer cells. They are not limited to the tissue of origin and spread fast to the neighboring tissues and metastasize.

Brain tumors can also be classified as primary and secondary tumors. The primary tumors are those that originate within the cells of the brain. They could be cancerous or non cancerous. Secondary tumours are the metastasized cells having spread from some other part of the body to the brain and are obviously cancerous.

Causes of a brain tumor

Exact and definite causes of brain tumors are still not known and their reasons remain ambiguous. It is quite clear though that it is never contagious and a person cannot "catch it" from some one having a tumor.

Though the exact cause still eludes us, there are certain risk factors that increase the chances of one developing the tumor. Gender is a dominant risk factor. They are predominantly detected in males. Age too is a risk factor. Majority of the cases show tumor developing in people at the age of 60 and above. Also, children below the age of 8 years are more prone to develop it. Other risk factors include family history and exposure to radiations.

Usually it develops due to the abnormalities in genes that regulate the cell growth cycle resulting in uncontrolled and abnormal division and growth of cells. These abnormalities in the genes could be due to some rearrangements in the chromosome or due to direct alterations in the genes. These abnormalities are a result of cascade of events taking place at molecular and even biological levels.
Lung Cancer Secrets Revealed Click here
Certain genetic conditions like neurofibromatosis, Li-Fraumeni syndrome, retinoblastoma, etc. can augment the chances of developing tumors in the central nervous system. Genetic abnormalities causing brain tumors are rarely inherited. They are caused mainly due to various environmental factors and also due to various factors that can affect the genetic materials (like DNA) of the cells. Many chemicals are present that can alter the genes involved in restraining the development of tumors. Workers working in rubber manufacturing factories, oil refineries or as chemists are precariously exposed to such chemicals.

Also the patients who have been exposed to some kind of radiations in the past for treating some other malignancies are also capable of developing this condition.

Diagnosis and Treatment

They are generally diagnosed because of manifestation of certain symptoms and analysis of the neurological functions. The patient is initially tested in a neurological exam testing all the basic senses, balance, coordination and memory. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is the prevalent technology used to diagnose a brain tumor. They are generally treated upon and efforts are put to reduce them to the maximum extent by surgery, radiotherapy (radiation treatment) or chemotherapy. These treatments are occasionally applied in combination's to produce maximum effect.
lung cancer treatment breakthroughs Click here

Frequently Asked Questions

  1. QUESTION:
    The USA has a higher infant death rate than Somalia?
    What do you think of Americas health care system? I think the insurance companies charge to much for drugs. I have seen insurance companies turn people down for cancer treatment because they ''are to young to have cervix cancer.'' I have seen hospitals dump people off the hospital bed once they can not pay the bill. One lady had Alzheimer she did not know were she was when they dumped her. Another one had a broken hip and open stitches, broken collar bone. The hospital kicked her out of the bed and put her in a cab pushed her out of it. They did not even tell her where she was going.

    Whats funny is the only place in America that has universal health care is guantanamo bay. The only people who do get universal health care is the people who blew up the twin towers. When Bush passed a bill saying it was good health care for the older folks. He really gave the drugs to the insurance companies it was a bill they passed saying they can charge what ever price they want to on drugs.

    Bush even congratulated a 60 year old woman for working three jobs. Just to pay for her medications. She should be resting NOT WORKING! I think we should do socialist health care. It works for Europe, France they get right in and out.

    I am a college 19 year old that works my butt off! I come from a wealthy family. I had insurance but they did not pay for my operation for my appendix. Now if I did not have allot money in the bank. I would of never been ale to go to school like I am now.I never be able to go to school when I am in hospital debt.

    It all started in 1971 with president Nixon was on the phone. He wnated a way to get money. The other guy on the phone like well we can just cut back health care. So that's what the insurance companies do now. Their has been people that have been denied to get paid for their (cancer treatment) because they had a east-infection in their passed.

    How well a society treats those that can not take care of themselves. Is what it says about that society. Everyone says I work for my money. Well, is it fair to make a 60 year old work three jobs to pay for medicine. One medical mess up most people can not go to college. Everyone says republicans are for those who work. Jut because people do not come from good families. Should they get denied health care?

    We are 27 on the list of health care.We have a higher infant death rate than Somalia. Everyone says my thinking is socialistic that's right before communist. Well, it does not decide who gets health care who does not. Insurance companies already do that. the insurance company bought out our government to pass the law to have control of all drugs. One day you could get cancer need a quarter of a million dollar operation. The insurance company could deny you for saying ''it is experimental''.Is it fair to say you should of worked for your money?

    Additional Details
    http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0386032/
    Facts it is based on
    It based on this document all real facts.
    http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0386032/

    • ANSWER:
      The media have often said that we have higher infant mortality rates than other countries with government medical care systems. But we count every baby that dies and other countries do not. If the media don't tell you that, so much the better for ObamaCare. o_O

  2. QUESTION:
    wondering why any doctor would subject anyone to chemo?
    Chemotherapy Quotes
    "Two to 4% of cancers respond to chemotherapy….The bottom line is for a few kinds of cancer chemo is a life extending procedure---Hodgkin's disease, Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL), Testicular cancer, and Choriocarcinoma."---Ralph Moss, Ph.D. 1995 Author of Questioning Chemotherapy.

    "NCI now actually anticipates further increases, and not decreases, in cancer mortality rates, from 171/100,000 in 1984 to 175/100,000 by the year 2000!"--Samuel Epstein.

    "A study of over 10,000 patients shows clearly that chemo’s supposedly strong track record with Hodgkin’s disease (lymphoma) is actually a lie. Patients who underwent chemo were 14 times more likely to develop leukemia and 6 times more likely to develop cancers of the bones, joints, and soft tissues than those patients who did not undergo chemotherapy (NCI Journal 87:10)."—John Diamond

    Children who are successfully treated for Hodgkin's disease are 18 times more likely later to develop secondary malignant tumours. Girls face a 35 per cent chance of developing breast cancer by the time they are 40---which is 75 times greater than the average. The risk of leukemia increased markedly four years after the ending of successful treatment, and reached a plateau after 14 years, but the risk of developing solid tumours remained high and approached 30 per cent at 30 years (New Eng J Med, March 21, 1996)

    "Success of most chemotherapy is appalling…There is no scientific evidence for its ability to extend in any appreciable way the lives of patients suffering from the most common organic cancer…chemotherapy for malignancies too advanced for surgery which accounts for 80% of all cancers is a scientific wasteland."---Dr Ulrich Abel. 1990

    The New England Journal of Medicine Reports— War on Cancer Is a Failure: Despite billion spent on research and treatments since 1970, cancer remains "undefeated," with a death rate not lower but 6% higher in 1997 than 1970, stated John C. Bailar III, M.D., Ph.D., and Heather L. Gornik, M.H.S., both of the Department of Health Studies at the University of Chicago in Illinois. "The war against cancer is far from over," stated Dr. Bailar. "The effect of new treatments for cancer on mortality has been largely disappointing."

    "My studies have proved conclusively that untreated cancer victims live up to four times longer than treated individuals. If one has cancer and opts to do nothing at all, he will live longer and feel better than if he undergoes radiation, chemotherapy or surgery, other than when used in immediate life-threatening situations."---Prof Jones. (1956 Transactions of the N.Y. Academy of Medical Sciences, vol 6. There is a fifty page article by Hardin Jones of National Cancer Institute of Bethesda, Maryland. He surveyed global cancer of all types and compared the untreated and the treated, to conclude that the untreated outlives the treated, both in terms of quality and in terms of quantity. Secondly he said, "Cancer does not cure". Third he said "There is a physiological mechanism which finishes off an individual".)

    "With some cancers, notably liver, lung, pancreas, bone and advanced breast, our 5 year survival from traditional therapy alone is virtually the same as it was 30 years ago."---P Quillin, Ph.D.

    "1.7% increase in terms of success rate a year, its nothing. By the time we get to the 24 century we might have effective treatments, Star Trek will be long gone by that time." Ralph Moss.

    "….chemotherapy’s success record is dismal. It can achieve remissions in about 7% of all human cancers; for an additional 15% of cases, survival can be "prolonged" beyond the point at which death would be expected without treatment. This type of survival is not the same as a cure or even restored quality of life."—John Diamond, M.D.

    "Keep in mind that the 5 year mark is still used as the official guideline for "cure" by mainstream oncologists. Statistically, the 5 year cure makes chemotherapy look good for certain kinds of cancer, but when you follow cancer patients beyond 5 years, the reality often shifts in a dramatic way."—Diamond.

    Studies show that women taking tamoxifen after surviving breast cancer then have a high propensity to develop endometrial cancer. The NCI and Zeneca Pharmaceuticals, which makes the drug, aggressively lobbied State of California regulators to keep them from adding tamoxifen to their list of carcinogens. Zeneca is one of the sponsors of Breast Cancer Awareness Month.

    "Most cancer patients in this country die of chemotherapy…Chemotherapy does not eliminate breast, colon or lung cancers. This fact has been documented for over a decade. Yet doctors still use chemotherapy for these tumours…Women with breast cancer are likely to die faster with chemo than without it."—Alan Levin, M.D.

    According to the Cancer Statistics for 1995, published by the ACS in their small journal (2), the 5-year survival rate has improved from 50%-56% for whites and 39%-40% for bl
    Gary, did you bother to read? if I'm not mistaken the NEJ of medicine was quoted as well as several md's which if I'm not mistaken stands for medical doctors, also some with PHD's. what more do you need?I don't recall mentioning anything about alt med.
    I watched my mother, my aunt, her husband , a friend die from this treatment, and now my cousin is dying from this junk science, don't even bother to defend it. it's monstrous, but you are welcome to believe it if you want, I don't and I'll take my chances, as you'll take your's. good luck

    • ANSWER:
      "Quotes" ?

      Yep, quote mining is a poor and frequently invalid form of taking a quote out of context and pretending it is a fact on its own.

      Don't forget: Increases in cancer are due to people living longer so they are more likely to die of cancer (we all have to die of something!). Dying at 85 from cancer, rather than at 35 from scurvy is known as "medical progress".

  3. QUESTION:
    please react on this article below...tnx in advance?
    Exercise is More Important Than Calcium Supplements for Bones
    Monday, September 18, 2006

    A study making recent news concluded that taking calcium supplements does not do much to reduce bone fractures in childhood or later life. The study did not cover all reasons, but it does not stand alone. Studies over many years show that bone density depends on more than eating calcium. Calcium loss occurs through smoking, drinking too much alcohol and soda, lack of exercise, and eating animal protein. A young person can thin their bones through bad habits to the equivalent of an elderly person.

    Bone density when you are older depends on what you are doing now. Sedentary lifestyle is a major risk for osteoporosis and fractures. Exercise thickens bones from the muscles pulling on them. Without exercise, you can lose bone density no matter how much calcium you eat. Without exercise, you "pee" the calcium you eat back out. You need to give calcium a reason to stick on your bones.

    Even if you are a young man you need to build bone now. Osteoporotic hip and spine fractures are a major cause of illness and death for both women and men. One in eight men over age 50 will have an osteoporosis-related fracture, greater than his risk of prostate cancer. The death rate in the year following a hip fracture is nearly twice as high for men as for women.

    Research in elder populations shows ability to increase bone density with exercise. Weightlifting is often mentioned as needed. People think they need to go to a gym or buy hand weights for home use. Weightlifting includes lifting groceries, children, and packages around the house. Weight-resisting activity includes moving, pulling, and lifting your own body weight. You can load your upper leg at the hip, a major site of osteoporosis, by bending right using your legs for all the many times you need to bend every day. Go to Disc Pain - Not a Mystery, Easy to Fix for tips. Future posts will show more bone building exercise from daily activities.

    Several vitamins and minerals in fruit and vegetables help bone density. Calcium also needs vitamin D to work. Sunlight is an often forgotten source. Sunlight is necessary for your immune system, bones, mood, and overall health. There are some who say there is no safe sun exposure. Balance your time of exposure to reduce risk of cataracts and skin cancer. Get out of your chair and get outside in the sunshine for exercise every day.

    • ANSWER:
      You need both calcium and plenty of exercise for good bone health.

      One without the other is insufficient for good health. The amount of calcium you need per day is about 800 mg but a bit more would be better. Vitamin D is required for the absorption of calcium.

      It is well known that people who are bedridden need extra calcium as inactivity depletes your calcium levels.

  4. QUESTION:
    Preparing for my sisters death after her Gastric bypass?
    My sister is a 43 year old manipulator who is always used to getting her way even if she has to lie and cheat to do it. She learned that from our mother. My sister is an RN and was only 40 pounds overweight but conned her doctor into signing her off for a gastric bypass. She went from 155 to 94 lbs and her mother is so pleased but tells her that she needs to lose just another 10 to get down to a size 2. My sister looks horrible, her skin turned yellowish and her hair is falling out and she has a bald spot on the top of her head. She is weak and looks like she has cancer. The skin on her face has sagged and you can see her bones. However, our mother thinks that my sister looks great. I did everything I could to stop her from getting this unneccessary surgery done but It didnt work. At this rate, I dont expect her to be alive next year at this time. I am preparing myself for her death and feel sorry for her 2 boys. Well at least they wil carry out a thin body for her funeral.

    • ANSWER:
      What happened to all of the follow-up medicals here ? Usually for some time after such a surgery-- there are VERY concentrated medical exams and countless follow-ups----Did these even happen with this woman ? Surely, after a particular point here-- Someone with Some authority would have started throwing up red flags and doing something to stop the decline in the situation if they were actually doing their job !!
      I am truly sorry for the situation that you're in here--watching the demise of a family member-- for what ever the reason -- is not an easy or good thing (been there --have a lot of t-shirts) !!

      My advice and answer here is not to be burying this woman BEFORE she passes---- as long as there is life --there is hope-- and it sounds as though there is a need here for some genuine hardcore intervention !!! Get in touch with some medical people and council with them about this--- there may be a way that your sister can be determined to be in a state of mental instability at the moment and detrimental to her own health and well being--- should THAT be possible--- she might possibly be incarcerated even against her own will and treated for this obsessive behavior and THAT might be the ticket to actually Saving Her Life !!!

      Good Luck with all of this------and Hope You Find a Way to Save a Life instead of just finding a way to watch one leave !!!!

  5. QUESTION:
    President Nixon denying health care?
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-LCyVFFHK…
    Why do people not want a we instead of me in healthcare?
    What do you think of Americas health care system? I think the insurance companies charge to much for drugs. I have seen insurance companies turn people down for cancer treatment because they ''are to young to have cervix cancer.'' I have seen hospitals dump people off the hospital bed once they can not pay the bill. One lady had Alzheimer she did not know were she was when they dumped her. Another one had a broken hip and open stitches, broken collar bone. The hospital kicked her out of the bed and put her in a cab pushed her out of it. They did not even tell her where she was going.

    Whats funny is the only place in America that has universal health care is guantanamo bay. The only people who do get universal health care is the people who blew up the twin towers. When Bush passed a bill saying it was good health care for the older folks. He really gave the drugs to the insurance companies it was a bill they passed saying they can charge what ever price they want to on drugs.

    Bush even congratulated a 60 year old woman for working three jobs. Just to pay for her medications. She should be resting NOT WORKING! I think we should do socialist health care. It works for Europe, France they get right in and out.

    I am a college 19 year old that works my butt off! I come from a wealthy family. I had insurance but they did not pay for my operation for my appendix. Now if I did not have allot money in the bank. I would of never been ale to go to school like I am now.I never be able to go to school when I am in hospital debt.

    It all started in 1971 with president Nixon was on the phone. He wnated a way to get money. The other guy on the phone like well we can just cut back health care. So that's what the insurance companies do now. Their has been people that have been denied to get paid for their (cancer treatment) because they had a east-infection in their passed.

    How well a society treats those that can not take care of themselves. Is what it says about that society. Everyone says I work for my money. Well, is it fair to make a 60 year old work three jobs to pay for medicine. One medical mess up most people can not go to college. Everyone says republicans are for those who work. Jut because people do not come from good families. Should they get denied health care?

    We are 27 on the list of health care.We have a higher infant death rate than Somalia. Everyone says my thinking is socialistic that's right before communist. Well, it does not decide who gets health care who does not. Insurance companies already do that. the insurance company bought out our government to pass the law to have control of all drugs. One day you could get cancer need a quarter of a million dollar operation. The insurance company could deny you for saying ''it is experimental''.Is it fair to say you should of worked for your money?

    • ANSWER:
      I Am SOOO glad to be a CANADIAN .
      May not be perfect but God knows , its NOT like that !

      D :)

  6. QUESTION:
    What you think of my view on how the government controls us?
    It like if you do not have money you do not matter. Why is someone who has a million dollars more important than a kid born in a poor family. Why do people not want a we instead of me in health care?
    What do you think of Americas health care system? I think the insurance companies charge to much for drugs. I have seen insurance companies turn people down for cancer treatment because they ''are to young to have cervix cancer.'' I have seen hospitals dump people off the hospital bed once they can not pay the bill. One lady had Alzheimer she did not know were she was when they dumped her. Another one had a broken hip and open stitches, broken collar bone. The hospital kicked her out of the bed and put her in a cab pushed her out of it. They did not even tell her where she was going.

    Whats funny is the only place in America that has universal health care is guantanamo bay. The only people who do get universal health care is the people who blew up the twin towers. When Bush passed a bill saying it was good health care for the older folks. He really gave the drugs to the insurance companies it was a bill they passed saying they can charge what ever price they want to on drugs.

    Bush even congratulated a 60 year old woman for working three jobs. Just to pay for her medications. She should be resting NOT WORKING! I think we should do socialist health care. It works for Europe, France they get right in and out.

    I am a college 19 year old that works my butt off! I come from a wealthy family. I had insurance but they did not pay for my operation for my appendix. Now if I did not have allot money in the bank. I would of never been ale to go to school like I am now.I never be able to go to school when I am in hospital debt.

    It all started in 1971 with president Nixon was on the phone. He wnated a way to get money. The other guy on the phone like well we can just cut back health care. So that's what the insurance companies do now. Their has been people that have been denied to get paid for their (cancer treatment) because they had a east-infection in their passed.

    How well a society treats those that can not take care of themselves. Is what it says about that society. Everyone says I work for my money. Well, is it fair to make a 60 year old work three jobs to pay for medicine. One medical mess up most people can not go to college. Everyone says republicans are for those who work. Jut because people do not come from good families. Should they get denied health care?

    We are 27 on the list of health care.We have a higher infant death rate than Somalia. Everyone says my thinking is socialistic that's right before communist. Well, it does not decide who gets health care who does not. Insurance companies already do that. the insurance company bought out our government to pass the law to have control of all drugs. One day you could get cancer need a quarter of a million dollar operation. The insurance company could deny you for saying ''it is experimental''.Is it fair to say you should of worked for your money?
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-LCyVFFHK…

    Why can we not have health care education like we do the fire station? The police station. Everyone puts money in everyone gets treated the same. EVERY COUNTRY IN BUT AMERICA HAS UNIVERSAL HEALTH CARE. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zgq98vzu5…
    Socialized medicine is in france. The drug companies charge three times the price of drugs to rip us off. They know they can make a profit off us.
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zgq98vzu5…
    The drug companies are stealing from us.
    Bush sign a paper from the drug companies saying he was going to help the older folks. Really they just gave Bush money bought him to sign a paper saying they could charge what ever they want on drugs.
    Imigine life like this
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=edN3khuza…
    If it WORKS EVERY WHERE BUT HERE IN AMERICA WHY CAN WE NOT MAKE IT WORK? WE ARE 27 IN THE HEALTH CARE SYSTEM IN THE WORLD. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GOZmvaFfj…
    Look it works for people in Europe. They have medicine it isocialized it works!
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hII8V0sfw… The government is getting controlling. Can people see socialized medicine is not communist. Right now the way heath care is going it well turn ccommunist. We rely on health care thats why they take advanatge of us and up the prices. ARE HEALTH CARE IS RACIST. You see people who are gay who get misstreated in health care. People who are black. It not fair.

    This country always wonders why we have so many people who rip off CEOS. well, hospitals well take a old rich guy with insurance over a kid that is coding. I have video where that has happen. We wonder why people are so greedy.
    My view on how the republicans control?
    I am going to tell why it is easy for people to not work than it is to work.

    Rick has a kid. Rick is out of work needs a job.Rick has full benefits. Rick finaly gets a job at Burger King. Rick makes 7 bucks a hour. Then his pay check starts getting smaller. They cut back his health care. So Rick has to pay for his own health care. Also feed his kid. Rick finally decides he can not get health care gives it up. Little does Rick know he has cancer. So rick finds out he has cancer. Now no insurance company well cover Rick because they no he has health issues. If the drug companies can their not going to pay for it.

    Rick quits his job gets on medicaid. He gets some health care can not afford it all passes away.

    3 months ago
    All the republicans always say that WE ARE THE ONES WHO WORK. What if their using that as a leverage to get more people to vote for them think about it. Republicans have us convinced their for the ones who work. Look at how they

    • ANSWER:
      I think that you should break your "view" down chapter by chapter and make it into a book, that way maybe someone would take the time to read that mass of sentences you scribbled down.

  7. QUESTION:
    For Republicans who say they love their grandmother?
    What do you think of Americas health care system? I think the insurance companies charge to much for drugs. I have seen insurance companies turn people down for cancer treatment because they ''are to young to have cervix cancer.'' I have seen hospitals dump people off the hospital bed once they can not pay the bill. One lady had Alzheimer she did not know were she was when they dumped her. Another one had a broken hip and open stitches, broken collar bone. The hospital kicked her out of the bed and put her in a cab pushed her out of it. They did not even tell her where she was going.

    Whats funny is the only place in America that has universal health care is guantanamo bay. The only people who do get universal health care is the people who blew up the twin towers. When Bush passed a bill saying it was good health care for the older folks. He really gave the drugs to the insurance companies it was a bill they passed saying they can charge what ever price they want to on drugs.

    Bush even congratulated a 60 year old woman for working three jobs. Just to pay for her medications. She should be resting NOT WORKING! I think we should do socialist health care. It works for Europe, France they get right in and out.

    I am a college 19 year old that works my butt off! I come from a wealthy family. I had insurance but they did not pay for my operation for my appendix. Now if I did not have allot money in the bank. I would of never been ale to go to school like I am now.I never be able to go to school when I am in hospital debt.

    It all started in 1971 with president Nixon was on the phone. He wnated a way to get money. The other guy on the phone like well we can just cut back health care. So that's what the insurance companies do now. Their has been people that have been denied to get paid for their (cancer treatment) because they had a east-infection in their passed.

    How well a society treats those that can not take care of themselves. Is what it says about that society. Everyone says I work for my money. Well, is it fair to make a 60 year old work three jobs to pay for medicine. One medical mess up most people can not go to college. Everyone says republicans are for those who work. Jut because people do not come from good families. Should they get denied health care?

    We are 27 on the list of health care.We have a higher infant death rate than Somalia. Everyone says my thinking is socialistic that's right before communist. Well, it does not decide who gets health care who does not. Insurance companies already do that. the insurance company bought out our government to pass the law to have control of all drugs. One day you could get cancer need a quarter of a million dollar operation. The insurance company could deny you for saying ''it is experimental''.Is it fair to say you should of worked for your money?

    Additional Details
    http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0386032/
    Facts it is based on

    Republicans always like to say they love their grandmothers they want better health insurance for them. Really they are giving more control to insurance. The insurance are cutting out medical needs, also raising the price of medications. Bush claimed this would help the elders it really made it worse.

    • ANSWER:
      The most basic fact is that it is cheaper to remain sick than to get medical treatment. What is cheapest of all is to die instead of getting life-saving medications and treatment, which can be very expensive.

      Despite these facts, most of us tend to take a somewhat more parochial view of the situation when it is we ourselves who are sick or who face a potentially fatal illness. But what if that decision is taken out of your hands under ObamaCare and is being made for you by a bureaucrat in Washington?

      We won't know what that leads to until the time comes. As Nancy Pelosi said, we will find out what is in the bill after it has passed. But even now, after ObamaCare has been passed, not many people want to read its 2,400 pages. Even if you did, you would still not know what it would be like in practice, after more than 150 boards and commissions issue their specific regulations.

      While I can't tell you the future, a little research can tell would tell you enough about government-run medical systems in other countries that it will not take a rocket scientist to figure out what is in store for us if ObamaCare doesn't get repealed before it takes full effect in 2014. o_O

  8. QUESTION:
    PRESIDENT NIXON ON VIDEO TAPE CUTTING OUT MEDICAL CARE OF AMERICA!?
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-LCyVFFHKO4
    Why do people not want a we instead of me in healthcare?
    What do you think of Americas health care system? I think the insurance companies charge to much for drugs. I have seen insurance companies turn people down for cancer treatment because they ''are to young to have cervix cancer.'' I have seen hospitals dump people off the hospital bed once they can not pay the bill. One lady had Alzheimer she did not know were she was when they dumped her. Another one had a broken hip and open stitches, broken collar bone. The hospital kicked her out of the bed and put her in a cab pushed her out of it. They did not even tell her where she was going.

    Whats funny is the only place in America that has universal health care is guantanamo bay. The only people who do get universal health care is the people who blew up the twin towers. When Bush passed a bill saying it was good health care for the older folks. He really gave the drugs to the insurance companies it was a bill they passed saying they can charge what ever price they want to on drugs.

    Bush even congratulated a 60 year old woman for working three jobs. Just to pay for her medications. She should be resting NOT WORKING! I think we should do socialist health care. It works for Europe, France they get right in and out.

    I am a college 19 year old that works my butt off! I come from a wealthy family. I had insurance but they did not pay for my operation for my appendix. Now if I did not have allot money in the bank. I would of never been ale to go to school like I am now.I never be able to go to school when I am in hospital debt.

    It all started in 1971 with president Nixon was on the phone. He wnated a way to get money. The other guy on the phone like well we can just cut back health care. So that's what the insurance companies do now. Their has been people that have been denied to get paid for their (cancer treatment) because they had a east-infection in their passed.

    How well a society treats those that can not take care of themselves. Is what it says about that society. Everyone says I work for my money. Well, is it fair to make a 60 year old work three jobs to pay for medicine. One medical mess up most people can not go to college. Everyone says republicans are for those who work. Jut because people do not come from good families. Should they get denied health care?

    We are 27 on the list of health care.We have a higher infant death rate than Somalia. Everyone says my thinking is socialistic that's right before communist. Well, it does not decide who gets health care who does not. Insurance companies already do that. the insurance company bought out our government to pass the law to have control of all drugs. One day you could get cancer need a quarter of a million dollar operation. The insurance company could deny you for saying ''it is experimental''.Is it fair to say you should of worked for your money?

    Additional Details
    http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0386032/
    Facts it is based on
    what he did changed today. Insurance companies own us!

    • ANSWER:
      ObamaCare will get even more unpopular as the damage of this fatally flawed legislation becomes clearer. And it also will become clear that the only solution will be to start over with a clean sheet of paper with sensible reforms that don’t take a wrecking ball to our health sector. o_O

  9. QUESTION:
    Republicans who say ''you work for your money?''?
    What do you think of Americas health care system? I think the doctors are overpaid. I think the insurance companies charge to much for drugs. I have seen insurance companies turn people down for cancer treatment because they ''are to young to have cervix cancer.'' I have seen hospitals dump people off the hospital bed once they can not pay the bill. One lady had Alzheimer she did not know were she was when they dumped her. Another one had a broken hip and open stitches, broken collar bone. The hospital kicked her out of the bed and put her in a cab pushed her out of it. They did not even tell her where she was going.

    Whats funny is the only place in America that has universal health care is guantanamo bay. The only people who do get universal health care is the people who blew up the twin towers. When Bush passed a bill saying it was good health care for the older folks. He really gave the drugs to the insurance companies it was a bill they passed saying they can charge what ever price they want to on drugs.

    Bush even congratulated a 60 year old woman for working three jobs. Just to pay for her medications. She should be resting NOT WORKING! I think we should do socialist health care. It works for Europe, France they get right in and out.

    I am a college 19 year old that works my butt off! I come from a wealthy family. I had insurance but they did not pay for my operation for my appendix. Now if I did not have allot money in the bank. I would of never been ale to go to school like I am now.I never be able to go to school when I am in hospital debt.

    It all started in 1971 with president Nixon was on the phone. He wnated a way to get money. The other guy on the phone like well we can just cut back health care. So that's what the insurance companies do now. Their has been people that have been denied to get paid for their (cancer treatment) because they had a east-infection in their passed.

    How well a society treats those that can not take care of themselves. Is what it says about that society. Everyone says I work for my money. Well, is it fair to make a 60 year old work three jobs to pay for medicine. One medical mess up most people can not go to college. Everyone says republicans are for those who work. Jut because people do not come from good families. Should they get denied health care?

    We are 27 on the list of health care.We have a higher infant death rate than Somalia. Everyone says my thinking is socialistic that's right before communist. Well, it does not decide who gets health care who does not. Insurance companies already do that. the insurance company bought out our government to pass the law to have control of all drugs. One day you could get cancer need a quarter of a million dollar operation. The insurance company could deny you for saying ''it is experimental''.Is it fair to say you should of worked for your money?
    Most doctors get paid about 2 million a yar. WHy do they need five sports cars? What a millions not enough?
    YES! IT TRUE IT HAPPENS HERE IN AMERICA! OPEN YOUR EYES.I CAN SHOW YOU FOOTAGE JUST SEND ME A EMAIL I'LL SHOW YOU A 60 YEAR OLD WOMAN GETTING KICKED OUT OF THE HOSPITAL. JUST WATCH SICKO.
    I CAN PROVE MY FACTS WATCH THIS http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0386032/
    REAL EVENTS
    What happens when you are old? You have to work 3 jobs at 60 years old to pay for your medication to stay alive?
    I am in med school I am going to school to be a doctor.
    * Brain/doctor:0,00-0,000
    * Anesthesiology: 6,964
    * Surgery, general: 5,438
    * Obstetrics/gynecology: 3,061
    * Psychiatry: 3,144
    * Internal medicine: 5,530
    * Pediatrics/adolescent medicine: 2,690
    * Family practice (without obstetrics): 0,267
    * ER doctors get paid 215,000+ a year (This is from the Medical Group Management Association, Physician Compensation and Production Report, 2003, as reprinted in the Department of Labor's career outlook handbook.)
    Okay, maybe doctors do not make that much. Perhaps I was mistaken for give me.
    I was exaggerating on the doctor part. If we had free college their be no loans to pay off. Socialist college.

    • ANSWER:
      At some point, the doctor is going to have to decide whether he wants to follow the Hippocratic oath or the Obamacratic oath. When the interest of the patient and the doctor are not in alignment, how is he going to make a decision as to what is the right thing to do when faced with the realities of federal law that says something different?

      At the heart of Obamacare is more government regulation. While it’s true that more families will be covered under the law, the new entitlement comes with strings attached. Families that take advantage of the affordability tax credits won’t have the option to purchase cheaper insurance plans across state lines and aren’t allowed to buy family-friendly plans.

      It’s going to reduce choice because now we have politicians deciding upon who are the winners and the losers, what treatments doctors can perform and get paid for, and what treatments the government says, ‘No, this is not a valid treatment and we’re not going to pay for this. That’s absolutely going to reduce choice — not just in the quantity of doctors, but in the available treatments.

      Under the new health care law, that’s exactly what could happen. Obamacare undermines the role of parents by encouraging contraception and abortion without respecting parental consent. School-based health centers will receive million per year to promote such options as contraception and abortion. An additional million per year funds Personal Responsibility Education grants to help states reduce pregnancies.

      With the government taking on a greater role, where does that leave a parent. This law sends a message to my children and future Americans that they’re not competent, they can’t take care of themselves, government has to step in to take care of them. We’re taking these basic moral obligations away from ourselves, from our churches, our synagogues, our civic organizations, and we’re delegating these responsibilities to government. I don’t understand that. o_O

      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n2RN7SmPEAM

  10. QUESTION:
    Why is it here in America if you do not have money you get trted like a 2ed class citizen?
    It like if you do not have money you do not matter. Why is someone who has a million dollars more inportant than a kid born in a poor family. Why do people not want a we instead of me in healthcare?
    What do you think of Americas health care system? I think the insurance companies charge to much for drugs. I have seen insurance companies turn people down for cancer treatment because they ''are to young to have cervix cancer.'' I have seen hospitals dump people off the hospital bed once they can not pay the bill. One lady had Alzheimer she did not know were she was when they dumped her. Another one had a broken hip and open stitches, broken collar bone. The hospital kicked her out of the bed and put her in a cab pushed her out of it. They did not even tell her where she was going.

    Whats funny is the only place in America that has universal health care is guantanamo bay. The only people who do get universal health care is the people who blew up the twin towers. When Bush passed a bill saying it was good health care for the older folks. He really gave the drugs to the insurance companies it was a bill they passed saying they can charge what ever price they want to on drugs.

    Bush even congratulated a 60 year old woman for working three jobs. Just to pay for her medications. She should be resting NOT WORKING! I think we should do socialist health care. It works for Europe, France they get right in and out.

    I am a college 19 year old that works my butt off! I come from a wealthy family. I had insurance but they did not pay for my operation for my appendix. Now if I did not have allot money in the bank. I would of never been ale to go to school like I am now.I never be able to go to school when I am in hospital debt.

    It all started in 1971 with president Nixon was on the phone. He wnated a way to get money. The other guy on the phone like well we can just cut back health care. So that's what the insurance companies do now. Their has been people that have been denied to get paid for their (cancer treatment) because they had a east-infection in their passed.

    How well a society treats those that can not take care of themselves. Is what it says about that society. Everyone says I work for my money. Well, is it fair to make a 60 year old work three jobs to pay for medicine. One medical mess up most people can not go to college. Everyone says republicans are for those who work. Jut because people do not come from good families. Should they get denied health care?

    We are 27 on the list of health care.We have a higher infant death rate than Somalia. Everyone says my thinking is socialistic that's right before communist. Well, it does not decide who gets health care who does not. Insurance companies already do that. the insurance company bought out our government to pass the law to have control of all drugs. One day you could get cancer need a quarter of a million dollar operation. The insurance company could deny you for saying ''it is experimental''.Is it fair to say you should of worked for your money?
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-LCyVFFHKO4

    Why can we not have health care education like we do the fire station? The police station. Everyone puts money in everyone gets treated the same. EVERY COUNTRY IN BUT AMERICA HAS UNIVERSAL HEALTH CARE. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zgq98vzu5VU
    Socialized medicine is in france. The drug companies charge three times the price of drugs to rip us off. They know they can make a profit off us.
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W5Y6sIXgMBk
    The drug companies are stealing from us.
    Bush sign a paper from the drug companies saying he was going to help the older folks. Really they just gave Bush money bought him to sign a paper saying they could charge what ever they want on drugs.
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V2sFT7T0mCs&feature=related Imigine life like this
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=edN3khuzaTw&feature=related
    If it WORKS EVERY WHERE BUT HERE IN AMERICA WHY CAN WE NOT MAKE IT WORK? WE ARE 27 IN THE HEALTH CARE SYSTEM IN THE WORLD. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GOZmvaFfjtk&feature=related
    Look it works for people in Europe. They have medicine it isocialized it works!
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hII8V0sfwn8 The government is getting controlling. Can people see socialized medicine is not communist. Right now the way heath care is going it well turn ccommunist. We rely on health care thats why they take advanatge of us and up the prices. ARE HEALTH CARE IS RACIST. You see people who are gay who get misstreated in health care. People who are black. It not fair.

    This country always wonders why we have so many people who rip off CEOS. well, hospitals well take a old rich guy with insurance over a kid that is coding. I ahve video where that has happen. We wonder why people are so greedy.
    My view on how the republicans control?
    I am going to tell why it is easy for people to not work than it is to work.

    Rick has a kid. Rick is out of work needs a job.Rick has full benefits. Rick finaly gets a job at Burger King. Rick makes 7 bucks a hour. Then his pay check starts getting smaller. They cut back his health care. So Rick has to pay for his own health care. Also feed his kid. Rick finally decides he can not get health care gives it up. Little does Rick know he has cancer. So rick finds out he has cancer. Now no insurence company well cover Rick becuase they no he has health issues. If the drug companies can their not going to pay for it.

    Rick quits his job gets on medicaid. He gets some health care can not afford it all passes away.

    All the republicans always say that WE ARE THE ONES WHO WORK. What if their using that as a leverage to get more people to vote for them think about it. Republicans have us convinced their for the ones who work. Look at how thye set
    Also everyone says how Godless Liberals are. Well, if we are so Godless then why do republicans not give more? Thats the christian thing to do.

    • ANSWER:
      Every American believes in equality kid. It's just that some believe they are more equal than the rest of us. The wealthy and their corporations hire PR firms to spread their philosophies, chief of which is that they are the backbone of American society because they are the bosses and do the hiring. They tell us that if we reduce their taxes, they will hire more of us rather than invest in some emerging markets. Yeah, right.

      Already in the past 50 years, we have cut their federal income tax rate by more than half, doubling their incomes with just that. On top of that, while the middle class standard of living has risen little, the top one percent have increased their share of total American capital from 15 percent to 40 percent. The rest of the 99 percent can fight over the remaining.

      By the way, upward mobility in the U.S. is now just an illusion. Only seven percent of the top one percent actually came up from below. That means that 93 percent were born to it. However, they'll tell you they earned it, and in a sense, they did. They paid big bucks for their "investments" in politicians an lobbyists, and such grubby people can be hell to deal with at times causing the need for an early martini at the club. So much for the brightest and best of us getting ahead.

      The Roberts Court has just recently declared that corporations can spend unlimited amounts to influence elections, so the chance that your voice or mine will be heard over the deafening screech promoting the wealthy as virtuous is zero. Democracy dies with this.

      You got some good thoughts kid. Maybe you can turn it around. Good luck.

  11. QUESTION:
    Why do people not want a we instead of me in healthcare?
    What do you think of Americas health care system? I think the insurance companies charge to much for drugs. I have seen insurance companies turn people down for cancer treatment because they ''are to young to have cervix cancer.'' I have seen hospitals dump people off the hospital bed once they can not pay the bill. One lady had Alzheimer she did not know were she was when they dumped her. Another one had a broken hip and open stitches, broken collar bone. The hospital kicked her out of the bed and put her in a cab pushed her out of it. They did not even tell her where she was going.

    Whats funny is the only place in America that has universal health care is guantanamo bay. The only people who do get universal health care is the people who blew up the twin towers. When Bush passed a bill saying it was good health care for the older folks. He really gave the drugs to the insurance companies it was a bill they passed saying they can charge what ever price they want to on drugs.

    Bush even congratulated a 60 year old woman for working three jobs. Just to pay for her medications. She should be resting NOT WORKING! I think we should do socialist health care. It works for Europe, France they get right in and out.

    I am a college 19 year old that works my butt off! I come from a wealthy family. I had insurance but they did not pay for my operation for my appendix. Now if I did not have allot money in the bank. I would of never been ale to go to school like I am now.I never be able to go to school when I am in hospital debt.

    It all started in 1971 with president Nixon was on the phone. He wnated a way to get money. The other guy on the phone like well we can just cut back health care. So that's what the insurance companies do now. Their has been people that have been denied to get paid for their (cancer treatment) because they had a east-infection in their passed.

    How well a society treats those that can not take care of themselves. Is what it says about that society. Everyone says I work for my money. Well, is it fair to make a 60 year old work three jobs to pay for medicine. One medical mess up most people can not go to college. Everyone says republicans are for those who work. Jut because people do not come from good families. Should they get denied health care?

    We are 27 on the list of health care.We have a higher infant death rate than Somalia. Everyone says my thinking is socialistic that's right before communist. Well, it does not decide who gets health care who does not. Insurance companies already do that. the insurance company bought out our government to pass the law to have control of all drugs. One day you could get cancer need a quarter of a million dollar operation. The insurance company could deny you for saying ''it is experimental''.Is it fair to say you should of worked for your money?

    Additional Details
    http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0386032/
    Facts it is based on
    The insurance companies have allot money. They actually bought bits and pieces from our government. We do it with the police, fireman why not health care. ccording to WellPoint’s income statement for 2008, the company’s total revenue that year was ,579.2 million. Of that, 93.2 percent came from premium revenues, and 6.3 percent came from fees for merely administering the claims of employers who self-insure (that is, these firms set aside their own funds for their employees’ health benefits and bear full risk for them).
    http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0386032/
    The facts are based on this document.

    • ANSWER:
      The wheels are coming off ObamaCare even sooner than most had predicted. The American people are not being fooled by the sugar-coated sales campaign, jobs are being lost, health costs are rising, and the first program to be launched is a dud.

      ObamaCare will get even more unpopular as the damage of this fatally flawed legislation becomes clearer. And it also will become clear that the only solution will be to start over with a clean sheet of paper with sensible reforms that don’t take a wrecking ball to our health sector. o_O

  12. QUESTION:
    Do you think it is wrong for insurance companies to deny people for being to fat, skinny old?
    People have been denied by insurance for being to thin, old, having diabetes. Do you think this is wrong. Yes. they have been facts are down below.

    Why do people not want a we instead of me in healthcare?
    What do you think of Americas health care system? I think the insurance companies charge to much for drugs. I have seen insurance companies turn people down for cancer treatment because they ''are to young to have cervix cancer.'' I have seen hospitals dump people off the hospital bed once they can not pay the bill. One lady had Alzheimer she did not know were she was when they dumped her. Another one had a broken hip and open stitches, broken collar bone. The hospital kicked her out of the bed and put her in a cab pushed her out of it. They did not even tell her where she was going.

    Whats funny is the only place in America that has universal health care is guantanamo bay. The only people who do get universal health care is the people who blew up the twin towers. When Bush passed a bill saying it was good health care for the older folks. He really gave the drugs to the insurance companies it was a bill they passed saying they can charge what ever price they want to on drugs.

    Bush even congratulated a 60 year old woman for working three jobs. Just to pay for her medications. She should be resting NOT WORKING! I think we should do socialist health care. It works for Europe, France they get right in and out.

    I am a college 19 year old that works my butt off! I come from a wealthy family. I had insurance but they did not pay for my operation for my appendix. Now if I did not have allot money in the bank. I would of never been ale to go to school like I am now.I never be able to go to school when I am in hospital debt.

    It all started in 1971 with president Nixon was on the phone. He wnated a way to get money. The other guy on the phone like well we can just cut back health care. So that's what the insurance companies do now. Their has been people that have been denied to get paid for their (cancer treatment) because they had a east-infection in their passed.

    How well a society treats those that can not take care of themselves. Is what it says about that society. Everyone says I work for my money. Well, is it fair to make a 60 year old work three jobs to pay for medicine. One medical mess up most people can not go to college. Everyone says republicans are for those who work. Jut because people do not come from good families. Should they get denied health care?

    We are 27 on the list of health care.We have a higher infant death rate than Somalia. Everyone says my thinking is socialistic that's right before communist. Well, it does not decide who gets health care who does not. Insurance companies already do that. the insurance company bought out our government to pass the law to have control of all drugs. One day you could get cancer need a quarter of a million dollar operation. The insurance company could deny you for saying ''it is experimental''.Is it fair to say you should of worked for your money?

    Additional Details
    http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0386032/
    Facts it is based on
    I saw it in the film but still.

    • ANSWER:
      Sicko has a gross profit of ,088,030 to date. Moore's contract awards him 50% of profit. Too bad he hasn't donated that profit for health care.

      You are right, it did start in the 70's. Teddy Kennedy, with the support of Nixon, sponsored the HMO act which set the stage for today's problems.

  13. QUESTION:
    My view on how the government controls us?
    It like if you do not have money you do not matter. Why is someone who has a million dollars more important than a kid born in a poor family. Why do people not want a we instead of me in healthcare?
    What do you think of Americas health care system? I think the insurance companies charge to much for drugs. I have seen insurance companies turn people down for cancer treatment because they ''are to young to have cervix cancer.'' I have seen hospitals dump people off the hospital bed once they can not pay the bill. One lady had Alzheimer she did not know were she was when they dumped her. Another one had a broken hip and open stitches, broken collar bone. The hospital kicked her out of the bed and put her in a cab pushed her out of it. They did not even tell her where she was going.

    Whats funny is the only place in America that has universal health care is guantanamo bay. The only people who do get universal health care is the people who blew up the twin towers. When Bush passed a bill saying it was good health care for the older folks. He really gave the drugs to the insurance companies it was a bill they passed saying they can charge what ever price they want to on drugs.

    Bush even congratulated a 60 year old woman for working three jobs. Just to pay for her medications. She should be resting NOT WORKING! I think we should do socialist health care. It works for Europe, France they get right in and out.

    I am a college 19 year old that works my butt off! I come from a wealthy family. I had insurance but they did not pay for my operation for my appendix. Now if I did not have allot money in the bank. I would of never been ale to go to school like I am now.I never be able to go to school when I am in hospital debt.

    It all started in 1971 with president Nixon was on the phone. He wnated a way to get money. The other guy on the phone like well we can just cut back health care. So that's what the insurance companies do now. Their has been people that have been denied to get paid for their (cancer treatment) because they had a east-infection in their passed.

    How well a society treats those that can not take care of themselves. Is what it says about that society. Everyone says I work for my money. Well, is it fair to make a 60 year old work three jobs to pay for medicine. One medical mess up most people can not go to college. Everyone says republicans are for those who work. Jut because people do not come from good families. Should they get denied health care?

    We are 27 on the list of health care.We have a higher infant death rate than Somalia. Everyone says my thinking is socialistic that's right before communist. Well, it does not decide who gets health care who does not. Insurance companies already do that. the insurance company bought out our government to pass the law to have control of all drugs. One day you could get cancer need a quarter of a million dollar operation. The insurance company could deny you for saying ''it is experimental''.Is it fair to say you should of worked for your money?
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-LCyVFFHKO4

    Why can we not have health care education like we do the fire station? The police station. Everyone puts money in everyone gets treated the same. EVERY COUNTRY IN BUT AMERICA HAS UNIVERSAL HEALTH CARE. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zgq98vzu5…
    Socialized medicine is in france. The drug companies charge three times the price of drugs to rip us off. They know they can make a profit off us.
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zgq98vzu5VU
    The drug companies are stealing from us.
    Bush sign a paper from the drug companies saying he was going to help the older folks. Really they just gave Bush money bought him to sign a paper saying they could charge what ever they want on drugs.
    Imigine life like this
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=edN3khuzaTw&feature=related
    If it WORKS EVERY WHERE BUT HERE IN AMERICA WHY CAN WE NOT MAKE IT WORK? WE ARE 27 IN THE HEALTH CARE SYSTEM IN THE WORLD. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GOZmvaFfj…
    Look it works for people in Europe. They have medicine it isocialized it works!
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hII8V0sfw… The government is getting controlling. Can people see socialized medicine is not communist. Right now the way heath care is going it well turn ccommunist. We rely on health care thats why they take advanatge of us and up the prices. ARE HEALTH CARE IS RACIST. You see people who are gay who get misstreated in health care. People who are black. It not fair.

    This country always wonders why we have so many people who rip off CEOS. well, hospitals well take a old rich guy with insurance over a kid that is coding. I ahve video where that has happen. We wonder why people are so greedy.
    My view on how the republicans control?
    I am going to tell why it is easy for people to not work than it is to work.

    Rick has a kid. Rick is out of work needs a job.Rick has full benefits. Rick finaly gets a job at Burger King. Rick makes 7 bucks a hour. Then his pay check starts getting smaller. They cut back his health care. So Rick has to pay for his own health care. Also feed his kid. Rick finally decides he can not get health care gives it up. Little does Rick know he has cancer. So rick finds out he has cancer. Now no insurence company well cover Rick becuase they no he has health issues. If the drug companies can their not going to pay for it.

    Rick quits his job gets on medicaid. He gets some health care can not afford it all passes away.
    All the republicans always say that WE ARE THE ONES WHO WORK. What if their using that as a leverage to get more people to vote for them think about it. Republicans have us convinced their for the ones who work. Look at how thye set

    11 minutes ago
    Also everyone says how Godless Liberals are. Well, if we are so Godless then why do republicans not give more? Thats the christian thing to do.

    8 minutes ago
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-LCyVFFHKO4

    • ANSWER:
      the same drug goes to another country and it is only about fifty cents a pill, and here in USA it is anywheres from ten dollars to 100 dollars a pill
      the SAME pills from the same companies
      WHY
      because our GOVERNMENT lets them that's why, can you say KICKBACKS
      and how about all this yelling about Social Security, the GOVERNMENT so called BORROWS money from Social Security for other projects adn never pays it back, they the old suffer, for TWO years now, the old have not even got a ten dollar raise in their SS, but all the politicians have got a raise over the past two years that more than triples any old persons pension
      is that WRONG, yes it is
      and how about house insurance, it keeps going up and up to over four thousand a year and Government says we WILL help and fix that problem, for over two years now
      so everyone get out and VOTE next week
      vote OUT all INCUMBENTS VOTE THEM ALL OUT
      lets start from new people with NEW ideas
      PLEASE we must save this country

      good luck
      smile

  14. QUESTION:
    What's your opinion of Ted Elden do you believe in conspiracies?
    Do you believe in conspiracies. Some of the conspiracies he share's is about U.F.O.'s, Area 54, 911, Chemtrails, Your brain on HAARP, and many more. Why do people teach conspiracies and do people really believe in them?

    U.S Postal Service Engaged in Psyops?
    Cloudscapes, a recent series of stamps issued by the US Postal Service looks suspiciously like subliminal conditioning, that is, a social engineering campaign to alter the way people perceive, think or act. Obvious chemtrail images are included on these stamps, no doubt to subconsciously influence us into believing that what we are seeing in the skies is perfectly normal and nothing to be alarmed about (...move along folks... nothing unusual going on here..the sky has always looked like this.)

    New Money Showing Chemtrails Over The White House?
    The older bills do not show clouds in the background above The White House. How interesting that with the ongoing chemtrail spraying all denominations of the newer bills now show clouds above The White House (clouds that look suspiciously like HAARP modulated chem-clouds). This may be an example of "Ritual Mockery" or "Revelation of the Method" as described by Michael Hoffman in his brilliant book, Secret Societies and Psychological Warfare. Hoffman's book delves into the hidden meaning of the twilight language and symbolism of the Cryptocracy.

    How interesting indeed that while the U.S. Government denies the very existence of chemtrails both U.S. Postal stamps and U.S. currency are now making use of chemtrail imagery.

    DEATH IN THE AIR
    RECOMMENDED READING FOR ALL
    Death in the Air: Globalism, Terrorism and Toxic Warfare delivers the most heretical message in the annals of world health, backed by extensive, hard hitting documentation. Here, veteran investigator and award winning author Dr. Len Horowitz, relays how and why populations are being insidiously victimized.
    Documented in this book are the most advanced developments in the field of population control, genetically engineered viruses and bacteria, the latest technologies for biological warfare. Dr. Horowitz relies heavily on Congressional testimonies, legal witnesses, and government documents to prove the public is being chemically and pharmaceutically intoxicated, and electromagnetically immune-suppressed. ... the revelations and wisdom contained in this book give humanity, you and your loved ones, a final, last minute, choice for salvation. DEATH IN THE AIR

    FLOURIDE AND CHEMTRAILS IN DOCILEVILLE USA
    Flouride was developed during WW2 by the Nazis for use as a mind control drug. Research proved that Flouride, when given over time in small doses permanently altered the brain in ways affecting personality. Those receiving small doses of Flouride over time became more docile, less aggressive, more easilly controlled and led. I have not been able to find one reliable study that proves Flouride actually helps prevent cavities. What I did find out was that on the average children living in communities with flouridated water have lower IQ's. Additionally flouridated communities have higher rates of bone and heart problems, higher rates of cancer and higher rates of neurological problems. WHY IS 60% OF THE WATER IN THE USA DELIBERATELY FLUORIDATED? WHY ARE WE ALLOWING OUR WATER TO BE FLUORIDATED?

    - - - - - -
    NANO PARTICLES IN YOUR BRAIN
    image above: Nanoparticles in the brain image and information source: Jim Giles/ Nature.com
    "Nanoparticles, tiny lumps of matter... can travel to the brain after being inhaled, according to researchers from the United States. The finding sounds a cautionary note for advocates of nanotechnology... Günter Oberdörster of the University of Rochester in New York and colleagues tracked the progress of carbon particles that were only nanometres in diameter and had been inhaled by rats. In the olfactory bulb, an area of the brain that deals with smell. Nanoparticles were detected a day after inhalation, and levels continued to rise until the experiment ended after seven days."These are the first data to show this," says Ken Donaldson, a toxicologist at the University of Edinburgh, UK. "I would never have thought of looking for inhaled nanoparticles in the brain."

    HAARP AND MENTAL MANIPULATION
    "U.S. Air Force documents revealed that a system had been developed for manipulating and disrupting human mental processes through pulsed radio-frequency radiation (HAARP)... The mental-disruption possibilities for HAARP are most disturbing...
    The following statement was made more than 25 years ago in a book which [Zbigniew] Brzezinski wrote while a professor at Columbia University:
    "Political strategists are tempted to exploit research on the brain and human behavior... accurately timed, artificially excited electronic strokes could lead

    • ANSWER:
      I reckon that Ted Eldon is really Chris Carter testing out a few ideas for the next X Files series. I rate his ideas with Timothy Learys'.

  15. QUESTION:
    Was Mohenjo Daro destroyed by nuclear weapon?
    re the Indian remains of Mohenjo Daro and Harappa

    What this candidate has in its favour is that a layer of radioactive ash was indeed found in Rajasthan, India. It covered a three-square mile area, ten miles west of Jodhpur. The research occurred after a very high rate of birth defects and cancer was discovered in the area. The levels of radiation registered so high on investigators’ gauges that the Indian government cordoned off the region. Scientists then apparently unearthed an ancient city where they found evidence of an atomic blast dating back thousands of years: from 8,000 to 12,000 years. The blast was said to have destroyed most of the buildings and probably a half-million people.

    Mohenjo Daro and Harappa were the well planned cities which had a supply net work with well developed sewage systems. While doing the excavation of Harappa and Mohenjo Daro the archeologists found a large number of skeletons, which displayed a shocking death scenario of the past. More particularly in Mohenjo Daro almost entire city population was died on the streets. The skeletons displayed that scenario. The parents tried to protect their children by cuddled them. Some people tried to protect their relatives by holding their hands. But no one was escaped. In the excavation site the scientists found the radioactive contamination was higher (50fach) than the normal circumstances. The street of Mohenjo Daro was full of black glass lumps. Black glass lumps shows that Mohenjo Daro was attacked by an enormous heat and due that heat everything was melt. The archeological discovery shows the bodies were not buried or not eaten and they were laying on the ground as such when the death fall on them. And the bone remains shows no violence by fire arms or by any blank.In the excavation site of Mohenjo Daro the scientists found some hot spots of radio activity which could be a targeted attack of a military activity. In Mohenjo Daro an accurate epicenter of explosion of 50 yards of diameter was found.

    http://www.philipcoppens.com/bestevidence.html

    • ANSWER:
      Yes

  16. QUESTION:
    When do you think the mass evacuation will start?
    gazbom.blogspot.com - Sat 22 May ‘10

    Plans to evacuate the Gulf are BEGINING TO FLY AROUND THE NET.

    Benzene, incredible amounts of Benzene are being released into the atmosphere and is a clear and present danger not only for the old and people with respiratory problems but the general Gulf population as a whole.

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has determined that benzene is a human carcinogen, and can cause various forms of cancer from prolonged exposure.Exposed to high levels of benzene show association with leukemia cancer; including acute myelogenous leukemia, acute lymphocytic leukemia, and chronic myelogenous leukemia. Benzene-related leukemias have been reported to develop in as short as nine months,(read more below)

    This is much more serious than they are letting on, especially as one of the options here is to burn the escaping oil!

    Florida Gulf oil spill: Plans to evacuate Tampa Bay area expected to be announced

    Gulf Oil Spill 2010: Plans to evacuate Tampa Bay area expected to be announced

    Plans to evacuate the Tampa Bay area are expected to be announced in the coming days as FEMA prepares for what is now being called the worst oil disaster in the history of the world.

    MORE HERE

    Evacuate Florida!! Good God in Heaven!!! What have these monsters done to us!!

    Was tuning my sat dish and picked up ‘The micro effect radio show’ and there is a scientist on there who said they have backup plans to evacuate Florida and eventually the East coast now that the oil is in the loop currents. The slick is releasing huge amounts of Benzene. Benzene will flat out kill ya!! Don’t go down there, stay away!!!!

    http://www.themicroeffect.com/

    GLP

    Florida weather forcast:OIL!

    Benzene and Human Health

    Benzene is a clear, colorless and highly flammable aromatic liquid that evaporates quickly into the air, and can dissolve in water. It is formed from both natural processes and human activities; natural sources of benzene include volcanoes and forest fires.

    Benzene is present in crude oil, gasoline and cigarette smoke. It is industrially used as a solvent in paints and other chemicals and products such as dyes, detergents, nylon, plastics, drugs and pesticides. Benzene is widely used in the United States; it ranks in the top twenty chemicals for production volume and makes up about one percent of every gallon of gasoline.

    Are there health hazards to benzene exposure, i.e. can benzene cause cancer?

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has determined that benzene is a human carcinogen, and can cause various forms of cancer from prolonged exposure. According to the IARC, benzene is often considered “the mother of all carcinogens,” as a large number of carcinogens have structures that include benzene rings. Occupational studies of workers exposed to high levels of benzene show association with leukemia cancer; including acute myelogenous leukemia, acute lymphocytic leukemia, and chronic myelogenous leukemia. Benzene-related leukemias have been reported to develop in as short as nine months, and can remain dormant for as long as 25 years after initial exposure.

    Even a small amount of benzene exposure can cause temporary nervous system disorders, immune system depression and anemia. Short term affects include skin, eye, and respiratory tract irritation, headache, stomach irritation, drowsiness and dizziness. High levels of exposure can result in a rapid heart rate, excessive bleeding, tremors, vomiting, unconsciousness and death. Benzene can cause harmful effects on bone marrow, and can cause a decrease in red blood cells leading to myelofibrosis and myelodysplastic syndrome.

    How can I be exposed to benzene? Who is most likely to be at risk?

    Undoubtedly, the greatest risk for high level exposure to benzene is in the workplace. Occupational exposure to benzene is likely to occur in the rubber industry, oil refineries, chemical plants, and the shoe manufacturing industry, as well as in gasoline storage, shipment, and retail stations. However, most individuals are exposed to benzene through tobacco smoke, automobile exhaust and other environmental sources such as gasoline filling stations, industrial emissions, and food products that contain benzene naturally. Indoor exposure can result from glues, paints, furniture wax, adhesives and detergents.

    In addition, certain industries may release benzene into the surrounding air. These include ethyl benzene and styrene-production facilities, petroleum refineries, chemical manufacturing plants, and recovery plants for coke oven by-products. Leakage from underground storage tanks or from hazardous waste sites containing benzene can also result in the contamination of well water.

    Is benzene regulated by the U.S. government?

    Yes. Because of the dangerous health effects benzene exposure is known to cause, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency now regulates benzene in the air and wate
    http://sfawbn.com/news/?p=1923
    http://www.airport-data.com/airport/FL60/maps.html

    look at the map

    • ANSWER:
      Have you been into the cooking sherry?

  17. QUESTION:
    Tobacco Kills/Skull&Bones/Dead Body to be on cig packs-Ban order in public places-But no ban on cultivation?
    Tobacco deaths are more than all combined deaths, it is directly responsible for various forms of cancers, causes impotency, etc., etc. Still, cultivation of tobacco continues unabated, government itself prescribes annual growth rate of tobacco, cultivators even get support price from governments. It's use in public places is banned but people smoke with impunity. 6th standard kids are becoming victims and MNCs/NGOs/tobacco manufacturers are not sincere in their Corporate Social Responsibilities.
    It is a shame on the part of "two-timing" policy makers who are victims of tobacco lobbies. They make helmets compulsory but are not bothered about the all pervading killer tobacco.
    Drinking water is not available in villages/remote areas but availability of tobacco products are ENSURED in all corners of the world.
    When will we ever learn? Once U R hooked, U R hooked for life. U spend money to buy cancer and again spend money to get the cancer cured. Either way U R the looser.

    • ANSWER:
      man you just said a mouth full.i agree with you 200%.you need to be in washington d.c.

  18. QUESTION:
    Please help me! I'm trying to solve these questions! 10 points*?
    I'm taking my health class online and I have no clue what these questions mean!
    PLEASEPLEASEPLEASEPLEASE
    HELPP MEE!!!

    26. How does HIV affect the body?

    It infects red blood cells, decreasing the amount of oxygen the blood can carry.
    It infects certain white blood cells, destroying the immune system and making the body susceptible to infection.
    It infects the alveoli of the lungs, reducing lung capacity and the effectiveness of the respiratory system.
    It infects blood-forming cells in the bone marrow, producing anemia and destroying the immune system.

    27. Which type of diabetes generally occurs in young adults and children and always requires insulin as part of the treatment plan?

    type 1
    type 2
    type 3
    type 4

    28. Which of the following is NOT a warning sign of skin cancer?

    crushing chest pain
    a sore that does not heal
    unusual bleeding or discharge
    thickening or lumps

    29. What is the most fatal form of skin cancer associated with moles?

    squamous cell carcinoma
    basal cell carcinoma
    malignant melanoma
    acute cell melanoma

    30. What disease is caused by a bacteria and can be sent in a powdery form for bioterrorism and leads to difficulty breathing and even death?

    West Nile virus
    anthrax
    bovine spongiform encephalopathy
    stroke

    31. What is the general name for all infections that cause diarrhea to occur?

    Irritable Bowel Syndrome
    Crohn's Disease
    Colon Cancer
    Dysentery

    32. Which fat leads to atherosclerosis and can contribute to one's risk of a heart attack or stroke?

    steroids
    cholesterol
    phospholipids
    olive oil

    33. What is key to improve cancer's survival rates?

    improve people's nutrition and lifestyle choices
    more research into better chemotherapy drugs
    programs that stress early detection and intervention
    better surgical techniques to remove all cancer cells

    34. What is the disease that involves changes in the nerves and chemicals of the brain leading to memory loss, personality changes, and complete dependency?

    Parkinson's
    Alzheimer's
    Paget's
    Grave's

    35. Which of the following is not a disorder related to hypertension?

    congestive heart failure
    stroke
    diabetes mellitus
    heart attack

    • ANSWER:
      If you are taking a health class online, you should have been provided reading material.
      I can't give you the answers as that would be cheating but I can provide sites where by reading 2 or 3 paragraphs, you can find the answers rapidly.

      26) HIV
      http://www.epigee.org/health/hiv_symptoms.html
      http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/hiv-aids/DS00005/DSECTION=symptoms

      27) Diabetes in young adults and children
      http://mayoclinic.com/health/type-1-diabetes-in-children/DS00931
      The next one is a must read if you are taking a health class - longer but it provides some very interesting information
      http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/23/3/381.full.pdf
      Here's an easy one:
      http://www.battlediabetes.com/double-diabetes-placing-your-kids-at-even-more-risk/
      Now THINK when you read this next one:
      http://doctor.website2go.com/p6.html

      28) Not a warning sign of skin cancer
      You should be able to get this one easily
      http://ezinearticles.com/?Skin-Cancer-Warning-Signs---Five-Signs-and-How-to-Prevent-Skin-Cancer&id=2254326

      29) Most dangerous form of skin cancer
      You're going to have to do some reading here:
      http://ezinearticles.com/?Melanoma---Surviving-the-Least-Common-But-Most-Dangerous-Form-of-Skin-Cancer&id=1597441

      30) This one is on you - think back to after 9/11 and remember the scares at various places. You can already eliminate 2 choices: stroke and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. How is West Nile transmitted? Not through the mail.

      31) Diarrhea
      This is just a matter of looking up each word and doing some simple reasoning - you are looking for a general answer. Do all people with diarrhea have cancer? Isn't Crohn's a specialized disease? Look up dysentry - how do people get it? Is it specific or general. Lastly look up IBS or irritable bowel syndrome. Does that feel like the logical answer?

      32) Start by looking up atherosclerosis. Ok the answer should be there but if it isn't...think.
      Are steroids a fat? yes/No
      Does everyone who has athrosclerosis use olive oil? What diets is olive oil good for?
      Now look up cholesterol and then phospholipids. Or to save time just go to Wikipedia and look up Atherosclerosis - your answer is in the first paragraph.

      33) What is key to starting cancer treatment?
      http://www.canceradvice.co.uk/cancer-news/may-2007/cancer-survival-rates-114/

      34) This one is more difficult because it describes the end stages of PD with dementia and it describes completely AD. Think it through. You should also at least know what Grave's disease is and how it requires early intervention. Did you know that Marty Feldman of Young Frankenstein had Graves? That's what caused the bulging eyes although it is certainly not the most common symptom.
      And most certainly read about the very painful Paget's disease.

      35) First you should figure out what hypertension is - the rest is easy.
      Just make a selection from the drop down - keep returning and reading. Or just be logical because you already know that diabetes is pancreatic.
      http://www.webmd.com/hypertension-high-blood-pressure/default.htm

      If you don't know how to conduct a search, this should help - the search parameters were dictated by the questions.

      I can be reached through Yahoo Answers

  19. QUESTION:
    Can you PLEASE help me solve these!? 10 extra points*?
    I'm taking my health class online and I have no clue what these questions mean!
    PLEASEPLEASEPLEASEPLEASE
    HELPP MEE!!!

    26. How does HIV affect the body?

    It infects red blood cells, decreasing the amount of oxygen the blood can carry.
    It infects certain white blood cells, destroying the immune system and making the body susceptible to infection.
    It infects the alveoli of the lungs, reducing lung capacity and the effectiveness of the respiratory system.
    It infects blood-forming cells in the bone marrow, producing anemia and destroying the immune system.

    27. Which type of diabetes generally occurs in young adults and children and always requires insulin as part of the treatment plan?

    type 1
    type 2
    type 3
    type 4

    28. Which of the following is NOT a warning sign of skin cancer?

    crushing chest pain
    a sore that does not heal
    unusual bleeding or discharge
    thickening or lumps

    29. What is the most fatal form of skin cancer associated with moles?

    squamous cell carcinoma
    basal cell carcinoma
    malignant melanoma
    acute cell melanoma

    30. What disease is caused by a bacteria and can be sent in a powdery form for bioterrorism and leads to difficulty breathing and even death?

    West Nile virus
    anthrax
    bovine spongiform encephalopathy
    stroke

    31. What is the general name for all infections that cause diarrhea to occur?

    Irritable Bowel Syndrome
    Crohn's Disease
    Colon Cancer
    Dysentery

    32. Which fat leads to atherosclerosis and can contribute to one's risk of a heart attack or stroke?

    steroids
    cholesterol
    phospholipids
    olive oil

    33. What is key to improve cancer's survival rates?

    improve people's nutrition and lifestyle choices
    more research into better chemotherapy drugs
    programs that stress early detection and intervention
    better surgical techniques to remove all cancer cells

    34. What is the disease that involves changes in the nerves and chemicals of the brain leading to memory loss, personality changes, and complete dependency?

    Parkinson's
    Alzheimer's
    Paget's
    Grave's

    35. Which of the following is not a disorder related to hypertension?

    congestive heart failure
    stroke
    diabetes mellitus
    heart attack

    • ANSWER:
      I provided as many of the search areas as Yahoo Answers permits (10) at the other area where you placed your question:
      http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index;_ylt=AiF.VHHg301RYLVdIslr1twjzKIX;_ylv=3?qid=20090806211605AALgfYl

      I do want to mention that if you are taking this course because it is a requirement for a field other than Health, it is still important to learn how to research for a quick answer.

      The whole idea of taking a course is to learn something...not just to get unearned credit.

      Here are some of the best and easiest sites to use:
      http://health.nih.gov/
      Just type in the keyword - disease in the box and you will be given a selection. Try the first and second ones.

      Another easy site is the Mayo Clinic using the same procedure as above::
      http://www.mayoclinic.com/

      That said here are the best keywords and other info to use for each question:

      26) I provided website information in my previous answer - this is one where you should really read - I'd avoid Wikipedia on this one as it will just confuse you.

      27) The answers are in the other answer I provided
      Type in "Diabetes Type 4" to begin with - you'll find a shorter selection which will lead you to a discussion of all types and therefore your answer.

      28) Warning signs of skin cancer or just think logically and then double check.

      29) Fatal form of skin cancer
      "Most dangerous form of skin cancer"
      or just enter each term provided in the multiple choice

      30) Begin at the top of your list and stop when you think you have the answer - If you're not sure, continue to the last 2.

      31) Begin at the top of your list and check each term.

      32) The search is "atherosclerosis" - very basic

      33) Cancer - survival
      You could also type in "American Cancer Society"
      http://www.cancer.org/docroot/home/index.asp

      34) Begin with Alzheimer's disease
      move on to Parkinson's disease
      Paget's Disease
      Graves disease

      35) "Hypertension"
      and then each of the choices

      You can do this and you need to do it. Would you want a doctor or nurse who made it through med school by getting the answers at Yahoo Answers?

  20. QUESTION:
    Should I feel horrible about my feelings towards my husband's parents?
    First of all please let me add that I dearly love these people, it's just some of their actions I guess that seem to bother me for whatever reason. They love our kids to the bone, and they are good people.

    For all you women / moms out there, please tell me if this is understandable or if I'm just being really tacky. I know you don't really know me, but I really am a very caring, giving person and I'm not snotty or stuck up in the least.

    I guess in a way I feel kind of "bummed" is the best I can put it. When I grew up, all of my grandparents had passed away except for my mom's mother, whom I lost when I was 11 to cancer. I was VERY excited when my husband and I got together and had a little girl - she was going to get to have grandparents that love her to death! To this day that still makes me happy, however.....

    My husband has a daughter from a previous marriage who is four now, and she spends most of the time with her grandparents. (When I say grandparents, by the way, I'm talking in their 50's) Every time we go pick her up her face is always dirty, she'll have dumped food in her hair and if she's stayed overnight it's STILL there, they refuse to show her discipline, and when we were potty training her they would just keep her in diapers and set the whole thing offtrack for us. This was all before we had our daughter together, and every time we're over there to visit for a while and they want us to leave her with them (she's only three months old right now) I refuse. I'm always afraid she's going to come home with diaper rash or something of the sort....

    Not only that but they don't believe in going out to eat, coming over to our place to see it, or shopping for items other than food anywhere but at garage sales. I'm not kidding, my husband said it had been atleast 10+ years since his parents have gone out to eat, they never come over to our house or his brother's house, and the only place they buy anything they own is at garage sales.

    Tony and I always invite them out for birthday dinners, or to come over for holidays or just to eat dinner and they won't come, not even to see the kids.

    While I understand that's a GREAT way to save money, a lot of the things they have purchased our daughter (or even Haley) are dirty, torn up, or very heavily used. Thankfully, a lot of the baby clothes have been wonderful and a great help but anything else I've honestly been afraid to let my baby play with even when I wash it several times.

    I'm NOT trying to say "omg since they dont buy her all this expensive new stuff they are bad people" that's NOT what I'm saying. I guess I'm just bummed that she gets very second-rate, if not third-rate stuff from her grandparents when I'm so used to grandparents being the ones to really want to spoil the grandbaby!

    Anyone understand? =

    • ANSWER:
      Omg! I'd be apprehensive too. I wouldn't want my child to stay over just in case they didn't clean him. So I understand why you are. I think it's disgusting that they don't come out with you or round to your house. It is very wrong. They should make more of an effort.
      It is ok if they want to buy used stuff for themselves but for a baby its a bit wrong. I mean I've had second hand stuff off of some people but nothing that sounds like what you describe. You are right to feel the way you do. Don't worry about it.
      I've only had one grandparent look after my son. My parents would if they lived closer but live about 50 miles away. The other grandparent I feel would not be good to him. She is lovely to him when he is good but feel she wouldn't cope or shout at him if he cried or moved her things. So I really don't want her to have him over night.
      It is your baby you have all the right in the world to make the decisions you feel are right for your little girl.

  21. QUESTION:
    How do we decrease the obesity rates?
    How do we decrease the obesity rates?
    What should be done to decrease the obesity rates?
    Since it is estimated that 75% of Americans will be obese by 2015....

    And since obesity is a costly condition that can reduce quality of life and increases the risk for many serious chronic diseases and premature death.

    Evidence: Child Obesity Linked to Early Death, Before Age 55
    Obesity responsible for more than - 100,000 cases of cancer per year
    Childhood obesity - linked to stiff arteries
    - linked to fewer "pleasure" receptors
    - linked to poor school performance
    - linked to more liver disease than alcohol :O
    - linked to lower testosterone levels
    - early puberty in young girls
    Teen Obesity - Linked to Later Multiple Sclerosis
    - increases risk of coronary heart disease and stroke
    - increases the risk of developing osteoarthritis (a degeneration of cartilage and its underlying bone within a joint)
    - increases risk of Alzheimer's disease
    - Diabetes
    - Dyslipidemia
    - Sleep apnea and respiratory problems
    - High blood pressure
    - can increase the risk of dementia up to 80%
    - Gynecological problems
    - increases risk of Fibromygalia
    - linked to sexual Dysfunction
    - linked to lower sperm count
    -- increased risk of many cancers

    - breast cancer
    - endometrial cancer
    - colorectal cancer
    - ovarian cancer
    - gallbladder
    - aggressive prostate cancer
    - pancreatic cancer
    - esophageal cancers
    - kidney cancer

    Obesity = brain shrinkage = stupidity ....

    Imagine how stupid America will be....

    "The researchers found that all of these OBESITY indicators were inversely
    associated with total brain volume - that is, the higher any indicator was, the SMALLER THE BRAIN VOLUME -
    and that the association between abdominal fat and brain volume was the strongest of all.
    Waist-to-hip ratio was also found to be associated with increased temporal horn volume,
    independently of other obesity indicators.
    The temporal horn is a part of the ventricular system; its volume is known to increase with age,
    and in conditions such as Alzheimer's Disease, depression and schizophrenia.
    Enlargement of the temporal horn invariably involves a reduction in the volume of temporal lobe structures such as
    the hippocampus, and thus is closely associated with MEMORY IMPAIRMENTS.

    Cancer
    "Fat cells produce estrogen, which are now known to be a factor in breast cancer and endometrial cancer.
    Fatty tissue also affects the way the body metabolizes insulin,
    which can alter how sugar is processed and how it ultimately gets to cells.

    Fatty tissue, also known as adipose tissue, produces hormones on its own that could play a role in promoting cancer cells.
    It also has been shown to produce chronic, low-grade inflammation in the body.

    Yes I already asked this question.
    http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index;…

    And

    are cheap additives harmful?

    is it the high fructose corn syrup? msg? is it the toxins in the meat?

    • ANSWER:
      One good way is to eliminate the government subsidies on farming and the FDA ran food industry.

      They don't make food naturally anymore, they practically soak everything we eat in chemicals, additives, subsidies, and etc.

      Almost everything in the market these days is high in sodium, subsidized materials, and chemicals which is exactly why America is so unhealthy.

      Good food is twice as expensive as the shit grown on farm subsidies.

  22. QUESTION:
    Your thoughts on humanity?
    Human Is the general name for a group of more than 100 nations in which individuals in a part of the world begin to grow out of control. Although there are many kinds of humans, they all start because flawed individuals grow out of control. Unaware Human can cause serious illness and even death.

    The world is made up of hundreds of millions of living individuals. Natural world individuals grow, populate, and die in an orderly fashion. During the early years of a species's life, natural individuals populate faster to allow the species to grow. After the species becomes an adult, most individuals populate only to replace worn-out or dying individuals or to repair injuries.

    Human starts when individuals in a part of the world start to grow out of control. There are many kinds of Human, but they all start because of out-of-control growth of flawed individuals.

    Human individual growth is different from natural individual growth. Instead of dying, Human individuals continue to grow and form new, flawed individuals. Human individuals can also invade (grow into) other habitats, something that natural individuals cannot do. Growing out of control and invading other habitats are what makes a individual a Human individual.

    Individuals become Human individuals because of damage to The Brain. The Brain is in every individual and directs all its actions. In a natural individual, when The Brain gets damaged the individual either repairs the damage or the individual dies. In Human individuals, the damaged The Brain is not repaired, but the individual doesn’t die like it should. Instead, this individual goes on making new individuals that the world does not need. These new individuals will all have the same damaged The Brain as the first individual does.

    In most cases the Human individuals form a city. Some Humans, like leukemia, rarely form cities. Instead, these Human individuals involve the blood and blood-forming organs and circulate through other habitats where they grow.

    Human individuals often travel to other parts of the world, where they begin to grow and form new cities that replace natural tissue. This process is called metastasis. It happens when the Human individuals get into the bloodstream or lymph vessels of our world.

    No matter where a Human may spread, it is always named for the place where it started. For example, breast Human that has spread to the liver is still called breast Human, not liver Human. Likewise, prostate Human that has spread to the bone is metastatic prostate Human, not bone Human.

    Different types of Human can behave very differently. For example, lung Human and breast Human Is very different nations. They grow at different rates and respond to different treatments. That is why populations with Human need treatment that is aimed at their particular kind of Human.

    Today, millions of populations are living with Human or have had Human. The risk of developing most types of Human can be reduced by changes in a species's lifestyle, for example, by quitting smoking, limiting time in the sun, being physically active, and eating a better diet. The sooner a Human Is found and treated, the better the chances are for living for many years.

    Source: http://www.cancer.org/Cancer/CancerBasics/what-is-cancer

    Replaced Words:
    Cancer = Human
    cells = Individuals
    cell = individual
    Body = World
    abnormal = flawed
    untreated = unaware
    normal = natural
    diseases = nations
    person = species
    tissues = habitats
    DNA = the brain
    tumor = city
    tumors = cities
    people = populations
    divide = populate

    • ANSWER:
      That is one of the many ways to look at it.

      A very stunted negative way but it is a way.

      Love and blessings Don

  23. QUESTION:
    How to lower the obesity rates?
    Since it is estimated that 75% of Americans will be obese by 2015....

    And since obesity is a costly condition that can reduce quality of life and increases the risk for many serious chronic diseases and premature death.

    Evidence:

    Child Obesity Linked to Early Death, Before Age 55
    Obesity responsible for more than - 100,000 cases of cancer per year
    Childhood obesity - linked to stiff arteries
    - linked to fewer "pleasure" receptors
    - linked to poor school performance
    - linked to more liver disease than alcohol :O
    - linked to lower testosterone levels
    - early puberty in young girls
    Teen Obesity - Linked to Later Multiple Sclerosis
    - increases risk of coronary heart disease and stroke
    - increases the risk of developing osteoarthritis (a degeneration of cartilage and its underlying bone within a joint)
    - increases risk of Alzheimer's disease
    - Diabetes
    - Dyslipidemia
    - Sleep apnea and respiratory problems
    - High blood pressure
    - can increase the risk of dementia up to 80%
    - Gynecological problems
    - increases risk of Fibromygalia
    - linked to sexual Dysfunction
    - linked to lower sperm count
    -- increased risk of many cancers
    - breast cancer
    - endometrial cancer
    - colorectal cancer
    - ovarian cancer
    - gallbladder
    - aggressive prostate cancer
    - pancreatic cancer
    - esophageal cancers
    - kidney cancer

    Obesity = brain shrinkage = stupidity ....

    "The researchers found that all of these OBESITY indicators were inversely
    associated with total brain volume - that is, the higher any indicator was, the SMALLER THE BRAIN VOLUME -
    and that the association between abdominal fat and brain volume was the strongest of all.
    Waist-to-hip ratio was also found to be associated with increased temporal horn volume,
    independently of other obesity indicators.
    The temporal horn is a part of the ventricular system; its volume is known to increase with age,
    and in conditions such as Alzheimer's Disease, depression and schizophrenia.
    Enlargement of the temporal horn invariably involves a reduction in the volume of temporal lobe structures such as
    the hippocampus, and thus is closely associated with MEMORY IMPAIRMENTS.

    Cancer
    "Fat cells produce estrogen, which are now known to be a factor in breast cancer and endometrial cancer.
    Fatty tissue also affects the way the body metabolizes insulin,
    which can alter how sugar is processed and how it ultimately gets to cells.

    Fatty tissue, also known as adipose tissue, produces hormones on its own that could play a role in promoting cancer cells.
    It also has been shown to produce chronic, low-grade inflammation in the body.

    Oh and currently, there are 52 million americans suffering from arthritis.
    Turns out, 10 extra pounds increases the force on each knee by between 30 and 60 pounds with every step.

    Other question: How much are obesity induced diseases costing america?

    • ANSWER:
      Easy: kill all the fat people. Done.

  24. QUESTION:
    What should be done to decrease the obesity rates? Do we want an ill nation?
    Since it is estimated that 75% of Americans will be obese by 2015....

    And since obesity is a costly condition that can reduce quality of life and increases the risk for many serious chronic diseases and premature death.

    Evidence: Child Obesity Linked to Early Death, Before Age 55
    Obesity responsible for more than - 100,000 cases of cancer per year
    Childhood obesity - linked to stiff arteries
    - linked to fewer "pleasure" receptors
    - linked to poor school performance
    - linked to more liver disease than alcohol :O
    - linked to lower testosterone levels
    - early puberty in young girls
    Teen Obesity - Linked to Later Multiple Sclerosis
    - increases risk of coronary heart disease and stroke
    - increases the risk of developing osteoarthritis (a degeneration of cartilage and its underlying bone within a joint)
    - increases risk of Alzheimer's disease
    - Diabetes
    - Dyslipidemia
    - Sleep apnea and respiratory problems
    - High blood pressure
    - can increase the risk of dementia up to 80%
    - Gynecological problems
    - increases risk of Fibromygalia
    - linked to sexual Dysfunction
    - linked to lower sperm count
    -- increased risk of many cancers

    - breast cancer
    - endometrial cancer
    - colorectal cancer
    - ovarian cancer
    - gallbladder
    - aggressive prostate cancer
    - pancreatic cancer
    - esophageal cancers
    - kidney cancer

    Obesity = brain shrinkage = stupidity ....

    Imagine how stupid America will be....

    "The researchers found that all of these OBESITY indicators were inversely
    associated with total brain volume - that is, the higher any indicator was, the SMALLER THE BRAIN VOLUME -
    and that the association between abdominal fat and brain volume was the strongest of all.
    Waist-to-hip ratio was also found to be associated with increased temporal horn volume,
    independently of other obesity indicators.
    The temporal horn is a part of the ventricular system; its volume is known to increase with age,
    and in conditions such as Alzheimer's Disease, depression and schizophrenia.
    Enlargement of the temporal horn invariably involves a reduction in the volume of temporal lobe structures such as
    the hippocampus, and thus is closely associated with MEMORY IMPAIRMENTS.

    Cancer
    "Fat cells produce estrogen, which are now known to be a factor in breast cancer and endometrial cancer.
    Fatty tissue also affects the way the body metabolizes insulin,
    which can alter how sugar is processed and how it ultimately gets to cells.

    Fatty tissue, also known as adipose tissue, produces hormones on its own that could play a role in promoting cancer cells.
    It also has been shown to produce chronic, low-grade inflammation in the body.

    Sources:
    http://scienceblogs.com/neurophilosophy/2010/06/obesity_linked_to_brain_shrinkage_and_dementia.php
    http://www.usatoday.com/news/health/2007-10-16-obesity-gene_N.htm
    http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/721275
    http://health.usnews.com/health-news/family-health/cancer/articles/2009/01/05/obesity-linked-to-ovarian-cancer.html
    http://www.medpagetoday.com/Neurology/MultipleSclerosis/16922
    http://osteoarthritis.about.com/b/2009/03/29/obesity-linked-to-osteoarthritis-and-joint-replacement-complications.htm
    http://calorielab.com/news/2008/11/22/fatty-liver-obesity/

    http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm59e0803a1.htm?s_cid=mm59e0803a1_e%0D%0A
    Lib Nemesis I care about my nation.

    And if you want to remain a super power... know that our military is shrinking...

    many can not qualify

    • ANSWER:
      Stop blaming the people and hold corporations and our government accountable. Stop allowing them to to use steroids in beef and chicken. Stop regulating the produce, so that it isn't expensive to eat healthy. Change the schools back to the way they were, when you had to take Physical education everyday in all grades. Stop consolidating schools in the name of saving money, so kids have to ride a bus instead of walking to school, and finally build more parks and playgrounds.


Colon Cancer With Metastasis

Prostate Cancer Copyright 2006 Radoslaw Pilarski

Etiology

Etiology of prostate cancer development is not completely known. Factors that can influence the creation and development of this type of cancer include:

genetic factors increase in risk of falling ill among men with a positive family history regarding the prostate cancer. Mutations of suppressor genes are also taken into consideration (p53)

dietetic factors food rich in saturated fatty acids probably increases the risk of falling ill whereas the consumption of soya and rice may have a beneficial protective effect racial and geographical factors Afro-Americans are 100% more likely to fall ill, whereas the lowest death rate is reported in Japan and in China

occupational factors cancerogenous influence of heavy metals and toxins infectious factors viral infection may lead to/ be the cause of anaplasia of adenocyte cells of prostate

Histopathologically, 95% prostate cancer cases occur in the form of adenocarcinoma. Other types (primary intracellular cancer, squamous carcinoma, anaplastic carcinoma, and sarcoma) are rarely met. Adenocarcinoma usually develops in the peripheral area of the prostate (85%), in the transition area (25% ) and in the central area (5%).

Symptoms

In symptomatology of the prostate cancer, 4 clinical forms are distinguished:

1) visible form with distinct pathological symptoms 2) latent form (carcinoma latens) with no distinct pathological symptoms found 3) hidden form (ca occultum) which is detected in the case of distinct ailments caused by the existence of remote metastases, however changes in prostate are not found in the course of per rectum examination 4) accidentally detected form - based on histopathological test of the gland that was removed because of prostate overgrowth, or based on biochemical tests (PSA) During the development of prostate cancer, an induction phase that lasts about 30 years which is clinically invisible can be distinguished. During the next stage - in situ phase (5-10 years) and invasive phase (1 year), ailments connected with the local growth of tumour start to appear. During this period, symptoms connected with sub bladder obstacle appear including mainly: - pallakiuria - nycturia - weak urine stream - painful vesical tenesmus - impression of incompletion of bladder emptying The above-mentioned symptoms are typical of cancer and in some cases they may suggest mild overgrowth of prostate, or neurogenic or athermatous bladder disorders. During the dissemination phase (about 5 years), prostate cancer develops continuously infiltrating surrounding organs, such as: urinary bladder, rectum, ureters, pelvic walls and leading to urinary retention in kidneys and to secondary failure of function. Ailments typical for this period include: - haematuria - dysuria - urinary incontinence - erection disorders - aches of perineum, lumbar area and anus - haematospermia Metastases spread through the lymphatic vessels and the vascular system. Symptoms caused by the existence of remote metastases are as follows: - osteodynia and pathological fractures - pressure symptoms and spinal paralysis - lymphadema of limbs - clotting disorders - cachexy - coma

DIAGNOSTICS

In order to diagnose the prostate cancer, patient should undergo per rectum tests (DRE), PSA concentration (prostate specific antigen) in blood serum should be determined, ultrasonography per rectum examination (TRUS - transrectal ultrasound) should be done and if there is a suspicion of prostate cancer, histopathological test of the material obtained through a per rectum thick-needle biopsy done under the ultrasound control should take place. Histopathological test is the only test that confirms the presence of cancerous cells in the prostate gland area. DRE, which is an examination of sensitivity of 80% sensitivity and of specificity of 60%, enables to seize changes in the area of the prostate such as consistency change, palpable nodules and hardenings. It is the base for sending a patient to a diagnostic biopsy. At present, it is believed that cytological diagnosis achieved through a fine-needle biopsy is not sufficient to make a right diagnosis. It results from the fact that the assessment according to Gleasons classification is an important prognostic factor for the prostate cancer (see: prognostic factors). That is why a thick-needle biopsy is performed. Ultrasound use enables to take precise samples from suspicious foci. If there are no changes in TRUS picture, "sextant biopsy" is done (samples got for several places).

Recommendations for the biopsy of prostate gland: 1) palpable suspicion of the prostate cancer 2) PSA value over 15ng/ml regardless of DRE or TRUS tests 3) PSA value between 4 and 15 ng/ml with abnormalities detected during DRE or TRUS tests 4) PSA value exceeds the norm for a given age in the case of a positive family history regarding the prostate cancer

Recommendations for TRUS: 1) PSA between 4 and 12 ng/ml with abnormalities detected 2) questionable result of DRE test 3) necessity of a thick-needle biopsy Other diagnostic tests, such as CT and urography are not routinely performed because their value is questionable as far as the assessment of local stage and invasion of adjacent lymph nodes is concerned. Nowadays, magnetic resonance tomography done using transrectal coli (endorectal coil MRI - ERMR) to observe the prostate arouses great interest. Despite the increased sensitivity of the degree of the local stage, costs of the test do not allow for its routine use in the prostate cancer diagnosis. Scintigraphy of the skeleton is the most sensitive test (97%) in bone metastases detection. It is assumed that a patient with PSA under 10 ng/ml does not undergo scintigraphy because the probability of metastases is low.

Screening:

Screening: It is recommended that patients aged over 50 should undergo per rectum tests and PSA level tests every year.

PROGNOSTIC FACTORS:

Three groups of prognostic factors can be distinguished in the case of the prostate cancer:

1) development stage according to TNM 2) differentiation degree of the cancer based on the classification of Gleason and Mostofi 3) PSA level (prostate-specific antigen) in serum TNM classification

Preoperative assessment of the stage of the prostate cancer is made based on the above-mentioned tests.

T-stage: primary tumour

Tx - primary tumour cannot be assessed T0 - no evidence of primary tumour T1 - clinically unapparent tumour; not palpable or visible by per rectum imaging T1a - incidental tumour found in histopathological tests after transurethral resection of the prostate or after operational adenectomy: found in 5% or less resected tissue T1b - as above; found in more than 5% resected tissue T1c - tumour identified histopathologically by a needle biopsy (because of high PSA) T2 - tumour confined within the prostate gland T2a - tumour involves less than half of one lobe T2b - tumour involves more than half of one lobe only T2c - tumour involves both lobes T3 - tumour extends through the prostatic capsule T3a - extracapsular extensions (unilateral) T3b - extracapsular extensions (bilateral) T3c - tumour invades seminal vesicles T4 - tumour is fixed, invades adjacent structures other than seminal vesicles T4a - tumour invades bladder neck and/or external sphincter and/or rectum T4b - tumour invades levator muscles and/or pelvic wall N-stage: regional lymph nodes

Nx - regional lymph nodes cannot be assessed N0 - no regional lymph node metastases N1 - metastasis to a single regional lymph node with the diameter under 2cm N2 - metastasis to a single regional lymph node with the diameter > 2cm but < 5cm N3 - metastases to regional lymph nodes with the diameter over 5cm M-stage: remote metastases

Mx - remote metastasis cannot be assessed M0 - no remote metastases M1 - remote metastases M1a - non-regional lymph nodes M1b - bones M1c - other sites According to Whitmor-Catalon classification, grades A, B, C, and D correspond to T1, T2, T3 and T4 of TNM classification respectively.

Degree of cancer differentiation:

Degree of differentiation is defined according to 2 classifications: by Mostofi and by Gleason.

Mostofis classification uses a 3-grade assessment of differentiation dependent on the degree of cell anaplasia grading (G1-G3). The higher grade, the lower differentiation of cancer tissue, the greater atypy and at the same time, malignancy. In the case of a 10-grade Gleason system, the two extreme histological images in the preparation are assessed and then, added to produce a final grade.

PSA is a proteolyctic enzyme responsible for sperm melting. It is mainly produced by glandular epithelium, it might be also produced in organs such as salivary glands, pancreas and mammary gland and by clear cell carcinoma. Commonly used norm is the following: 0-4 ng/ml. Such concentration of PSA is found among 97% of men over 40. The level over 12 ng/ml is always connected with pathology. Difficulties with diagnosis are found among patients who have this level between 5-10 ng/ml because it may both stem from the prostate cancer or a mild overgrowth of the prostate, which causes the necessity of diagnostic methods use, such as TRUS. This test makes it possible to determine PSA density (PSAD - PSA density) - PSA concentration converted to prostate volume unit. It should be under 0.15 ng/ml/g. In the case of prostate cancer differentiation and mild overgrowth of prostate, free to total PSA (PSA F/T) is used. If it is over 20%, one may assume the presence of cancerous cells in the gland. PSA level does not correlate well enough with the natural development of the prostate cancer. However, it is useful as a prognostic factor after the treatment applied and in prognosis determination. However, high final levels indicate low survival rate.

TREATMENT

Proceeding strategy in patients with the prostate cancer depends on the degree of histological malignancy, the degree of local stage of development, coexisting diseases and age of a patient. There are many controversies as far as the choice of treatment is concerned. Radical treatment is possible in T1, T2 and N0 and Mo stages. In advanced cases (T3, T4, N-+, M-+), the procedure is restricted to delay the cancer progression and mitigate its effects (palliative treatment).

Surgery treatment - radical prostatectomy

The surgery consists in the prostate gland removal together with spermatic vesicles and adjacent tissues. Surgery is done through retropubic, transcoccgeal, perineal approach or through laparoscopy. Lymphadenectomy constitutes an integral part of the surgery. If the approach makes it impossible to remove the gland and lymph nodes (perineal approach) at the same time, a separate surgery is carried out. It precedes the operation proper. It is believed that cancerous cells found in the removed lymph nodes are the reason why prostatectomy cannot be performed. Invasion of lymph nodes to a certain extent suggests PSA level over 40ng/ml together with grade >7 in Gleasons scale.

Recommendations for surgery:

1) cancer limited to the prostate gland (T1BN0M0Gx - T2N0M0Gx, T1AN0M0G3) 2) predictable life span over 10 years 3) consent of a patient If positive chirurgical margins, capsule infiltration or cancerous changes in the removed lymph nodes are found in postoperative microscopic assessment, the prognosis is worse such patients are qualified for palliative treatment. The death rate in the postoperative period does not exceed 5%. Intraoperative complications first of all include: bleeding from Santorinis plexus, damage of rectum wall, underpinning of ureter. Early complications after surgery: thrombotic and embolic complications (phlebothrombosis 3-12%, lung embolism 2-5%) and lymphocele. Late postoperative complications after prostatectomy include: urinary incontinence, erection disorders and narrowing of urethro-vesicular junction).

Radiotherapy

Apart from radical prostatectomy, radiotherapy is an effective method of treatment for patients with regional advanced prostate cancer. In radical treatment, the most frequently done using radiation from external sources, the dose of 50-70 Gy in fractions continuing over 5-7 weeks are given. T1ABC - T2ABCG1 and T1ABCG2 stages require radiation limited to the prostate. In other cases, area that is radiated includes adjacent lymph nodes as well. In recent years, multidimensional imaging with CT (3D conformal radiotherapy) is used in the treatment planning.

Brachytherapy constitutes another method that is used.

Recommendations for radical radiotherapy of the prostate:

1) prostate cancer confined with the organ 2) sufficiently long predictable survival span 3) no disorders in lower urinary tract 4) no disorders in rectum and colon 5) consent of patient to carry out treatment 6) early complications of radiation energy treatment (30% of patients) include dysuria, haematuria, diarrhoea, rectal tenesmus, inflammation of large intestine and rectum. Among later complications (11% of patients) chronic diarrhea, ulceration of rectum, bladder neck stenosis and intestinal fistula stenosis are observed.

Control of patients after radical prostatectomy and radical radiotherapy:

- per rectum test, PSA level in blood serum each 3 months. PSA level should be lower than 1 ng/ml (after radical prostatectomy it should be near to 0). Increase over 0.5 ng/ml within a year means failure of radiotherapy. Hormonotherapy

Hormonal therapy is mainly used as palliative treatment in advanced prostate cancer. It makes it possible to stop symptoms of the disease for some time and then, further progression of the disease takes place. Nowadays, the use of therapy in pulsation system is considered as it delays the development of hormone-resistant cell clones.

Ways of hormonal treatment include: 1) surgery castration (orchidectomy) 2) anti-androgens a) non-steroid b) steroid 3) analogues LH-RH 4) oestrogens, progestogens, inhibitors of androgens synthetase Hormonotherapy by analogues LH-RH is also recommended before planned radical radiotherapy. In the case of hormone-resistant cancer, treatment with combined cytoctatic and hormone (estramustine), however without significant effects.

PROGNOSIS

Prognosis depends on the development stage, degree of differentiation and PSA level (see: prognostic factors).

In T1A, B stage prognosis is good. 10-years survival 35-80%, death rate of the cancer 7-30%. In T2 stage, overall survival equals 34-85%, death rate equals 8-26%. In T3 stage, among patients who undergo non-invasive treatment for 9 years, overall death rate equalled 63%, from cancer 30%. Depending on the degree of cancer differentiation, 10-year survival of patients is the following: for cells well differentiated - 81%, for cells moderately differentiated - 58% and for cells poorly differentiated - 26%.

Frequently Asked Questions

  1. QUESTION:
    what is the time given by doctor with diagnose cancer colon with metastasis on liver how long will live?
    she have 3 lynf nudes on liver 1 behind are ears doctor say its spread

    • ANSWER:
      There are several variables to your question, such as can they treat the metastasis with Gleevec or is it a different kind of cancer. Also it depends on the size of the livers, but generally metastasised isn't the best news. Some people have lived for a long time, but quite a few don't.

  2. QUESTION:
    Is liver metastases from colon cancer an automatic death sentence?
    Father has just been diagnosed with colon cancer and it has metastasized to liver. Extremely worried about him. Anyone know someone or is going through anything similar that can give some hope?

    • ANSWER:
      Honestly, its better you consult a specialist. I really want to help but I don't think I can give better answers than specialist do. Sorry.

      good luck

      Love is omnipresence, Love is patient, love is kind. It does not envy, it does not boast, it is not proud. It is not rude, it is not self-seeking, it is not easily angered, it keeps no record of wrongs. Love does not delight in evil but rejoices with the truth. It always protects, always trusts, always hopes, always perseveres. Love never fails.

  3. QUESTION:
    what is the survival rate of colon cancer patients with metastases to the liver?

    • ANSWER:
      1-5% 5 year survival

  4. QUESTION:
    why do we still need to do colon resection for cancer colon in cases with liver metastasis?
    shall we do hemicolectomy for patient with primary cancer in the colon in presence of multiple liver metastasis

    • ANSWER:
      Will it improve the quality of life? Will resection of the primary tumor allow for better pathologic identification and ultimately direct a treatment plan for this patient? If so, resection is probably a worthwhile pursuit.

      A dialogue among health care prioviders and the patient, going over the pros and cons is a better aproach than this forum.

  5. QUESTION:
    What happens after colon cancer surgery? where a LAR has been performed for adenocaricinoma rectum? Dukes C?
    the report states "Moderately differentiated, Mucin secreting, Infiltrating Adenocarcinoma of rectum with metastasis in 5/7 pararectal and pericolic lymph nodes and perinodal fibroadipose tissue-Stage Dukes'C (Astler Coller C2) Proximal doughnut free of lesion"...Please give me the true picture

    • ANSWER:

  6. QUESTION:
    Is it possible that patient who had tomography 3 months ago can face with 2cm liver metastasis?
    Patient had colon cancer and a metastasis on the liver..She had a successful surgery a year ago and a Chemoterapy during the same year(with Oxaliplatin)..She has tomography once in 3 months.All was normal..
    patient's blood measurements and tomogrophy was clean 3 months ago..
    But 2cm spot on the liver is now realized in the last tomography results.Can it be a new metastasis or sth?
    It doesnt seems to be normal..Can a tumour grow during the 3 months so rapidly?
    Thanks for your urgent replies!..

    • ANSWER:
      it can happen, once a tumor has spread to liver all sorts of things can happen. I have seen tumors grow 6cm in as many weeks in the liver.

  7. QUESTION:
    What is the best treatment after Colon Cancer T3N1M0 had been removed?
    My mum just had a surgery 3 days ago to remove a colon cancer at the caecum. CT scan showed that it had not spread to other organs (No distant metastasis). Histopathology finding: Infiltrating moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma. The colorectal surgeon said whether the lymph nodes were affected or not would be confirmed after surgery and samples sent for testing. So we were hoping it would be a T3N0M0 type of cancer.

    After surgery, I read surgeon's operative findings: 1) Ca Cecum cT3N1M0, 2) No peritoneal seedlings, 3) Nodes present at right colon masentery, and 4) No ascites.

    My questions:
    1) Prior to pathology report, can the surgeon confirm the lymph nodes are infected?
    2) My mum is 80 years old. If confirmed T3N1M0 and chemotherapy is required, should she go for it given her old age?
    3) What is the survival rate with T3N1M0 surgically removed but no chemotherapy done?

    Any help in enlightening me and clearing my doubts would be very much appreciated. Thanks

    • ANSWER:
      1- Yes.
      2- It will be recommended but it is up to her if she does it or not.
      3- A T3 N1 has a 5 year survival rate of 56% with treatment a T3 N2 is 50%, without treatment it is less than half.

  8. QUESTION:
    What are the last days with colon cancer like?
    If you have lost a loved one who had colon cancer, first of all, let me say that I am sorry you had to go through what was no doubt a painful and difficult time.

    My final days should be coming in the next few months, possibly years. It appears the constantly appearing liver metastases will be what eventually kills me. What I'd like to know is what I might possibly expect in the future (i.e. what I should try to prepare for mentally).

    Anybody know someone who was lucky enough to just go quietly in his/her sleep? Or should I expect to spend many hours in a hospital bed waiting for it to happen? What kind of pain did it look like the person was in? How much time was there between when the person was relatively healthy -- up and around -- and when he/she passed away? Hours? Days? Weeks? Any other bad things I should be warned about? Just knowing in advance makes it easier to handle.

    Thanks for your help!
    I don't need moral support -- I feel fine, I'm happy with my life, I laugh a lot. I love a lot.

    I guess I didn't make things clear. People in my situation die an overwhelming amount of the time. Many of them are also happy, faithful people who laugh and find hope through God, but they still die anyway. I'm ok with that. But I came here because I was hoping to hear about some people's real experiences with the final days of cancer.
    Thank you, Shelley, for the thorough answer and the link. It does not sound as unpleasant as I had imagined. Just knowing about it makes things easier.

    L M -- don't know if you'll be back, but I wanted to say that I admire the heck out of you. My girlfriend (hopefully wife, soon) has been toughing it out by my side and I cannot even describe the love I feel for her. I do hope for a miracle, but I am so happy to have the things in my life that I have. I will love my life no matter what happens. I hope your husband too will find (or has found) complete happiness with you at his side.

    • ANSWER:
      Sadly I lost a good friend to it last year. A real prince of a guy. Like so many others his cancer was not found until it was too late, because he would not go the Doctor. He passed quietly in his sleep. Thanks to good palliative care he was in no pain at the end. He was however as skinny as a Nazi concentration camp survivor. At diagnosis seven months earlier he was 210 pounds. At death he was 92 pounds. Towards the end he slept a lot.

      From the Canadian Virtual Hospice.
      Physical changes in dying

      Although no two people experience illness in the same way, some generalizations can be made about how an illness begins to weaken the body when a person is nearing death. Some health conditions affect vital systems of the body, such as the brain and nervous system, lungs, heart and blood vessels, or the digestive system, including the liver and bowels.

      As illness progresses, there is a point at which the body is not able to use the nutrients in food, resulting in weight loss and fatigue. More time is spent resting, and in the final few days before death, people are generally sleeping most of the time. The body’s various systems gradually weaken and shut down.

      At the end of illness, the cause of death is generally due to one or more of the following.

      * Specific complication of the illness
      This could be the heart stopping in people with advanced heart disease, or the kidneys failing in people who have kidney disease.

      * Accumulation of total burden of disease
      People experience a profound depletion of strength and energy, sleeping most or all of the time as the body’s systems shut down. Death eventually occurs when the heart stops because it cannot function when the other organs of the body are shutting down.

      * Infection
      In the final hours, when the person is deeply sleeping and not aware of their surroundings, an infection in the lungs (pneumonia) usually develops due to an inability to cough and clear the secretions that the lungs normally produce. This infection does not respond to antibiotics, due to overall frailty and a weakened immune system.

      Progression of changes

      When a person is nearing death, there are a series of signs that tell caregivers the body is in the process of shutting down. These signals are presented in the following sections, in the order in which they tend to appear.

      Please note that when death is expected within hours or days, the focus of care is usually geared toward maintaining the person’s comfort rather than pursuing tests and treatments. Also at this time, families may want to consider whether there are important cultural, spiritual or religious rituals that need to take place just prior to death or at the time of death. If so, it is helpful to inform those who will be participating and link with the health care team as required.

      Declining physical capabilities

      In the final few weeks of life in progressive serious illness, there is usually a notable decrease in energy and day-to-day functioning. A very significant change is when the person is no longer strong enough to be out of bed. When this is caused by overall weakness from the total disease burden rather than from a specific, possibly fixable problem, it may signal that there are only days to a few weeks to live.

      The illness may appear to "speed up", as weakness quickly leads to even further weakness. This decline is often most striking in the last few days of life, when people can change from being fairly independent to sleeping all of the time.

      In order to understand why things seems to change so quickly near the end, think of the energy that gets us through the day as being similar to money in the bank. When we are physically well, we can build up our energy savings by eating well, keeping fit, and making other important health and lifestyle choices. When a progressive serious illness occurs, it interferes with the body’s ability to add to the reserves of energy. This is not unlike losing the ability to earn income to add to bank savings.

      In such circumstances, we must use existing savings to get through each day. When the body’s energy reserves (savings) are nearly gone, there are dramatic changes in how a person appears. People spend more time sleeping, and less time in activities. When the energy runs out, there seems to be a sudden, big change. The person has no energy to be awake, to communicate, or to take in food or fluids. This change usually signals the final hours or perhaps days of life.

      This concept of a limited amount of energy reserves is helpful in explaining a few scenarios seen in people who are close to dying.
      Dramatic changes in physical health

      A person’s condition can change quite significantly from one day to the next, or even during the same day. They can seem to go from looking good to looking as though they have only hours to live. This can be perplexing and exhausting for family and friends, who don’t know what to pr

  9. QUESTION:
    Stage IV cancer - should one fight it ?
    If one has stage IV cancer [colon cancer with peritoneal and lung metastases] still in a good physical and psychological condition [has been fighting it for two years], but at the very end of his resources, having to rely on his relatives' love and help [just the little bit they can offer], should that one still fight? Or it would be better to give up treatments and accept an earlier death? Wouldn't that be a relief for everyone??

    • ANSWER:
      Yes, a person with stage IV disease should fight, if that is what they wish. There is always treatment available and resources to help financially. Of course, this does become an individual decision. There really isn't any right or wrong involved here, because treatment for the cancer can be brutal. Some people seem to be more resilant than others. So, it is a very individual choice . . but it should not be based on finances . . it should be based on treatment options and response.

      My sister in law decided to not undergo treatment for breast cancer. That was her choice and she lived about a year after diagnosis and passed away peacefully at home. My son was diagnosed as a stage IV with multiple tumors throughout the abdominal cavity . . he chose to fight and has done very well in treatment. He currently has disease in the lungs and pelvis but he has no symptoms and great quality of life. His treatment is all experimental for his disease, but he has no side effects at all with it. He is being treated with the idea to control the disease . . (although we would certainly take cure it it was possible!!) . . we just want to control and contain the disease. Primarily because we know how close research is coming towards finding some answers. He has been involved as a patient in clinical trials and we keep a database of over 200 patients and how well they are doing on many different types of treatments. None of the treatment yet is a home run, but there are indications that some are working . . we know have more than a handful who have survived longer than the five year period . . which is far more than even two years ago. So, progress is slowly being made in the treatment of his cancer . . and that means hope . . not a guarantee . . but hope.

      There is always hope. And, if this patient is still feeling good physically and physcologically . . than he deserves the chance to fight for life. What strength he must have to resist the people around him who are more concerned about their financial well being than they are about him.

  10. QUESTION:
    Confused about breast cancer metastases? My mom had breast cancer twice, once in each breast 10 years apart?
    I know that for example my mom was diagnosed with breast cancer 12 years ago and it spread to her lungs and bone so it's a metastases of the breast cancer...NOT lung and bone cancer. But when she was diagnosed again 2 years ago with cancer in the other breast her oncologist said it's new cancer....not the other breast cancer spreading. What's odd is that it was the same exact type of cancer. I'm not sure of the specifics besides they were both hr+. It then spread to her liver and colon and they were unable to tell which breast cancer had caused it, hence them being same types.

    Is this always the case, each breast considered new cancer? Or only in certain circumstances?
    http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index;_ylt=Av6Sz1y0duOqyj7PpoLuLY7ty6IX;_ylv=3?qid=20101115215540AARSmQ2

    http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index;_ylt=AlfR4uba8bgpZTIzWgqtynDty6IX;_ylv=3?qid=20101116100723AAvwq76

    • ANSWER:
      I know have answered at least 2 of your previous questions explaining this to you, but I cannot seem to find them. That is usually a sign to me that you do not want to hear what I have to say, but it appears that you asked her doctor about what I said, as you now understand your mother was not diagnosed with more than 2 different cancers.
      If you delete this question as well I will assume you do not want to hear from me and I will stop answering your questions so that you can receive the answers you do want.
      The odds of someone being diagnosed with the same type of breast cancer twice are high as over 80% of breast cancers are ductal carcinomas and this is usually the case.
      Breast cancer only spreads to the contralateral breast via the skin and this would have been noted when she was diagnosed 12 years ago. Breast cancer nearly always spreads in an orderly fashion and would involve the lymph nodes on the same side of the body closest to the cancer before spreading to other sites.
      Because I report cancer for a living I can tell you that yes this is always reported as a second breast cancer, unless it has spread to the contralateral breast via the skin.

  11. QUESTION:
    Art - painting...?
    Although by profession I am a doctor, I also like writing and painting. I used to practice neurosurgery in an Eastern European country, and then later I came to the US and did research at the University of Virginia. At some point I dedicated a lot of time to my art. Two years ago I was operated for colon cancer, but it was pretty advanced, with peritoneal and lung metastases [stage IV]. Since then I have been fighting it. My art can be seen at www.cristianperi.com

    Most of my art have been donated or given to friends.

    • ANSWER:
      Thanks for sharing your paintings, i loved the old paintings the best with buildings, maybe that's because i have tried to paint buildings myself but without success, i tend to paint wild life animals and i also give my paintings to family and friends..

  12. QUESTION:
    Nerve damage at site for weekly IV chemo?
    My mom has been fighting cancer for over 13 years now, originally breast cancer with metastases to the lungs, bone, liver and colon with a second breast cancer diagnoses in between. She has been on chemo and/or Herceptin every week since about 2006. We talked on the phone last night and she mentioned her hand is starting to feel "different". She said sometimes it feels like there's something in her vein, it gets really hot or really cold. We're afraid it's nerve damage.

    She goes for chemo tomorrow and is going to tell the nurse. I assume the will start using a different vein, since they use this particular one 3 out of 4 sessions. She has had 2 metaports and a hickman catheter but there were complications and infections, to the point she almost died once, so they've been going directly through the IV for a few years.

    Is it likely the nerve damage will be permanent or will she regain full feeling after they stop using this vein? Any advice is appreciated. Thank you.

    • ANSWER:
      This is called peripheral neuropathy it is common with some chemo drugs. She needs to talk to her oncologist about it. Sometimes it takes awhile for the feeling to come back and it can become painful so the sooner the doctor knows about it the better.

  13. QUESTION:
    Am I elgible for Supplemental Security Income (SSI)?
    Over 5 years ago, I was diagnosed with non hodgkins lymphoma of the colon. Had a colon resection and 6 months of chemo treatments and Rituxan treatments. It has come back. I've got to get it cut out again and take more treatments. The SSA website lists 50 medical conditions that fall in to their compassionate allowances category, one of which is "Large Intestine Cancer - with distant metastasis or inoperable, unresectable or recurrent". This sounds like me (recurrent). Am I right about this and, if so, would I receive benefits for the rest of my life? It has really taken a toll on my general health and if I could get this my quality of life would be improved. I can't get hired anywhere decent because companies don't want/can't insure me. Thanks in advance for the help.

    • ANSWER:
      If you are still online please send me a Yahoo Instant Message. I believe I can help you, and I would like to discuss this further with you. My Yahoo Screen-name is cloflin2015. Thanks.

  14. QUESTION:
    What could a palpable mass in lower abdomen be?
    My mum went to her doc yesterday (routine checkup) and they found a palpable mass in her lower abdomen - about 1-3 inches below her naval and slightly to the right. I could even feel it...it was at least 1-2 inches and hard, lumpy and not painful. My mom said she noticed it for a few weeks. What possibly could this mass be? We are scheduling a follow up appt with the surgeon as advised.

    Additional details: She has a history of breast cancer (triple negative) in 2006 with no metastasis and clean lymph nodes. She also had a transverse colon resection surgery 2 months ago after a routine colonoscopy showed a mass. The surgeon only had to remove 3 inches of the transverse colon (which is above the naval) during a laproscopic procedure. The final pathology from the resection came back benign. My mum is not sure if she noticed the new palpable mass before or after this surgery.

    So my question is, what could the palpable mass be? Cancer, scar tissue, other ????
    MAYBE my question is too long for some people. However, in it I stated .....SHE JUST SAW HER PRIMARY CARE DOC. She is scheduling an appt with the surgeon. SHE IS UNDER MEDICAL CARE.

    I'm just looking into gathering possibilities of what it might be so I can research and ask the correct questions when we see the surgeon.

    • ANSWER:
      You seriously want some one on this forum to diagnose whether you may have cancer. Get real and go to the doctor , they get paid to make that kind of decision.


Breast Carcinoma

What are the Causes of Breast Fibroids?
Breast fibroids, also known as fibrocystic breast disease, fibroid breasts, mammary dysplasia, benign breast disease and diffuse cystic mastopathy, are benign (non-cancerous), moveable, rubbery nodules that cause painful swelling near the breast surface.

GEL INJECTION APPARATUS AND TREATMENT OF BREAST, FIBROIDS AND ENDOMETRIAL ABLATION
An injection apparatus for treatment of diseases associated with female reproductive organs, comprising: a hollow core needle with a distal tip; an access probe configured to provide access to a uterus cavity by way of a vaginal canal; a lumen in the access probe for guiding said needle, the access probe adapted for directing the distal tip to a tissue area of interest selected from the group consisting of uterus, fibroid, myoma, fallopian tube, ovary, and cervix; and an injector for delivering a treatment substance comprising an active treatment substance and an inactive binding substance through the needle to the tissue area of interest.

Breast Cancer Drug Effective for Fibroids in Women

In premenopausal women with fibroids, the breast cancer drug anastrozole (Arimidex) reduces fibroid size and improves bothersome symptoms, according to results of a prospective study conducted at the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki in Greece. Fibroid tumors, or uterine leiomyomata, are benign growths in the uterus that can cause pain and bleeding and may eventually require surgical removal.

Based on other studies, the researchers think long-term treatment with anastrozole will be safe, but they emphasize that larger, placebo-controlled clinical trials will be required to establish the risk posed by prolonged anastrazole use in premenopausal women.

Anastrozole is typically prescribed for older (postmenopausal) women with breast cancer that is sensitive to estrogen. Anastrozole, and similar drugs, inhibit the enzyme aromatase, which is needed to produce estrogen. The current study suggests that anastrozole, given in such a low dose, acts primarily by blocking estrogens produced by the fibroids.

What are the Causes of Breast Fibroids?
The causes of breast fibroids are not completely understood. However, there are several factors that play a significant role in the development of the disease.

The monthly changes in the levels of oestrogen and progesterone are considered to be the most noteworthy factors contributing to this disease. These two hormones directly affect the breast tissues by causing cells to grow and multiply.
Prolactin, growth factor, thyroid hormone and insulin also influence the development of breast fibroids.
The breast produces hormonal products from its glandular and fat cells. These hormonal products send signals to the neighbouring breast cells. These signals are the key factors responsible for the development of breast fibroids.

Difference between benign breast lumps and cancerous ones

Uterine fibroids (singular Uterine Fibroma) (leiomyomata, singular leiomyoma) are benign tumors which grow from the muscle layers of the uterus.Fibroids are named according to where they are found. They are the most common benign neoplasm in females, and may affect about 25% of white and 50% of black women during the reproductive years. Uterine fibroids shrink dramatically in size after a woman passes through menopause. Cervical fibroids are found in the wall of the womb and can become very large.

Frequently Asked Questions

  1. QUESTION:
    Can women with invasive lobular carcinoma breast feed?
    Invasive lobular carcinoma affect the lobules of the breast, which produce milk for the new born baby.
    so i was wondering if women with invasive lobular carcinoma are allowed to breast feed?
    I was thinking maybe they couldn't because maybe the milk is infected with cancer cells?
    help!

    • ANSWER:

  2. QUESTION:
    Where I can find a diagramatic view of medullary carcinoma of breast online?
    I need a website name to find a diagram of medullary carcinoma of the breast

    • ANSWER:
      Ι think it is better seeing a doctor in person to answer this kind of questions.

  3. QUESTION:
    I was diagnosed with invasive carcinoma breast cancer Stage 2a grade3?
    no lymph nodes were involved , all tests came back negative for receptors , which i believe it was a triple negative cancer. I had 6 treatments of chemo and am now going through 6 weeks of radiation. I am 36 yrs old.

    What are my chances of this reoccurring?

    no one can tell me why or how i got it , and there is NO history of breast cancer in my family.

    • ANSWER:
      I'm a Breast Cancer survivor for almost 2 years. The Cancer I had was stage 2 lobular invasive and it had started going out side of the lobules, The type I had was not seen on a mammogram or ultrasound it only showed up on an MRI and only 10 to 15% are infiltrating or invasive, mine was E R positive and it is not genetic. The kind I had was estrogen fed and I am now on Femara for 5 years. They gave me Tamoxifen but I had a severe reaction to it, You didn't say if your cancer was ductal, lobular , or something else. It would be hard to say what your chances of recurrence is. Like I said about the type I had it was estrogen fed and no one in my family had this. The great thing is because of mine being what it was I don't have to worry that I passed it down to my Daughter. The BRACA1 and 2 were negative for genetics. But I do have a chance of recurrence and it coming back in different parts of my body. But that won't happen God took mine away and he won't let it come back. Sometimes we really can't get all of our questions answerd because there really is no answer why it was you, but you had the cancer cells in your body and they invaded and became cancer. What I was told was every person has Cancer cells, but not all people get cancer

  4. QUESTION:
    When performing a sentinel lymph node biopsy at the time of a mastectomy for breast carcinoma...?
    How does the surgeon determine whether radiolabeled sulphur colloid should be used versus methylene blue dye?

    Would someone kindly provide a link to a source which describes the pros and cons of using each technique in finding the sentinel axillary lymph node?
    @Louise: No surgery section, only women's health and they either don't answer or simply wish to discuss the size of their breasts. This is the only section that seriously studies matters affecting women.

    • ANSWER:
      Don't you think you might have more luck if you posted this question in the surgery section (I'm sure they must have one on here).

  5. QUESTION:
    My mother had both non small cell carcinoma and breast cancer twice, am i at a greater risk for getting it too?
    She recently lost her life after 14 years of batteling the disease. i have an appointment to discuss genetic testing in about two weeks. i just wanted to get some info about it. thanks.

    • ANSWER:
      Do yourself a huge favor and go to NetFlix or a video store and rent the movie called "Healing Cancer." You need to understand what is happening with this disease. The medical solutions are incredibly terrible. They are so terrible in fact, that the only disease that is defined as "CURED" as a five year survivability. No other disease is looked at that way. Ask yourself why? The answer is to make it look like modern medicine is succeeding with this disease, but it is miserably failing and for good reason. The chemotherapy helps only about 2-3% of people and according to medical research statistics, any drug that has less than a 30% success is considered no better than a placebo effect.

      People who do not get treated medically statistically live longer than those that do. There are wonderful alternatives that are working and people are getting well. Don't be afraid of this disease, but do get proactive in searching the truth. Get the genetic testing, but don't fret the results and get educated, not indoctrinated.

      good luck to you

  6. QUESTION:
    Can someone explain to me the comparison and contrast of breast and cervical carcinoma?
    Also, as well as to incidence, mortality rate, risk factors, and measures for early detection?

    • ANSWER:
      google the key words

  7. QUESTION:
    A family member, 56 yrs female, was diagnosed with Carcinoma left breast in 2001. Underwent mastectomy...(((?
    A family member, 56 yrs female, was diagnosed with Carcinoma left breast in 2001. Underwent mastectomy, received chemothearapy & radiothearapy. Things went pretty fine until last year in April, the cancer resurfaced as skin & bone metastasis. Again, she was administered chemothearapy & radiothearapy. Still, her life went on pretty much alright, without much pain. However, in February this year, she was yet again diagnosed with Inflammatory breast Carcinoma, which turned our world upside down. Doctors disapproved surgery, the pain mounted gradually, ever morphine failed to provide much relief. Now, last month, her brain CT scan showed the involvement of Brain metastais. She has now lost most of her consiousness; does not speak anything at all, is catherised & is fed through Ryle's tube. Yesterday, she got the last shot of radiotherapy. At times, she makes painful groans, her respiratory rate in very slow. She holds her breath for a minute or so, before inhalation. WHAT BEST CAN BE DONE?

    • ANSWER:
      i am very sorry to here about your family member. i have worked as a cancer nurse for over two years now and unfortunately, it sounds as if she is near the end. sometimes thats the hardest part of cancer (worse than all the treatments combined) if morphine is not helping her i would ask the docs for some type of continuous medication to keep her pain free. they offer those medications for at home use as well (not sure if she's home or where she is) but most meds can be given continuously at home. try the very best you can to keep her comfortable, let her know you are there for her, and just be a family. there are nurses who come to your home to help during these times as well. i hope things go well

  8. QUESTION:
    Have you or someone you've known been diagnosed with Intraductal papilloma, carcinoma in situ or breast cancer?
    Was it found with a lump or did it begin with nipple bleeding? Please share your(or the person you know) experience with discovering it, any misdiagnosis and any thing else. Also if you were considered "young" and what stage it was discovered at and anything else.

    • ANSWER:
      Intraductal cancers are always stage 0. Papillary breast cancers are rare. I have never seen one misdiagnosed. They are found the same way any other breast cancer is found. I have never had it myself so I can’t answer your other questions.

  9. QUESTION:
    Trying to help a massage client with evasive lobular carcinoma of the breast?
    I have a client who has stage 4 evasive lobular carcino of the right breast. It is caused by her body making massive amounts of estrogen and progesterone from some where in her body. They tried giving her a medication that would put her into menopause to stop the production of the estrogen but she got violently
    ill after just two tablets. It actually did give her the symptoms of menopause but the depression was so severe she cryed for two days and was actually thinking of suicide which is something she never thinks of. She stopped taking the medication after the second pill and it took 2 days to lose the side effects. They say it is too big to do surgery (the tumor) and that chemo and radiation will not cure this type of cancer. We have been doing energy work which helps but periods make the tumor grow more. We are looking to find out if there is any other type of treatment for this condition that is alternative. I have some carsinoma homeopathic beads Will this help?

    • ANSWER:
      There is an alternative treatment if your interested, its not used alot in the US. Europe and other nations worldwide are using it alot more. Its called BCEC (Biologically closed electrical circuit). It might sound weird but the treatment method is easier on the patient than traditional chemo/radiation and the end results are remarkebly high. I suggest it to people before starting the chemo/radiation treatment.
      It was created by Dr. Björn E.W. Nordenström.
      His website is http://www.iabc.readywebsites.com/page/page/623957.htm
      If you want more info check out http://www.emfscience.net

  10. QUESTION:
    What causes breast and arm pain after having biopsy with Lobular Carcinoma in Situ diagnosis?
    I can barely raise my arms up over my head. I have sever pain between the shoulders and elbow on both arms. I had three wire localizations with excisional biopsies in April 2008, and this has gotten alot worse since the surgery. What can I do and where should I start to look for answers.?

    • ANSWER:
      look in the chat section of this link and see if someone their is experienced the same problems that you are having, but I would advise you to go and see your doctor just in case you have developed an infection from having a biopsy done. good luck.xx

  11. QUESTION:
    thyroid papillary carcinoma vs papillary breast neoplasm, any connection?
    I had to have a breast lumpectomy once for a papillary neoplasm. two years later I had to have a mass from my chest removed that they said was benign but rare which originated from my thymus. Now they removed my thyroid and was diagnosed with papillary carcinoma. I have had 4 new lung nodules develop this year and although they are small, should I be concerned?

    • ANSWER:
      There is no connection at all.
      Are you thinking they might just because they both have “papillary” in the name?
      You did not have cancer in the breast therefore it was not able to spread anywhere
      Neoplasm simply means mass, tumor or growth.
      A papillary neoplasm is a tumor shaped like a mushroom, with its stem attached to the epithelial layer of an organ.
      Without knowing your age, the stage and grade of your thyroid cancer I am unable to answer your other questions and you should discuss them with your doctor.

  12. QUESTION:
    Question about in situ carcinoma (breast)?
    They found low grade to intermediate in situ carcinoma in my mom's left breast. It is at low growth. What are the fatality rates she is 46 years old. I am 13, I think I need to go see a therapist because the fear is killing me and I feel like if something happened to her I might kill myself.

    • ANSWER:
      Survival rate for DCIS is around 99.99%

      This is a very survivable cancer.

  13. QUESTION:
    What are the common name for the breast cancer?
    Breast cancer, familial
    * Breast carcinoma
    * Cancer of breast
    * Malignant neoplasm of breast
    * malignant tumour of breast
    * Mammary cancer
    these are the common names i've found online tell me if it is true.

    • ANSWER:
      Those are all common names. What really matters is the pathological description of the biopsy. Most breast carcinomas are adenocarcinomas. The general name is not the important thing. The specific characteristics of the malignant breast cancer cells are important - the receptors, the degree of differentiation, nodal status, primary tumor size, overall stage. Breast cancers - and all types of cancer - are complicated. The oncologist will probably try to explain these details for the individual case you are asking about. It can be difficult for a non medical specialist to understand it all.

  14. QUESTION:
    Recently diagnosed with Ductal Carcinoma (stage 1) breast cancer and the doctor wants me to have a lumpectomy,?
    radiation, and chemo..Ive heard that chemo can cause cancer..is this true? how bad is chemo?

    • ANSWER:
      This is the only treatment that is currently used for brest cancer. Breast cancer is mostly very fast to spread. So U must let it be done at earliest possible time.

  15. QUESTION:
    is breast cancer the same as breast carcinoma?

    • ANSWER:
      CARCINOMA is a malignant tumor that arises from epithelial cells, which line the internal and external surfaces of the body. Carcinomas are most commonly found in the lining of body organs, such as the breast, prostate, lung, stomach, or bowel. Most human cancers are carcinomas.

      Breast cancer is caused by the development of malignant cells in the breast. The malignant cells often originate in the lining of the milk glands or ducts of the breast (ductal epithelium). Cancer cells are characterized by uncontrolled division leading to abnormal growth and the ability of these cells to invade normal tissue locally or to spread throughout the body, in a process called metastasis.

      Breast cancer often arises in the milk-producing glands of the breast tissue. Groups of glands in normal breast tissue are called lobules. The products of these glands are secreted into a ductal system that leads to the nipple. Depending on where in the glandular or ductal unit of the breast the cancer arises, it will develop certain characteristics that are used to sub-classify breast cancer into types. The pathologist will denote the subtype at the time of evaluation with the microscope. Ductal carcinoma begins in the ducts, and lobular carcinoma has a pattern involving the lobules or glands. The more important classification is related to the evaluated tumor's capability to invade, as this characteristic defines the disease as a true cancer. The stage before invasive cancer is called in situ, meaning that the early malignancy has not yet become capable of invasion. Thus, ductal carcinoma in situ is considered a minimal breast cancer.

      The above is called Breast cancer and there is nothingcalled as Brest carcinoma. -

  16. QUESTION:
    what do basal cell carcinoma, breast cancer and colon cancer have in common?

    • ANSWER:
      They are the result of epithelial cells that are growing out of control.

  17. QUESTION:
    metastalic breast carcinoma is? Not sure if the c word is correct?

    • ANSWER:
      A breast cancer that has spread.

  18. QUESTION:
    my mother has been dianosed with grade 2 invasive ductal carcinoma & a doctor in nigeria said d breast b remov?
    doctor recommend the breast be removed,why and is that correct.pls advise.l am worried,she's 73yrs old.

    • ANSWER:
      A ductal carcinoma is a form of breast cancer, where cancer cells grow inside the breast ducks. By removing the breasts, the cancerous tissues will be removed (i.e the tumor). On top of that it will prevent it from spreading (if it isn't done yet). So year, removing the breast is a suitable course of action. On top of that she may need radiotherapy and chemotherapy.

      If you mother was healthy until then, she will be fine, but I cannot promise anything.

      All you can do is be by her side, and support her as much as you can. She will loose or gain weight which may be scary. She will also be very tired, she may loose her hair, and she will also become very cranky (most doctors don't tell you that). Just deal with it and love her. Don't show her that you are worried, but do ask for all medical details, I find that it helps a lot of the patients to know exactly what's happening and why.

      Furthermore, make sure you mother keeps (or starts) exercising several times a week (2-3 times). It will be hard for her, especially at the beginning, but on the long run, cancer patient who exercise have a better recovery.

      Finally, you mother will need a very strict medical follow up. Once most cancer cells are gone, she will have to get a full blood count every 3 months at least.

      Good luck.

  19. QUESTION:
    In what tissue does carcinoma form in breast cancer?

    • ANSWER:
      It usually forms in the ducts.

  20. QUESTION:
    Mucinous Carcinoma (aka colloid) breast cancer?
    Has anyone had first hand experience with Mucinous Carcinoma (aka colloid) breast cancer?

    If so, can you tell me what you know about it? I have looked it up on the web, but since it is so rare, there are few in depth articles about it.
    My friend's wife was diagnosed with it today and he asked me if I could help them research it.

    • ANSWER:
      well this is the type of carcinoma that has better prognosis that the usual ductal or lobular carcinoma. proper treatment should cure it if diagnosis is made in early stage.

  21. QUESTION:
    Ductal Carcinoma (Breast Cancer)?
    My Sister was diagnosed with Breast Cancer in November. It started off as a little lump in her left breast. She has gone through lots of Chemo and alternative drugs. She lost her left breast now and most of the pectoral muscle and roughly 23 lymph nodes as all were invaded. She is now being told that there are spots on her spine and in her other breast and some of those lymph nodes. There may be a spot or two as well on her liver. She does not want to know the prognosis as she doesn't want to think about it. She has a 4 yr old son and a 1 yr old daughter. I want to know the pronosis though. I want to be prepared so I can be strong for when my parents need me the most. Any information out there I would appreciate it. I have researched so much. By the way I am also doing the Making Strides 5 mile Breast Cancer walk in Philly in October, if anyone would like to make a small donation to that please let me know and I will send you the link. Take care and thank you.

    • ANSWER:
      There was abook published in 1994 called: STRAIGHT TALK ABOUT BREAST CANCER by Suzanne Braddock , et al = ISBN 1886039216. It gives every woman and family basic info.

      What maybe you need is her permission to speak with her doctor and get her info directly.

  22. QUESTION:
    What is a carcinoma of the breast?
    include mammography and surgical incisions of the breast

    • ANSWER:
      Carcinoma means "cancer".
      A carcinoma of the breast means a tumor or cancerous growth was detected (usually by self-exam or mammogram).

      Not sure what you mean by "include mammography and surgical incisions of the breast" as part of your question.

  23. QUESTION:
    I have just been diagnosed with infiltrative ductal carcinoma (breast cancer).?
    I am just wondering what may lie ahead. I'm scheduled for an MRI and a surgical consultation. They say I have two cancer sites and it sounds as if they may do a "lumpectomy." I understand this type of cancer is very common. Any words of wisdom are most welcomed. I have a strong support system, I am very positive at this point.

    • ANSWER:
      Lots of love to you. I myself am a survivor of the same type of breast cancer. I just wanted you to know that it is very beatable. I had a very aggressive type and I went into remission in 2003. I was 27 when I was diagnosed, and am now happy to be 33. A lumpectomy is a good, good sign. If they are choosing the less invasive of a surgery, it's always a very positive sign.

      Even if they do a mastectomy, just know it will be OKAY! I've lost my breast, but not my life, and I am far happier now than I was before I got sick. Love yourself. Be nice to yourself, and accept help from others. I'll be thinking about you.

  24. QUESTION:
    what does infiltrating duct carcinoma,grade III in a biopsy test for left breast .What does it meant?
    None

    • ANSWER:
      It means cancer in the ducts of your left breast. Grading is sometimes even more important than staging. Staging is the size of the cancerous area or tumor. Grading is the potentially serious speed at which the cancer cells are multiplying and spreading. Grade III is the most serious. The cancer has the potential to become invasive and spread to other parts of the body via the lymph nodes. Do not ignore this or your doctors advice. If you feel you need a second or even third opinion, do not delay.

  25. QUESTION:
    Is there any correlation between breast cancer and lung cancer?
    I am a 52 year ol;d female. Ten years ago I was diagnosed with lobular carcinoma of the breast (in-situ) and had bilateral mastectomies. My mother died of the same type of breast cancer when she was 47. I now have squamous cell lung cancer on the same side as the breast. Could there be a correlation?

    • ANSWER:
      No, they are two different types of cancer. Lobular carcinoma in-situ (LCIS) is really more of an early warning indicator that the patient will develop an invasive cancer in either breast, not just the one it was found in. This is why a bilateral mastectomy was recommended to you. LCIS is non-invasive and therefore incapable of spreading. Many people develop either lung or breast cancer and never develop the other. Good luck with your treatment. I hope all goes well for you.

  26. QUESTION:
    I have breast cancer, needle biopsy indicates low grade ductal carcinoma. Very small 9mm nodule.?
    Now doctor wants a core needle biopsy to further investigate.
    Why didn't they do that originally?
    Is low grade considered better? Is this DCIS, LCIS?? Too many acronyms.
    I know this doesn't indicate the stage, this is what terrifies me!
    Already had another cancer three years ago. Only in my 40's and all of this.

    • ANSWER:

  27. QUESTION:
    My mom they find in situ carcinoma in her breast?
    Sorry if I spell something wrong by accident I am only 13. Well a couple of days ago my mom told me they found in situ carcinoma in her breasts. I'm worried and I don't know what it is. She is 46 years old.

    1. Is the treatment rough?
    2. Is this fatal?
    3. How do I help her or encourage her before surgeries?
    4. Is it hereditary?

    They haven't done invasive surgery yet and she is so worried I have to be strong for her but I don't know what to say, help please?
    She is the only one with this. My grandfathers (both) had lung cancer but they were smokers.

    • ANSWER:
      In situ carcinoma is a non-invasive cancer and therefore not fatal.
      Treatment is no walk in the park and she is likely to be give a couple of options that will be completely explained to her.
      I don’t know how you can encourage her. Everyone reacts differently and you know her better than anyone I’m sure whatever you come up with will be helpful. You are her baby and she does nothing in her life without thinking about you.
      Cancer is rarely hereditary. However, she is very young for breast cancer and her doctor may have her be tested for a hereditary gene mutation. Lung cancer has no relation to breast cancer.
      A healthy lifestyle will not prevent any cancer. 80% of people diagnosed with breast cancer have no family history of it, so I’m not sure where some evidence that there is a hereditary element comes from and I am not aware of such evidence.

  28. QUESTION:
    what does infiltrating duct carcinoma,group III in a biopsy test for left breast .What does it meant?
    Clearance towards posterior inferior and superior stages are minimal

    • ANSWER:
      most common breast cancer also know as scirrhous carcinoma. it presents as hard lump.
      grouping indicates severness of the diseae. unfortunately group III come into more severe breast cancer.
      consult a good surgeon & try to operate as early as possible before it severly metastatises to other organs.

  29. QUESTION:
    What are holistic treatments for aggressive breast cancer?
    Anyone receive treatment (other than chemo) for infiltrating ductal carcinoma in the breast?

    • ANSWER:
      You can try anything else as long as you DON"T stop your chemo. Undergoing chemo is hard and painful but it works.

  30. QUESTION:
    prognosis of infitrating duct carcinoma of breast grade 2?

    • ANSWER:
      Depending on the size of your tumor and the treatment you have a fairly good prognosis this is an excellent web site for information about different kinds of breast cancer and treatments
      http://www.breastcancer.org/

  31. QUESTION:
    Is this relative close enough to add to my family history of breast cancer??
    my mom's cousin sister, who died of bilateral breast carcinoma. Is this relative close enough to me that can be added to my family history of cancer, I am worried because i have fibroadenomas recurring at this age (age 28), had 3 previous benign lumpectomies.

    • ANSWER:
      No this is not close enough. But you need to have regular check ups. Maybe more often than most women.

  32. QUESTION:
    current treatment of carcinoma male breast.?

    • ANSWER:
      Same as for female breast, depending upon the tissue type.

  33. QUESTION:
    My mother was diagnoise with breast cancer in 2001. The name of the breast cancer that is in her left breast i
    The name of the breast cancer that is in her left breast is Infiltrating Ductal Carcinoma. There is a lump on her right breast now. The question I am trying to ask is it okay for her to get a biospy on the lump that is on her right breast. Will the breast cancer spread to other parts of her body quickly.

    • ANSWER:
      Having cancer on one breast gives you a 50% chance of having another cancer on the other breast. I am not saying that the lump on the right breast is cancer, only a biopsy could confirm that. Catching the cancer early could help control the spread of the cancer to other parts of her body.

  34. QUESTION:
    is mucinous carcinoma of the breast terminal?

    • ANSWER:
      any cancer can be terminal, but in your case, no one but your doctor can tell you your chances. it depends on what stage the cancer is in and how well you respond to treatment and if it's operable as well as other factors that need to be taken into consideration.
      good luck

  35. QUESTION:
    Invasive Ductal Carcinoma or Inflammatory Breast Cancer?
    I am curious....my mother was diagnosed with breast cancer (the first time) in 1994. There was a recent family event that led me to look up her original pathology report - my mother is very open with us daughters about her diagnosis so i have her permission to do this. I can't figure out if she had IDC or Inflammatory Breast cancer. She recently stated that it was inflammatory breast cancer back in 1994. I always thought it was IDC but I was a teenager at the time so it wasn't discussed with me very often. However, I remember back in 1996 that she said her breast cancer was hard to see (or not seen at all) on mammogram because the tumor was enclosed in a cyst (which she confirmed yesterday) - however, i thought tumors are not usually associated with inflammatory breast cancer.
    So, she says it was inflammatory breast cancer but the pathology report from her 1994 needle biopsy says IDC with chronic and acute inflammation ER-, PR+, grade 3. Is there anyway this needle biopsy pathology report could be wrong? For example, maybe they did more tests after her mastectomy and changed her diagnosis to inflammatory breast cancer? This question has no effects on her treatment or anything (as she is cancer free and not on treatment), I am just curious. I tend to believe that maybe she heard the word inflammation and thought it was inflammatory breast cancer.

    • ANSWER:
      Treatments for IBC in 1994 had a horrible track record. Indeed it isn't much better now. I would believe that it was IDC based on the fact that she is still here. There are only a very few people still around 15 years after a diagnosis of IBC. Most of those underwent very radical high dose chemotherapy. Glad to hear that your mother is doing well!

      edit -- further research proves me wrong Dr. Cristofanilli is the lead researcher at the IBC clinic at M.D. Anderson (Texas). relevant quote --

      From Dr. Cristofanilli, here is his answer to the IDC and IBC question:

      IBC is a clinical diagnosis, meaning that patients present with all
      the features that we know (redness, swelling etc) and we recognize it
      as such. When these patients go to biopsy then they have a
      pathological dx. The cancer cells may look like "ductal invasive
      type" or (less frequently) "lobular invasive". In summary, IBC is
      usually an IDC type under the microscope...

      Patti Bradfield, President
      Inflammatory Breast Cancer Foundation

      www.eraseibc.com

      --------------------------------------------------------------

      So she might have had IBC based strictly off of the pathology report. I hope this helps

      Denny

  36. QUESTION:
    what is the best alternative treatment for metastatic breast cancer?
    it all started as ductal carcinoma of the left breast. it would now appear to have spread to the lungs, and probbly other organs and the bones. of late, what appears to be metastatic spread in the lungs would no longer respond or react to the drugs introduce as chemotherapy

    • ANSWER:
      I'm sorry to hear that you or someone close to you has secondary breast cancer. Why do you say it 'appears' to have spread, is there a chance that it hasn't? What do the medical team involved advise regarding treatment?

      As far as alternatives go, there are alternative and complementary therapies that will make you feel better, but none that have been proven to be at all effective in treating cancer.

      I'm sure you know, since you've come this far, that wherever there's cancer there's someone waiting to make a fast buck out of people's desperation by selling ineffective and sometimes dangerous 'cures'. There are also well-meaning and caring people who will recommend diets, herbs etc. Then there are the cancer hobbyists who pop up on here most days - people who have never studied, had or been close to cancer but consider themselves experts because of something they've read or heard.

      If you are interested in any particular 'alternative', do a search on http://www.quackwatch.org before committing any time or money. And always be wary of unsubstantiated testimonials and anecdotes; you have no way of knowing if the person ever had cancer in the first place, much less was cured.

      If you don't use them already, I recommend these websites. Both have loads of information and both also have forums where you can talk to people who are or have been in the same situation as yourself, whether it is you or a loved one who has cancer

      http://www.breastcancercare.org.uk
      http://www.breastcancer.org

      Good luck

  37. QUESTION:
    I was diagnosed with breast cancer, low grade ductal carcinoma. Mass is small, 9mm.?
    I Don't know anything more. Waiting for MRI.
    Is low grade a good sign?
    Got divorced and diagnosed all in one day! :( (

    • ANSWER:
      Sounds like they found it early. Vitamin D has been shown to prevent 77% of all cancers. In a study of 500 women with breast cancer, it was found 76% were deficient in vitamin D. Women were 94% more likely to have their cancer spread and 73% more likely to die from their cancer with low levels of vitamin D. When fighting cancer, vitamin D levels should be around 100ng/ml or 250nmol/l. Normal optimal levels - 80ng/ml or 200nmol/l. According to experts, most people lack the vitamin drastically and need to take 5,000 IU a day. The videos on the first two links are worth watching...you will relate to the second video about cancer and toxic relationships>>>

      http://www.politicolnews.com/vitamin-d-a-cure-for-cancer/
      http://www.naturalnews.tv/v.asp?v=B204E18C3266E28785E15542D0CFB8B0

      Vitamin D prevents 77% of all cancers.>>>
      http://www.creighton.edu/publicrelations/newscenter/news/2007/june2007/june82007/vitamind_cancer_nr060807/index.php

  38. QUESTION:
    Possible breast cancer..ductal carcinoma ?
    my best friend had a lump for a year and noone knew. she had a physical and they sent her for mammogram which found lump 2 to 4 cm and spider web appearance.

    She has to have an ultrasound tomorrow and then go from there. the radiologist already said suspicious of cancer.
    She knew she had lump but we didn't know.
    I am her best friend and sis in law and comes to me for support. i am researching and making sure she follows through and was wondering does this sound like cancer ? how do you help friend with wide range ofemotions from anger to laughter to i want a 2nd opinion. i am afraid she may even go in denial and want to be there for her.

    • ANSWER:
      You have asked various versions of this same question the past couple of days, so you are either not getting the answers you want or this isn’t really your question. It is normal for people to deal with cancer in wide range of emotions, but try not to ride them with her. Someone needs to be level headed when she is not and be the voice of reason for her. Go to her appointments with her, listen to her, encourage her to be positive, love her and by all means get a second opinion.

  39. QUESTION:
    survival of breast cancer, invasive lobular carcinoma?
    my mom has ilc, had her breast removed, they never told her the stage or grade yet. she hasnt started treatment yet but has an appointment tomorrow with the onc. she had 20 lymph nodes removed, 19 had cancer. what does all this mean and does she have a good chance of survival?
    thank you for answering. her surgeon said she will likely need chemo and possibly radiation. she had a bone scan, and will have a cat scan for her organc is a few weeks. My dad is going to the appt with her. I think she may be stage 3 because of the size of the thickening area. im just so scared of it all. our family has NO history of any cancer, except for moms uncle who got lung cancer from smoking like a chimmney

    • ANSWER:
      All those that answered you gave good answers. It seems that we all have our own experiences. Like you've been told, we can't predict the outcome of her tests. You will have to wait. You don't need a family history to get breast cancer. A history begins with one person. Each person is different and each person responds differently to treatments and medications I had 13 nodes removed and I had a very aggressive cancer. I one week time, I had the mammogram first, followed by and ultra sound, MRI, biopsy, diagnosis and bi lateral mastectomy. My cancer was not unusual as breast cancers go. A lot of women get ductal cancer. Mine was invasive, meaning it's already gone into other tissue and had to be treated right away. I had a total of 10 tumors but only one was as nasty as the devil and that's all it takes, one to do a lot of harm. Your mom is being treated and it sounds like everything is under control. My husband came with me and it's a good thing he did because when the Dr said the word cancer, I heard nothing else. If he wasn't there, I wouldn't have known what else the Dr said so it's really good your dad is going with her. It shows support for her, caring, and he wants to understand what's going on and of course, he loves her. So bravo for your dad. I know it meant the world to me when my husband came. Your mom will do good, Think positive and never feel negative. Cancer sucks plain and simpl and I think of all the diseases on this planet, it's the sneakiest. I hate it and so does everyone else. So God bless and do all you can for your mom. She's going to need you and for you to support her. I know you will. Be blessed and let us know how everything turns out. OK

  40. QUESTION:
    was just diagnosed with dcis - ductal carcinoma in situ. Who is the BEST Breast Cancer Oncologist in LA area?
    prefer an oncologist that is board certified in both oncology and hematology and on staff at either cedars and or city of hope, and specializes in aggressive treatments of breast cancer.
    I know that there are more LA based Yahoo's out here...pls need a referral/recommendation to get best diagnosis and treatment plan.

    • ANSWER:
      If you have "just" DCIS, why are you looking for a hematologist? Is not radiation therapy sufficient in DCIS treatment? You may not need chemo.

      Sorry...I digress...

      UCLA or Cedar-Sinai or USC Cancer Center.

      City of Hope, in Duarte, is quite a drive if you only have to have the radiation therapy.

      I LOVE the radiation oncology department at Providence Holy Cross in Mission Hills.

      Ask your doctor, maybe.

      Many of these have satellite offices in "neighborhood" offices.

      Good luck to you!

  41. QUESTION:
    I have breast cancer! Pathology indicated a 9mm low grade ductal carcinoma.?
    Surgeon said he feels it was caught early, having lumpectomy and 4 weeks of radiation.
    How is he so sure?
    I know that my sentinel node/lymph nodes must be checked for cancer.
    If he is correct, am I stage 0 or stage?

    • ANSWER:
      You are not a stage 0. It is a stage 1 at a minimum.
      He isn’t sure. He is telling you what he thinks based of the test results you have.
      Tumors this small are not likely to have lymph node involvement.
      You will be referred to an oncologist to determine if chemo or hormone therapy is appropriate.

  42. QUESTION:
    what is the survival rate of metastasis carcinoma after removal of breast?

    • ANSWER:
      Please avoid going into statistics. It is neither a yard stick nor give you any better idea. It is always said by oncologists and other experts dealing with cancers that chemo, surgery and radiation is only 30 or 40% and remaining is will power of the patient and as such patient as also everybody around him/her should always think that he/she will be cured.

  43. QUESTION:
    Anybody advise me which is the best hospital/doctor in INDIA doing Full Breast Reconstruction after mastectomy
    My wife was diagnosed for breast carcinoma in her right breast .She was operated for MOdified Radical Mastectomy in Feburary 2003 at Fortis Chandigarh and further treatment was done from Rajiv gandhi CAncer Institute with 4AC and $ Taxaol Chemotherapy and 25 days of radiotherapy, now she is interested to reconstruct her breast please advise me the BEAST hospital in INDIA or doctor where this facility is available.

    • ANSWER:
      you need a good plastic surgeon and that would be the best option for reconstructive surgery, good luck

  44. QUESTION:
    anaplastic invasive duct carcinoma(grade111)T2NOMO ER/PR/Her2-negative underwent lumpectomy of the left breast
    At present completed 3 courses of FEC chemotheraphy followed by 3 cycles of Docetaxel Chemotheraphy Advised local radiation by chemotherapist but oncosurgeon is differing on this opinion and wants me to avoid R.th in breast conservation Now I am in a fix whose advise I should follow.Please help

    • ANSWER:
      Go with what you think is best after weighing the options from your Oncologists.

  45. QUESTION:
    A female patient in the age group of 47 have carcinosarcoma breast what should be further treatment of choice
    right modified radical mastectectomy done.Histopathology reported as metaplastic carcinoma (carcinosarcoma) breast ,8 lymph nodes (0.3-0.8cm size) recovered showed reactive hyperplasia. E.R.,Pg.R. Receptors negative.

    • ANSWER:
      If her oncologist is female, she should ask what her doctor what she would do in her position. If her oncologist is male, she should ask what he would recommend for his wife, mother, sister, aunt, or daughter.

      BTW, even if there were an doctor here, no detailed or specific medical advice could be morally, ethically or potentially even legally given without haveing seen that patient and being fully familiar with every aspect of the case.

  46. QUESTION:
    Where would one find information about forms of breast cancer?
    I believe it is called infiltrating ductile carcinoma. I am not sure about the spelling, but I think it is close. I just need information, and where to find said information for reference.

    • ANSWER:
      Mammary ductal carcinoma is the most common type of breast cancer in women. It comes in two forms: invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), an infiltrating, malignant and abnormal proliferation of neoplastic cells in the breast tissue and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), a noninvasive, possibly malignant neoplasm that is still confined to the lactiferous ducts, where breast cancer most often originates.
      Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). IDC accounts for about 70 percent of all breast cancers. The cancer cells form in the lining of your milk duct, then break through the ductal wall and invade nearby breast tissue. The cancer cells may remain localized — staying near the site of origin — or spread (metastasize) throughout your body, carried by your bloodstream or lymphatic system.

  47. QUESTION:
    What are the chances of recovery from breast cancer?
    My mom is just getting ready to start her chemo next week. Infiltrating Ductal Carcinoma, positive lymph nodes, estrogen pos, progesterone neg, her 2 neu neg, grade 3, Nottingham 9/9. She had a total of 6/17 nodes, I'm scare to death, is there a chance she can beat it?

    • ANSWER:
      In terms of recovery if you mean the cancer is gone and never coming back that is difficult to tell once it is in the lymph nodes and is not exactly how cancer is measured in terms of success. As you may know she has both some negatives and positives in terms of her test results. I would focus on the positives. From the information you gave she has to be at least a stage IIIA, which has a 10-year survival rate of about 60%. This rate may improve with respect to your mother depending on how well she responds to treatment, if her tumor was under 2.5cm and if ER was highly positive. We are doing better at managing breast cancer all the time and there is every reason to believe she will be with you for quite sometime. Best wishes to you both.

  48. QUESTION:
    I am wondering if this breast lump could be Cancer?
    I am very nervous right now...I had a Breast Reduction on July 22nd...a few months before that I had nipple discharge from my right breast...milky like...well now after my BR several times I have had soft masses in each breast that I chalked up to be just tissue masses and they went away...well a few nights ago I felt an unusual lump on my right breast that was very hard and small...like a pea kind a....well today I noticed while I was trying to sleep that its is now 'marble sized'...it doesnt hurt tho...
    It is at the surface on the under part of mymy right breast towards the right side...
    This was bothering me and I couldnt sleep so I got online and found this:

    (((((***I ANSWERED THE QUESTIONS LIKE THIS***)))))

    Is the mass tender?

    Many women are surprised to learn that cancerous masses are usually not tender or painful at all. A benign mass is usually slightly to very tender on its own or upon palpation.

    (((((***NO***)))))

    Is the mass mobile? Can the mass move freely, or is it fixed in position?

    To determine if a mass is mobile, lay down on your back and turn slightly so the affected breast is lying flat against the chest wall. For example, if you feel the mass in your right breast turn slightly to the left. Using the hand of the opposite side (left hand if you are examining your right breast.), place your index finger on one side of the mass and your middle finger on the other side of the mass. Press your index finger towards your chest, then your middle finger. You may feel the mass move between your fingers. Mobility of a mass can be affected by the surrounding tissue. If the tissue around the mass is very dense, the mass will not be able to move as freely as if it were surrounded by fatty tissue. Most benign masses are slightly to very mobile. Masses that will not move and are very fixed in position are more likely of a malignant origin.

    (((((*** I COULDNT REALLY TELL BUT IT DOESNT SEEM TOO***)))))

    Does the mass feel smooth, like a marble, or irregular?

    Benign masses will most likely have margins or borders that are very smooth. Cancerous masses usually feel very irregular, and no smooth margins can be felt.

    (((((***IM NOT SURE...I THINK IT MAY HAVE SMOOTH PARTS***)))))

    Is the mass soft (fleshy) or hard?

    Benign masses can be either soft or hard. Most cancerous masses are very hard and immobile.

    (((((***HARD AS A ROCK***)))))

    When in the sitting position and leaning slightly forward so that the breast is hanging freely from the chest wall, is there any puckering of the skin around the mass?

    Any puckering or dimpling of the skin around or at the site of the mass may indicate that the mass is cancerous.

    (((((*** YES BUT IM NOT SURE IF ITS FROM MY BR***)))))

    Are there any skin changes, such as discoloring of the skin, an orange peel look and/or texture, or skin ulceration?

    If you answer yes to any of the above, a cancerous mass is most likely indicated and should be discussed with your doctor right away. Please note that ulcerations of the skin can occur due to skin conditions and may not indicate a breast carcinoma. It is when a mass and skin ulceration occur together that the findings are suspect for breast cancer. If you do notice skin changes on the breast that occur with no palpable mass present, check with your doctor to rule out underlying pathology.

    (((((***THERE IS A SMALL 'BRUISE' LOOKING SPOT WHERE IT IS***)))))

    Has the nipple become inverted?

    A nipple becoming inverted is a concern if:

    * This is a new finding
    * Only one nipple is involved

    A cancerous mass that is growing behind or near the nipple may cause the nipple to become inverted. Occasionally, the nipples may become inverted on their own. If this happens at the same time on both sides, cancer may not be the cause, but always be sure to discuss any new changes in the breast with your doctor.

    (((((***NO***)))))

    I dont know ladies... this is bothering me...
    what do u think?...
    is it from BR in July?...
    Have any of u experienced this?

    IM CALLING MY OBGYN IN THE MORNING!!!!!
    thanks guys!!!...i appriciate it!

    • ANSWER:

  49. QUESTION:
    does anyone know what a fibroid carcinoma is?
    I had an ultrasound on my breast for a lump and the person doing the scan said it looked liked a fibroid carcinoma. I dont know what this is and was wondering if anyone could give me some information before my doctors appointment in a few days time...
    Thanks :)

    • ANSWER:
      You must have misunderstood them as there is no such thing as fibroid carcinoma. The tech doing the ultrasound legally cannot make a diagnosis and if one ever told a patient they had cancer while doing one they would be fired. Get a copy of the report what the doctor says is what matters. They may have been referring to fibrocystic disease, which is a benign disease. Most lumps found in the breast are not cancerous.

  50. QUESTION:
    What are the chances of a breast cancer recurrence? and survival rate?
    a close person i know has Invasive ductal carcinoma in situ with minimal/ inconclusive shes her2+ tumor is 1.5 cm. She's getting a second opinion from somwhere before she begins lumptectomy and radiation followed by chemotherapy. I would like to know how long can she live upto and the chances of a recurrence.

    • ANSWER:
      There are lots of statistics out there, but I hate to try and go by that because everyone is different. There are so many factors that go into each case. I was diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinoma last year. On the mammogram it appeared to be 1.5 cm, but by the time I had the tumor removed it was 2.5 cm. I am also her2+ and Er/Pr+. I chose to have a mastectomy, and I had node involvement so I also had chemotherapy and radiation. Because I was Her2/neu+ I had a year of Herceptin treatments. My last treatment is in two weeks. Herceptin was approved not that long ago to use in treatment for eary stage Her/2neu+ breast cancer. I would assume your friend will be having that part of her treatments. There are many treatments available to us and there are many many survivors. I'm glad to hear she's getting a second opinion, I think that's so important. I wish your friend the best.


Malignant Tumor Of Bone

Secondary Bone Cancer Survival Rate
Well, although they are something that we don't usually take much notice of, our bones are just as susceptible as any organ in the body made of soft tissues. Secondary Bone Cancer Survival RateThis disease is caused by irregular growths within the bone itself and primarily targets children or adolescents whose bones are still undergoing development, as opposed to adults whose bones have reached their full maturity. When adults are diagnosed it usually stems from cancer cells in another part in the body.

As with any other tumor, the ones that develop within the bone can either be benign or malignant. Although they go by a number of types, this does not stop bone cancer symptoms from showing. For example, both the primary and secondary bone tumors can cause pain in the afflicted area, hence why it's one of the most visible signs to watch out for. This type of pain is deep, nagging and ongoing, which is why some young people may attribute it to growing pains. They can, however, get bad enough to cause insomnia. Other symptoms are not as easy to spot, like swelling of the limbs or joints which can easily be put off as a sprain. Fragile, brittle bones are also a symptom, causing fractures even if you only suffer the mildest of accidents.

Other things to watch for can include nausea, vomiting, abdominal pains and even confusion. This can be harder to determine with women though, especially if they have painful menstruation.

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Some of these signs can be caused by calcium deposits from the bones making their way into the bloodstream, raising calcium levels to such a height that their build-up causes a tumor.

Remember that things like swelling can be a major cause for concern. This is because they only become noticeable once the tumor has grown. These can also be hard to spot because their source may lie deep inside the tissues, making them hard to notice until it's too late.

Bone tumors that develop near the joints, whether benign or malignant in nature, can cause difficulty in movement even causing you to walk with a limp. The effects can be even worse when the spine is affected because it may lead to paralysis.

Of course, there are other less common bone cancer symptoms that you should watch out for. They include tiredness, weight loss and high fever. Though these things can be caused by other illnesses, when they are coupled with deep-seated pains or swelling it's a good idea to have them checked out by your doctor right away.

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Frequently Asked Questions

  1. QUESTION:
    Does malignant tumor spread to bone via local metastasis?
    And do malignant tumors show evidence of encapsulation?

    • ANSWER:
      It can spread to the bone by direct extension, through the bloodstream or through the lymph nodes. It can be encapsulated or not.

  2. QUESTION:
    My dog has bone cancer in his front leg, they wont amputate?
    My 6 year old Doberman was dx with a malignant bone tumor today. The vet doesn't recommend amputation because he is a bigger dog and a little older and it is his front leg. He said he would do it if I really wanted him to but if it is just for pain relief and wont extend his life I cant justify it. I have an appt with a dog oncologist on Monday to determine whether or not it is osteosacroma, and if it is and it has spread to his lungs should I put him to sleep? The pain medication I have for him now is not working so well he is limping around but not whining or making any noise. My husband is deployed and will be home in 5 weeks. If it has spread and they are not willing to amputate and give him 4 to 6 weeks do I keep him medicated so my husband can say goodbye or do I do the humane thing and put him to sleep? Are there any alternatives out there besides just watching him die? My vet is at the University of Cambridge in the UK and they are the forerunners of Cancer care in animals.

    • ANSWER:
      Tough question! Wait and see what the oncologist has to say.
      If it were my dog, I'd be tempted to keep him medicated until my husband came home. Explain this to the vets Monday if the diagnosis is osteosarcoma, and see what they say.
      Maybe they can put your dog on something stronger than whet he is on now, just to get him through. Or, maybe the kindest thing to do would be to talk it over with your husband and let him decide?
      I'm sending good thoughts your way!

  3. QUESTION:
    Lump on Bone? Cyst? Tumour?
    A day ago I realized I had a lump on my left tibia. It is about the size of a finger tip and moves freely when I touch it, it doesn't really hurt. I do remember hitting that area of my foot sometime last month but I didn't notice the lump until Sunday. The area around it hurts a bit if I press down really hard. I am now deathly worried that I might have a malignant bone tumour.
    I'm 19.
    My friends think I should wait for three or so weeks to see if it goes down before running to the doctor.
    What do you think?

    • ANSWER:

  4. QUESTION:
    Is this a good research paper on Ewing's Sarcoma?
    Ewing’s Sarcoma
    Ewing’s Sarcoma is a malignant bone tumor that affects children and rarely adults. Although it is not common in adults, it can be shown in adults.. Depending on location, the prognosis varies. Anyone can get Ewing’s Sarcoma, however, it is most common in Caucasians. This type of cancer is very complex and misunderstood.
    Ewing’s Sarcoma has a wide divergence of treatment. These include chemotherapy, gisplatin, doxorubicin, eptoside, ifosofamide, methotrexale, radiation, and surgery to remove tumors.(Dugdale par. 10) There are also many tests. These include biopsy of the tumor, bone scan, chest x-ray, CT scan, and MRI.(Dugdale par. 9) These could very well help save your life.
    The symptoms of Ewing’s Sarcoma are not very complex. These should be much understood. Symptoms include pain and swelling at the sight of the tumor, breakage of the bone, and fever(Dugdale par. 6) These can occour before, and throughout treatment.
    There are many causes and effects you should know of. Some causes include childhood, young adulthood, and puberty. It is nearly ten times as likely to be diagnosed in Caucasians as in any other race. (Dugdale par. 3) Effects include Metastasis. Ewing’s Sarcoma is usually located in the arms, legs, chest, scull, and flat bones of the back.(Dugdale par.3)
    You should always be aware, and remember the risks of being diagnosed with Ewing’s Sarcoma. It is a disease that requires extensive treatment and care, as do many other diseases. Always be cautious of the symptoms of Ewing’s Sarcoma. This disease is killing people all over the world, so beware of this deadly disease.
    please and thank you. tell me anything i need to change. i have a very critial english teacher, and this needs to be perfect!
    @ginna;
    loop holes
    i never once said that it was killing people all over the world, all the time.
    just because its rare, doesnt mean it doesnt kill. my brother died in 2008 from it, and he had it for 6 yrs. he was 21 when he died. think i know what i'm talking about.
    yes, it IS most common in caucasians, but it does appear in other races. just because it's most common in caucasians, doesnt mean it, magically doesnt kill, lets say...an asian.
    so dontttt tell me it doesnt kill people all over the world.
    thank yerr very much:)

    • ANSWER:
      umm first of all ewings sarcoma is a rare cancer and not "killing people all over the world" you make it sound very common. ewings sarcoma is still being researched on how a person gets it, whether its genetic or enviormental. it is also found the most in children between 11 and 19 years old. cures would be intense chemotherapy or radiation, or a surgery.

  5. QUESTION:
    Can a local tumor in the lung spread to develop bone metases without affecting the rest of the lungs?
    My father has been diagnosed with non-small carcinoma in the right lung. The doctors also found a lesion in the back bone L4 which is reported as neoplastic. A biopsy on the lung tumor was performed and confirme malignancy. On that basis they are presuming that the bone lesion is also a malignant cancer tumor. However, what seems to be strange is that the CT scan results for the rest of the right lung, the left lung, abdomin, intestines, bladder, prostate, pancreas are totally clear. His oncology blood markers are also clear. The bone scan apart from the suspected lesion at L4 is totally clean, and his blood test results are acceptable. His general health conditions are good. He was on a diet, stopped it and gained 3KGS within a span of 10 days. He simply does not show any of the symptoms of a stage IV cancer patient. The doctors said they cannot operate because of the bone lesion. Had it been only in the lungs they would. We are concerned that they might be making the wrong connection

    • ANSWER:
      definitely get a second or third opinion.. this is too important!

  6. QUESTION:
    A malignant tumor composed of cells derived from blood-forming tissues of the bone marrow is known as?
    a
    a. chondroma
    b. Ewings sarcoma
    c. myeloma
    d. osteochondroma

    • ANSWER:
      d.

  7. QUESTION:
    What is a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor, and what does that mean for my friend who has one?
    I just found out that my friend has cancer. He has something called a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor that's been eating away at his pelvic bone. What kind of cancer is this, what does this mean? I'm so confused and scared and google isn't helping me at all. Please tell me all you can. What can I expect for him to go through?

    • ANSWER:
      It is a form of cancer of the connective tissue surrounding nerves. It is classified as a sarcoma.
      Poor baby, he is going to need surgery and most likely chemo and radiation. He is going to have a long road ahead of him. His pelvic bone needs to be replaced.

  8. QUESTION:
    my mom had a tumor inside the leg bone.doctor removed the tumor by grafting?
    so is there any chance that the tumor is malignant???doctor said that the tumor was in the bone for a long time.but my mom feels the pain just 20 days ago.but the pain was serious.we gave the sample to pathologist for biopsy test.can it be cancerous?if so,is there any life risk for my mom?plz frnd help me.
    my mom didnot feel any pain before this 20 days.can it be the last stage of cancer??plzzz help me frnd.....

    • ANSWER:
      If the tumor was removed, it must have been examined by a pathologist under a microscope.
      There must be a pathology report explaining what this was.
      Your mom has a right to see that pathology report and keep a copy of it.
      She can show it to you, and you will have your answer.
      No one here can tell you what this bone tumor was. There are many possibilities.
      We would all be guessing. The real answer is already in her medical record.

  9. QUESTION:
    A tumor on the inside of the wrist?
    On the top of my left wrist, I am experiencing a painful, pea-gumball, shaped tumor-like bulge on the top under the skin. I don;t know if this is bone, a tumor, or muscle. I have read that tumors in the wrist have a 10-30% chance of being malignant, due to it being in a bone cluttered area. Please help.
    Thanks

    • ANSWER:

  10. QUESTION:
    osteochondroma help, please?
    Osteochondroma is a bone tumor. This I know. I just want to know more details, but in simple terms. I was diagnosed with this today; and as of right now, it's benign. But like, what are treatments? Can it spread and how quickly? Does it often turn into a malignant tumor? Like...just fill me in on general information. I want to make sure I know what to tell my family when they find out.

    • ANSWER:
      its a good thing that your tumor is not malignant because if it was that kind of tumor is one of the dealiest it spreads fast and most time it fetal but like urs is not malignant that's good you be fine the doctors well know what to do so that it doesn't turn malignant.

  11. QUESTION:
    How can I prevent these classifications of cancer?
    Carcinoma: malignant tumors derived from epithelial cells. This group represent the most common cancers, including the common forms of breast, prostate, lung and colon cancer.
    Lymphoma and Leukemia: malignant tumors derived from blood and bone marrow cells
    Sarcoma: malignant tumors derived from connective tissue, or mesenchymal cells
    Mesothelioma: tumors derived from the mesothelial cells lining the peritoneum and the pleura.
    Glioma: tumors derived from brain cells
    germ cell tumours: tumors derived from germ cells, normally found in the testicle and ovary
    Choriocarcinoma: malignant tumors derived from the placenta

    Live Long
    Live STRONG

    • ANSWER:
      According to WHO website, there are more than 100 types of cancers; any part of the body can be affected.
      In 2005, 7.6 million people died of cancer - 13% of the 58 million deaths worldwide.
      More than 70% of all cancer deaths occur in low and middle income countries.
      Worldwide, the 5 most common types of cancer that kill men are (in order of frequency): lung, stomach, liver, colorectal and oesophagus
      Worldwide, the 5 most common types of cancer that kill women are (in the order of frequency): breast, lung, stomach, colorectal and cervical
      Tobacco use is the single largest preventable cause of cancer in the world.
      One fifth of all cancers worldwide are caused by a chronic infection, for example human papillomavirus (HPV) causes cervical cancer and hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes liver cancer.
      A third of cancers could be cured if detected early and treated adequately.
      All patients in need of pain relief could be helped if current knowledge about pain control and palliative care were applied.
      40% of cancer could be prevented, mainly by not using tobacco, having a healthy diet, being physically active and preventing infections that may cause cancer.
      Please see the webpages for more details on Cancer.

  12. QUESTION:
    My cat has a tumor that keeps growing back, what should I do?
    My cat is a 12 year old tabby and she grew a tumor near her left shoulder blade about a year ago. It was about the size of a marble and our vet recommended to get it surgically removed. The doctor did tell us if the tumor wasn't completely removed, it can grow back.

    I had decided to go on vacation for three weeks and before I left I made sure there was no tumor. When I had come back, the tumor was a lot bigger than the first one. (about the size of a small strawberry) I took my cat in once again to the vet and he recommended surgery and he tried to attempt to take out the tumor once again. When I went to pick her up, he had informed us that the tumor is on part of her bone and if he were to try to cut it out she would be unable to walk and the only option is to just keep cutting it out as it grows. They did take a biopsy of the tumor and it is a malignant tumor, but he told me the lab results show that the tumor isn't necessarily bad or good.
    Recently (3-4 months after last surgery), my cats tumor has come back. It's about the size as the first time. I really don't know what to do in this situation. I want to help my cat out, but I hate to keep taking her into surgery. She always looks so miserable for the next few days and she hates the medicine. Also, I do not have cat insurance and most vets around here are pretty ridiculous in price. Did anyone go through a situation close to mine? As of now, I am planning to go to a few other vets but I would like some suggestions. As a note, when the tumor is touched, she doesn't feel any pain and she is eating/using restroom/sleeping fine.

    • ANSWER:
      Could you try another kind of treatment like chemotherapy or radiation treatments? Also, if the vet removed the tumor and bone, could he replace it with a prosthetic-type bone? Because I really don't think it would be wise either, to keep spending money and your cat's energy with constant surgery, but maybe you could explain the situation to your vet and discuss alternative solutions. I hope that helps and that your cat's shoulder heals :)

  13. QUESTION:
    Malignancy Eating Away Bone on 8 yr old's skull....?
    My son is 8 yrs old and just got results from CT Scan in on a soft spot on top of his head. The doctor said it appears to be a malignancy that is deterioating the bone and surgery is needed to remove the bone and replace with a titanium plate. He has a consultation and MRI and Biopsy scheduled on Monday. Is this cancer? Malignant and Benign refer to Tumors and I have always associated a Malignant Tumor with Cancer. I need some qualified help to explain to me what is wrong with him and if there is a chance this or the surgery could be fatal. I am a single mom and need someone to help me be informed so I can be informed when I go into the consultation and to help me make the correct decision on what to do. The only insurance I have is MaineCare (like Medicaid) and am afraid that I will be treated differently. Please Help!!!!!!!!!!!

    • ANSWER:
      You need to call the doctor for a definitive diagnosis. However the word 'malignancy' usually means that it is cancer.

      Go to all the meetings, have the tests, and biopsy and collect as much information as you can about this disease. I know you are concerned about insurance but most states have a 'Children with Special Needs' program that will cover many of the costs of this illness. Your first concern needs to be your son. But I understand how scared you are right now. If it is cancer than there are treatment options and if you are not satisfied you can ask for a second or third opinion. If possible you should go to a pediatric childrens hospital and your son should be seen by a pediatric oncology team so that his care can be coordinated among the disciplines.

      Stay strong.

  14. QUESTION:
    Benign and malignant tumors URGENT?
    which of the following organs or tissues is most resistant to metasitasis?
    Brain, cartilage, bone, ovary,liver.....

    • ANSWER:
      I would agree, cartilage is very avascular so mets are unlikely to occur there.

  15. QUESTION:
    are there other ways of treating cancer other than chemotherapy?
    i read chicken soup for teenage souls and the stories are based on real incidents. many of the teens have lost parents who had cancer. i feel chemo is not a solution for cancer because u only suffer thru the whole process, lose hair and keep throwing up. And it is terrible to see the patient suffer. and it is not that the cancer gets eradicted. my frnd's sister died of leukemia 2 years ago. She had a bone marrow transplant . The cancer went away but after 2 months it returned and she was in worse shape. She died a painful death. and it was heart breaking to see my frnd during those tough times. So i'd like to know if there are other ways to cure malignant tumours.

    • ANSWER:
      Chemotherapy is only one modality or one part of treatment. The reasoning behind chemotherapy is that it is systemic, which means it is given through an IV directly into the blood stream. The goal is to kill any microscopic malignant cells that you cannot see . .the ones that have broken off from the larger tumors and are now spreading through the body . . this is called metastatic cancer. Metastatic cancer can travel through the blood stream and the lymphatic system and set up whole new cancers anywhere within the body. This is what makes cancer deadly, the spread and than the inability to locate and find metastatic disease before it invades other organs. Chemotherapy targets those malignant cells (which can measure in the hundreds and thousands, if not millions of malignant cells in the body). Without chemotherapy a patient with stage IV disease has little chance to survive after those hundreds of cells begin to grow. In the past the body was so quickly overwhelmed that few patients lived past a few months. Today there are hundreds of different types of chemotherapy . . and depending on the type of tumor and the stage of disease the chemotherapy will be different. Some chemo is extremely toxic to kill off aggessive and relentless disease . .however there is no guarantee that the chemo will work for each individual. So different combinations are used in hopes of stopping the spread of cancer. There is no cure for cancer . . so it is always, always a chance.

      Early stages of cancer can sometimes be treated with just surgery and radiation . but than no one knows if a few malignant cells escaped detection or not. Systemic chemotherapy has a chance of eliminating cancer that you cannot find . . but it doesn't always get where it needs to go . .which is why some people fail with the chemo. Chemotherapy is always a chance. But, used with surgery, radiation, and other types of treatment a patient has the best chance of surviving.

      I'm sorry about your friend. Research at the moment is concentrating on finding chemo drugs that are effective and less toxic in the long run to the human body. There have been some success in some cancers . . enough that some cancers are being treated as a chronic disease where a person will take medication to control the cancer. (Much the way that diabetics take insulin to control their disease).

      And, I must tell you that you are wrong about chemotherapy. My son was 17 at diagnosis and had tumors the size of volley balls scattered within the abdomen. He had five high dose chemotherapy drugs for over nine months. He was not expected to survive even the first month . . but he did . . he responded significantly to chemotherapy and his tumors shrunk 75 percent in the first three months. This was enough to allow him to become a candidate for surgery. He is still fighting over two years later . . and I can assure you that chemotherapy has played a HUGE part in him still being with us. Chemotherapy is not perfect, nor is the whole solution, but it does stem the spread of disease, it does shrink tumors, and it can bring cancer under control. The best treatment however, still is complete surgical removal when possible. But chemotherapy has its place too.

  16. QUESTION:
    I am worried about a small lump on the top of my ear. Is it possible that it is a tumor?
    I first discovered this lump when I was ten. My parents brushed it off and told me that it was some excessive bone cartilage. I am thirteen now, and I am kind of worried about the lump. I have scheduled a doctor's appointment tomorrow regarding the lump, but I'd like some other people's opinion if the lump looks cancerous or could possibly be a tumor (malignant or benign).

    Thanks!

    Below is a picture of my ear. The lump is hardly visible, but you can see the outline. See it yourself:

    http://i548.photobucket.com/albums/ii336/lhlee96/Lump.png

    • ANSWER:
      Hi - Please don't worry. It could be a cyst, which is easily dealt with or just a funky little bit of cartilage.Sorry - your parents may well be right.

  17. QUESTION:
    Constant Dizziness, Headaches, Pain! Please help me I don't know what to do anymore!?
    About a year ago, I was pushing over 300 lbs before I decided enough was enough. On November 17, 2009, I started the Dr. Bernstein diet. The diet is renowned for its remarkable weight loss results, but is an unhealthy means as it is a crash diet. Many things happen to most people on the diet such as hair loss. Along the way I noticed that I was substantially dizzier more frequently. For as long as I remember I was always a lightheaded person. Everyone figured it was due to my blood pressure being on the diet and would subside once I was finished. The possibility of me missing any vitamins was ruled out because I was consistently tested to have everything I need every step of the way.

    The following summer I ended the program over 120 lbs lighter. I felt good, but a little while after I noticed that my dizzy spells still remained. Some said my body just had to get used to things, so I just waited it out. Now it's February and almost a year later they're still there. I know this happens to everyone but if I stand up too quickly I don't just feel dizzy, I completely collapse. I've never fainted but I have what I like to call 'whited out', where everything just like, stops and I kind of just crumple to the ground and this has happened I'd say less than ten times.The dizziness doesn't hit as soon as I move but maybe ten to thirty seconds afterward, and i need to just drop to the floor or wherever I am until it subsides, I'm assuming this is something to do with blood reaching my brain or something.

    The dizziness has just become part of something I've begun to just live with, but lately it's getting a lot worse. This past week I've been sick with just a cold I suppose, and although everyone experiences dizziness when they're sick, mine just seems to be different. It's different in the sens that now that I'm coming out of the cold, it's still here, and it's a lot worse. Just sitting down doing nothing it will just randomly hit and i completely blank out and can't think about anything. This happens multiple times an hour, around five to ten I'd say.

    I suppose something worth mentioning is a bump I have on the back of my skull. It was never anything significant to me, I've had it since I was born or at least as long as I can remember. It feels like bone. Centered right at the back. It's right at the base of my brain stem I'd say, isn't that the cerebellum, though? If it is I don't think it's supposed to be hard like bone like that. Lately however, whenever I get this random dizzy spells from doing nothing at all, this bump starts to hurt a lot. Not like a sharp pain, more like a dull achy one, emanating from that bump area. Looking at light quickly makes it radiate pain too, and I've begun getting headaches more frequently as well at least a couple times a week.
    I suppose it's worth noting that sometimes when it hits and i drop to the ground, there will be almost like a low buzzing noise in my ear. It only comes when I feel a lot of pain, maybe it's nothing but it's worth saying I guess. I told my mother about it back while I was still on the diet, she felt the bump and got really worried, said she never remembers me having that, but I don't remember NOT having that. So I don't know when or if it developed during my childhood.
    The reason she is worried is because cancer is hereditary on her side of the family. She had a tumor in her tibia bone around 18. She lost her own mother a year prior due to a malignant brain tumor, she experienced constant headaches almost everyday. I don't remember her talking about any dizziness, and that's the main part of whatever my problem is. Also, I highly doubt I have a BRAIN tumor, it just seems..I don't know, I'm not going to be a hypochondriac and say I have that but I know there's SOMETHING wrong with me.
    I hardly ever go to a doctor but this problem is becoming increasingly difficult for me to cope with. I know this is long and I apologize, but this is my last resort before I go seek medical attention. If anyone out there has any ideas even if they're unlike or whatever PLEASE write them - I'm willing to check out anything before I see a doctor. I'm a 16 year old male so it's unlikely that any of these would happen to me at such a young age, but I'm a my wits end and need any help that I can get! Please help me!!
    P.S. The hair loss isn't a problem anymore. I hardly lost any hair on the diet and it all grew back as thick as before as soon as i finished the diet.

    • ANSWER:
      Heredity, hormones, stress, diet, illness, poor hair care – all are factors in hair loss.

      Stress, diet and illness are more temporary conditions and usually the hair loss is reversed when the anxiety-producing conditions dissipate, when the diet is improved, when hair care improves and when an illness is cured or gotten under control.

      Heredity and hormones are different matters, however. Heredity is an irreversible condition. You are a product of your parents, and hair loss is often inherited. Hormones are tricky, hidden things, however, and they have different effects on an individual basis.

      In a male, testosterone abides abundantly. There are also enzymes working on testosterone which product a substance called DHT. DHT is now known to circulate in the blood and cause other conditions, one of which is the shrinking of hair follicles. When hair follicles shrink enough, they are unable to produce and push a new hair through. As old hair dies, it is then not replaced.

      In women, hormonal imbalances can also cause hair loss. Pregnancy, childbirth and menopause all cause significant hormonal change and imbalances with both physical and mental effects. These changes can also cause hair loss, both temporary and permanent.

      Hair loss and re-growth products have been around for centuries. In ancient times, a variety of herbal and oil-based remedies were concocted and used by Egyptians, Aztecs, Mayans, and American Indians, all with some degree of effectiveness for some people. Modern medical research has focused on ways to re-open and stimulate “dead” hair follicles, so that hair growth can re-occur naturally, as well as keep the healthy follicles healthy. Thus, a number of products have become available, both by prescription and over-the-counter. They are advertised on radio and television and all over the Internet. One need only do a “google” search on hair loss, and there are literally thousands of sites and products for investigation.

      One ingredient in many hair loss products is minoxidil. Research studies have shown that in about 80% of the participants, products containing this ingredient are effective in slowing hair loss and, in some, causing re-growth to occur.

      Probably the most well known is Rogaine, available at any drug store, in varieties for both men and women. Most scientifically-produced products do have separate products for males and females, because, of course, hormones in each are different and of different levels.

      An additional product containing minoxidil is Provillus, and, again, studies have shown it to be effective. The difference between Provillus and other similar products is that the makes have added Azelaic Acid, an additional ingredient which appears to enhance the follicle repair in both men and women. Provillus has been the subject of many studies, just as the other products, and level of effectiveness may be higher.

      Provillus is available for both men and women, and the treatment is a combination of a topical liquid applied to the balding areas, as well as a pill or capsule to be taken in conjunction with the liquid. The critical key to effectiveness, according to its makers, is the addition of the azelaic acid, however, the correct amount of this acid is most important piece of this treatment.

      As with most hair loss products, the makers recommend patience. It may take from 3-6 months for improvement to occur, however, there is a money-back guarantee up to 180 days if one is not satisfied that it is working for him/her.

      Medical research is far from finished in its exploration of products which will stop hair loss and promote re-growth of “permanent” loss. As this research continues, existing producers will undoubtedly alter their products accordingly.

      Fortunately, a lot of money is being poured into the research, so hair loss sufferers, take heart!

  18. QUESTION:
    What is an expansile lytic lesion and are they dangerous to health?
    I went to the emergency room for abdominal pain and got a ct scan done. Turns out my abdomen was perfectly fine but they foud something else. An expansile lytic lesion on the right transverse of the L4. It was recommended that I get an MRI. I went home and googled it and I am getting very worried because the only words that seem to pop up was cancer, tumors, and bone infections. I am very nervous and anxious to see what's going on. What are the chances this lytic lesion is malignant?

    • ANSWER:
      I found this: Most of the lytic lesions are benign conditions with the exception of 'M' (Metastasis and Multiple Myeloma)

      But it could also be malignant. You need to get that MRI as soon as possible! I know; I survived bone cancer.

  19. QUESTION:
    it has just been confirmed my golden retriever has a tumor, after reading the details, what are his chances?
    I have an 8 year old golden retriever. Just today, it was confirmed he has two malignant tumors in his nasal cavity (one larger than the other which may have spread to his bones). He is a rather large (size, not weight) golden, and according to the vet is still very strong. He will be undergoing a biopsy later this week to confirm which type of cancer he has. He has been a bit more tired lately than he usually is, but still eats properly, walks, plays ball, etc. and according to the vet, is suffering from no pain. The vet said she would recomend whether he should undergo chemo or radiation therapy after the biopsy results come in. but given this information, and assuming he is put on one of the two treatments, I honestly would like to know, what his chances are of overcomming cancer?
    I have an 8 year old golden retriever. Just today, it was confirmed he has two malignant tumors in his nasal cavity (one larger than the other which may have spread to his bones). He is a rather large (size, not weight) golden, and according to the vet is still very strong. He will be undergoing a biopsy later this week to confirm which type of cancer he has. He has been a bit more tired lately than he usually is, but still eats properly, walks, plays ball, etc. and according to the vet, is suffering from no pain. The vet said she would recomend whether he should undergo chemo or radiation therapy after the biopsy results come in. but given this information, and assuming he is put on one of the two treatments,

    Just a note, he came back from the vet today, and luckily has having symptoms the vet stated were perfectly normal after a procedure like the one he underwent (slightly bloody nose, slight difficulty breathing, mopiness) and should be over these in a matter of days.
    I just also want to say, the procedure he underwent, though I don;t know exactly what it was, was not intended to remove the tumor. Also, his symptoms were very mild and the vet once again pointed out he's still very strong.

    • ANSWER:
      Oh dear! I dont know what his chances are. I'm so sorry your Golden has this horrible problem. This is something you will need to speak to your vet about.
      Again I'm so very sorry!

  20. QUESTION:
    I'm having a left femur biopsy Curettage Grafting and Internal Fixation...how long will it take to heal?(55yo)?
    I have had stage IV, or terminal cancer for about 4 years. Soft Tissue Sarcoma, or Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma of the left glute. (left buttock). I had a re-section, radiation and chemo for two years. Now I have left leg pain and the MRI showed a tumor thinning the bone...so this is the doctor's solution. He is an orthopedic oncologist. I don't know if this means it has metastasized or what.

    • ANSWER:
      Bone healing from a normal fracture takes about 6-12 weeks to heal. However, I'm not really sure if the same goes for fractures with underlying disease process like yours. Moreover, what follows bone healing is rehabilitation which may take around 6 weeks. The process is quite tedious but I really admire the strength you're showing. I still wish you the best for your health.

  21. QUESTION:
    Which of the following is NOT a use of radioactive sources in medicine?
    a) implantation of radioactive wires in a malignant tumour
    b) intravenous injection of a radiopharmaceutical to produce a bone scan
    c) ingestion of a radioactive iodine capsule to ablate the thyroid gland
    d) intralumenal of a radioactive liquid treat oral infection secondary to external beam radiotherapy
    e) intralumenal application of radioactive sources to treat malignant tumours of the oesophagus
    d)

    • ANSWER:
      d)

  22. QUESTION:
    what is the soft tissue mass in osteosarcoma?
    ive read about the presence of a soft tissue mass along with the malignant process occuring in the bone. what is that soft tissue mass? what is it made up of? is it metastases from the primary tumor?
    thanks

    • ANSWER:
      A soft tissue sarcoma is a malignant (cancerous) tumor that develops in mesenchymal tissue. Mesenchymal tissues encompass all the muscle, connective tissues, and bones of the body.
      These tumors usually present as an asymptomatic mass. Any lesion larger than 5 cm in diameter should be considered suspicious. Radiographs should be obtained as the initial step in assessing a suspicious lesion. Magnetic resonance imaging has become the preferred diagnostic examination for tumors involving the extremities, and computed tomographic scanning may be the best technique for imaging lesions in the thoracic, abdominal, and head and neck areas. In general, the patient with a suspicious soft tissue mass located in a surgically difficult area should be referred to a regional center for biopsy and multidisciplinary consultation before resection is attempted. Careful preoperative planning is necessary for a good outcome. The prognosis for the patient with a soft tissue sarcoma is primarily determined by the grade, size and depth of the tumor and the presence of tumor at the surgical margins.

  23. QUESTION:
    My dog has a tumor???
    Hello,
    A few days ago I found 2 lumps on my 1 year old dog's back, so today I took him to the vet. They said that it could be, but is unlikely to be a deformation in his spine, so it could be a bone. They also said it could be a infection for a injection that he got 2 months ago, but it is unusual because if it was an infection it would have shown up a few days after he got the injection. They said another possibility is a tumor. They are going to sedate him and cut him open to get a sample of what is there and send it to the lab to be read. They said if it is a tumor it is either benign or malignant, , malignant being the cancerous one. They said it is most likely malignant and if it is they will put him into chemo. They also said that the lumps were detected early. My question is has your dog or someone you know dog had a tumor or gone through chemo? Did the survive/what was the chance of survival, thanks.

    • ANSWER:
      Yes, my mother's friend in Therapet had a St. Bernard that went through chemotherapy. The only thing that fell out was his eyebrow whiskers and the whiskers on his face; turns out, those are the only hair-like strands on a dog and fur doesn't get affected. Anyway, the dog survived and is doing very well at 12 years at age.

      Our cat had many, many tumors on her stomach and was given 6 months to life about 5 years ago. She's still alive O.o I know that's about a cat and not a dog, but they will probably surgically remove the tumors whether benign or malignant and sometimes just removing them is enough. But, to answer your question, the chemo helped a lot and has added 3 years to the dog's life so far.

  24. QUESTION:
    can doc say that a tumor is cancer or not without biopsy?
    I had severe pain im my hip. So i thought it was my hip. went to see dr. and he sent me for x-rays. radiologist said it was bone cancer b/c of size and age of tumor. my fam dr. didnt biopsy. i have had it in my knee for 3yrs. it seems to be growing and it is starting to hurt pretty bad. can doc say its not malignant without biopsy. just wondering. my whole leg is getting bigger than othe r1. if not malignant , does it still need removed? pain isnt better even with pain pills
    i didnt talk to the radiologist. he put it in the report from the xrays. he didnt talk to me directly , but in his report what he says it looks like. i just want to know, i have developed a few more knots in my arm, wrist and on my neck.. i think b/c i have no insurance is wht the r blowing me off. i just want to know, i have a 18 yr old daughter i want to see grow up and have children
    /

    • ANSWER:
      Most cancers are diagnosed on radiology and people are not usually referred to an oncologist until after surgery. However, they would not be able to determine the age and that would not tell them if it were cancer anyway and from brief description it does not sound like bone cancer. It sounds more like bone mets.
      Anyway to answer your question – yes they can tell it is cancer without a biopsy, but they need a biopsy to know the histology.

      @ Blaze Jenkerman radiologists make diagnoses all the time – it is their job.
      They rarely speak to patients however and if you read my answer I doubt anyone told her she has bone cancer.

  25. QUESTION:
    Lump in the side of neck?
    The last day or so, the left side of my neck has been tight. While trying to fall asleep tonight (this past week I have had difficult in doing so) I felt a small, irregular lump in the side of my neck, around midway between my jawline and collar bone. It is not painful to the touch but it is causing a minimal radiant pain and stiffness. I have read that this could be caused by numerous conditions, one being malignant tumors. I would be appreciative to know what the appropriate course of action should be before I see a doctor and suffer that monetary blow.

    • ANSWER:

  26. QUESTION:
    Bone and Soft tissue?
    CYTO- PATHOLOGY REPORT

    ASPIRATE:Hameorrahagic mixed with whitish tissue fragment

    MACROSCOPY:
    Hypercellular malignant osteoblasts are present surruounded by osteoid . Mitosis is increased. tumor gaint cells are present. background consists of RBCs and chondroid mattrix

    DIAGNOSIS:
    *OSTEOSARCOMA;CHONDROBLASTIC TYPE.
    *SGGESTED:OPEN BX.

    Sir,, its a report of my sister(14 yrs old),, these reports are given by doctors of PATNA,,The Dr. is Kursheed Alam (MS Ortho) and now i m present at Tata memorial hospital because the Dr, Reffered me on that means TMH.
    So Kindly request to tje Dr. please give the information About that on my email id (imranhasmi143@yahoo.com.com),i am very helpless ,,, I' ll very thankful of you for this Imran

    • ANSWER:
      TARGET THERAPY* for any incurable disease including cancer of any organ[s], post-surgical recurrence of tumors, HIV/AIDS, Thalassemia, Muscular Dystrophy, Autism, Tinnitus, all brain & spinal cord disorders, etc., ---it should aim @ [3] steps.
      1. Removal of toxins from all internal organs & purging through Normal Drainage systems, feces, urine, menses[females], skin, lungs and vomiting.
      • 2. Activating all the internal organs to make each & every organ to function up to optimum levels.
      3. Supplying vitamins, nutrients, micro-nutrients, minerals, trace elements for invigorating the entire Immune system to produce antibodies.


      • Acupressure techniques & Indian Natural Remedies [comprising Ayurveda, Homeopathy, Bio-chemic salts, Herbal Remedies, Yoga/Meditation, Magneto-therapy, Sidha, etc.,] can meet all the requirements.
      • Acupressure Techniques—NO SIDE EFFECTS. NO HOSPITALIZATION. Costs Affordable even by the poor. An acupressure Therapeutist can, not only diagnose any disease instantaneously, but, also prevent/treat any disease & or the affected organ[s] with the aid of Indian natural remedies. All stipulated instructions must be followed most religiously. The % of success depends upon the extent of compliance.
      4. U may try acupressure techniques and natural remedies strictly for 45 days and If U find any perceivable improvements, U may continue it for another 45 days to have total cure.

      PS:If satisfied/benefited with, U may inform others to browse ‘Yahoo Answers’ on any health issue.

      Source: ‘HEALTH IN UR HANDS’ by Dr.Devendra Vora, D.Sc.,M.D.,F.R.C.P.,---an octogenarian & the pioneer in Acupressure in India.

  27. QUESTION:
    should I amputate my leg or keep it?
    Probably I may be the only person in the world that have to take this decision by himself
    my story is like this: 12 years ago I had a malignant tumor in my upper left thigh
    I had a surgical operation to remove it, couple a month after it came again in the same place
    so I had another operation and I removed it again , the Dr recommended a high dose of Radio therapy for long time
    but it was too much more than necessary so it cause atrophy of the muscles and destruction of the bone after couple of month the femur broke while I was playing.
    I put my leg on a cast for almost a year but the fraction didn't heal, then I put on Ilizarov apparatus for another year also nothing, some doctors said that it can never be healed and must be amputated
    some other said that in the future science may discover a new solutions; muscles transplant , artificial bones or any crap and keeping it wont harm since I didn't felt any pain from the fraction, anyway I kept it and continued my life on one leg and two crutches, the other leg was just hanging out of my body I couldn't control it and with time there was length diffidence between the two legs for about 30cm because my right leg was growing normally but the left thigh wasn't and I was just a kid when this happened, anyway, I stayed that way for about 10 years until recently out of a sudden it start hurts me like hell, I made x-ray and MRI, my doctor told me that since the bone is approximately dead it may come apart at anytime and trigger any alive nerves or muscles, he gave me some analgesics and antibiotics as if the bone fragmentation caused some infections but the pain didn't stop, now as the medication failed there is no way else but a surgical interference, here I have the choice to have a surgery where the Dr will try to clean up the mess inside (or do any thing) to relief the pain and I return just like before, or to amputate it and put on a Prosthesis, it'll be hemipelvectomy, and I have to use hip disarticulations prosthesis the most difficult one.
    some of my friends advice me to just temporarily fix the pain and wait may be in the future I can cure it and continue my life now on two crutches as before and some others advice me to let go of that unnatural burden that i am dragging everywhere with me for all this years on a false hope.

    I didn't tried to live as an amputee before i don't know whether it'll be better or worse than the current state, the crutches hurts my back and the length shortage gives me a very bad look but I can jump at the sea at any time I can sleep anytime any where I don't know will I be able to live the same life if I amputate it, I just graduated this year, I may travel to USA and work abroad I don't want to take a decision that holds me back or make my life harder I wanna be free as possible.
    I need a humane advice more than medical one, because it's very strange and unusual decision and I feel so confused.
    Thank you guys

    • ANSWER:
      Wow that's awful! I think it's possible to cut away the dead bone and replace it with whatever is used now days, like a titanium rod, which could possible lengthen your leg to normal also. I actually saw that done on a little girl on a medical show. Good luck and save amputation to the last option, although many are happier after having that done.

  28. QUESTION:
    Mom has stage IV colon caner, spread to almost everyone, and bone marrow disease on top of that.?
    My Mom has colon cancer in 2004, surgery, told everything good. Cancer reappeared 2006, more surgery and did some kind of pill form of chemo that she took at home. That seem to go well. Then about a year ago she was told that she had a bone marrow disorder (mylordesplysia (spelling) where her bone marrow had pretty much stop producing. She has shots to help increase her red and while blood cell counts and has had a few blood transfusion. In March she had two tumors that actually burst through her skin. Malignant. PET scan done, shows cancer in colon, upper part of right lung and under chest wall on left side Is told that chemo not a treatment option due to her already low immune system, but they do radiation on the tumors. 17 Treatments. Now a lump has shown up on her neck neck, and a new MRI shows that the cancer has gone to her pelvic area and at least into the bones and soft tissues of her left leg. The will do ten treatments of radiation to try to help with pain in legs, as she is barely able to move. They say palliative care is all they can provide, what they are not telling us is how long they thing she can live with all this disease. I know it's an unknown, but would like thoughts and or opinions on what others think. Thanks for your replies. I am currently provided care for her. Thinking about looking into hospice so that I can get some help, but is it too early for that?

    • ANSWER:
      Hello,

      I am really sorry about this, it is a tragedy.

      I would agree that making her comfortable, and keeping her as pain-free as possible, are among the prime objectives. I think that getting a hospice involved now, at an early stage, is a very good idea. At least, it would be in the UK, I am not quite sure where you are.

      I don't think a prediction of how long she can live with all this, is going to be at all easy, and that a wrong guess would be very unhelpful. Internet answering is perforce, a long way away from the action.

      I hope this is of some help.

      Best wishes,

      Belliger
      retired uk gp

  29. QUESTION:
    More AP Biology Questions, please help! Tonight!!!?
    1. All of the following are reasons why some diseases are becoming serious problems again except:
    a. old diseases finding new niches
    b. viruses can survive for long periods of time between hosts
    c. viruses and bacteria readily mutate

    2. Which of the following is a characteristic of all organisms except viruses?
    a. genetic information stored as nucleic acid
    b. ability to control metabolism
    c. ability to reproduce
    d. plasma membrane
    e. structure includes proteins

    3. Which of the following events is necessary for the production of a full blown malignant tumor?
    a. activation of an oncogene in the cell
    b. the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes in the cell
    c. the presences of mutagenic substances within the cells environment
    d. the presences of a retrovirus
    e. a and b

    4. Proteomics presents a particular challenge because
    a. the number of proteins in humans probably far exceeds the number of genes
    b.a cell's proteins differ with cell type
    c. proteins are extremely varied in structure and chemical properties
    d. a and b
    e. a,b, and c

    5. A difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic RNA is that:
    a. eukaryotic RNA lasts much longer before being degraded
    b. prokaryotic RNA never leaves the cell nucleus

    6. A sequence of DNA that has inverted sequences on either end is found scattered throughout the chromosome of a bacterium.
    a. transformation
    b.transposition
    c.transduction
    d. conjugation
    e. mutation

    7. Gene therapy:
    a. has proven to be beneficial to HIV patients
    b. involves replacements of a defective allele in sex cells
    c. cannot be used to correct genetic disorders
    d. had apparent success in treating disorders involving bone marrow cells
    e. is widely accepted

    8. Current applications of biotechnology include:
    a. cleaning up toxic waste
    b. development of artificial photosynthetic machines
    c. manufacturing human growth hormone
    d. a and c
    e. a,b,and c

    Thanks

    • ANSWER:
      1. All of the following are reasons why some diseases are becoming serious problems again except:
      a. old diseases finding new niches
      (I think this means hosts)

      2. Which of the following is a characteristic of all organisms except viruses?
      b. ability to control metabolism

      3. Which of the following events is necessary for the production of a full blown malignant tumor?
      a. activation of an oncogene in the cell
      b. the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes in the cell

      e. a and b

      4. Proteomics presents a particular challenge because
      a. the number of proteins in humans probably far exceeds the number of genes
      b.a cell's proteins differ with cell type
      c. proteins are extremely varied in structure and chemical properties

      e. a,b, and c

      5. A difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic RNA is that:
      a. eukaryotic RNA lasts much longer before being degraded
      (PROKARYOTES DON'T HAVE A NUCLEUS!)

      6. A sequence of DNA that has inverted sequences on either end is found scattered throughout the chromosome of a bacterium.
      Um I really don't know I think it is A maybe???

      7. Gene therapy:
      d. had apparent success in treating disorders involving bone marrow cells

      8. Current applications of biotechnology include:
      a. cleaning up toxic waste
      c. manufacturing human growth hormone
      d. a and c

      I think I am right. I didn't feel like looking up some of these and I figured it would be more beneficial if you did.

  30. QUESTION:
    Why should I neuter my male dog..?
    When...
    -With unaltered dogs, the risk of testicular cancer is less than 1%
    -if done before 1 year of age, significantly increases the risk of osteosarcoma (bone cancer); this is a common cancer in medium/large and larger breeds with a poor prognosis.
    - increases the risk of cardiac hemangiosarcoma by a factor of 1.6
    -triples the risk of hypothyroidism
    -increases the risk of progressive geriatric cognitive impairment
    -triples the risk of obesity, a common health problem in dogs with many associated health problems
    -quadruples the small risk (<0.6%) of prostate cancer
    - doubles the small risk (<1%) of urinary tract cancers
    -increases the risk of orthopedic disorders
    -increases the risk of adverse reactions to vaccinations
    --Removing sexual hormones will change his metabolism and make your dog more sluggish, resulting almost inevitably in weight gain. Also, muscle tone will decline after castration, and the classic result of this is a fat dog in poor muscle tone that ends up having a cruciate ligament rupture in the knee.
    -Virtually all malignant prostatic tumors in dogs occur in castrated dogs. Castrating your dog puts him at risk for one of the worst cancers he can get. While you remove the very slight risk of testicular cancer in castrated dogs, that's a small matter; the incidence of testicular cancer is so minimal. Also, almost all testicular cancers in dogs are benign. If we find a testicular tumor, we normally remove the testicle with the mass and leave the remaining one intact.
    -Many male dogs that are not fixed are not aggressive to other males, do not mark their territory, or hump, or show dominance.

    • ANSWER:
      Consider your source.

      Did you read the risks not just the benefits??? Will your dog ever be around a intact female? EVER?

      magestik moose what breeds are your males and how old, just curious. And do they get along.

  31. QUESTION:
    Spaying/Neutering, do the benefits always outweigh the risks? (Not about pet overpopulation but for the dog)?
    This is not a controlling pet overpopulation but about the individual dog. So forget for a moment that pet overpopulation is an issue.

    I was reading this:

    http://www.naiaonline.org/pdfs/LongTermHealthEffectsOfSpayNeuterInDogs.pdf

    And it got me wondering if the benefits of spaying/neutering really do outweigh the risks.

    This right here is enough to make me want to do more research or atleast hold out on spaying/neutering until my dog is older:

    " The evidence shows that spay/neuter correlates with both positive AND adverse health effects in dogs. It also suggests how much we really do
    not yet understand about this subject.
    On balance, it appears that no compelling case can be made for neutering most male dogs, especially immature male dogs, in order to prevent future health problems. The number of health problems associated with neutering may exceed the associated health benefits in most cases.

    On the positive side, neutering male dogs
    • eliminates the small risk (probably <1%) of dying from testicular cancer
    • reduces the risk of non-cancerous prostate disorders
    • reduces the risk of perianal fistulas
    • may possibly reduce the risk of diabetes (data inconclusive)
    On the negative side, neutering male dogs
    • if done before 1 year of age, significantly increases the risk of osteosarcoma (bone cancer); this is a common cancer in medium/large and larger breeds with a poor prognosis.
    • increases the risk of cardiac hemangiosarcoma by a factor of 1.6
    • triples the risk of hypothyroidism
    • increases the risk of progressive geriatric cognitive impairment
    • triples the risk of obesity, a common health problem in dogs with many associated health problems
    • quadruples the small risk (<0.6%) of prostate cancer
    • doubles the small risk (<1%) of urinary tract cancers
    • increases the risk of orthopedic disorders
    • increases the risk of adverse reactions to vaccinations

    For female dogs, the situation is more complex. The number of health benefits associated with spaying may exceed the associated health problems in some (not all) cases. On balance, whether spaying improves the odds of overall good health or degrades them probably depends on the age of the female dog and the relative risk of various diseases in the different breeds.

    On the positive side, spaying female dogs
    • if done before 2.5 years of age, greatly reduces the risk of mammary tumors, the most common
    malignant tumors in female dogs
    • nearly eliminates the risk of pyometra, which otherwise would affect about 23% of intact female
    dogs; pyometra kills about 1% of intact female dogs
    • reduces the risk of perianal fistulas
    • removes the very small risk (0.5%) from uterine, cervical, and ovarian tumors
    On the negative side, spaying female dogs
    • if done before 1 year of age, significantly increases the risk of osteosarcoma (bone cancer); this is a common cancer in larger breeds with a poor prognosis
    • increases the risk of splenic hemangiosarcoma by a factor of 2.2 and cardiac hemangiosarcoma by
    a factor of >5; this is a common cancer and major cause of death in some breeds
    • triples the risk of hypothyroidism
    • increases the risk of obesity by a factor of 1.6-2, a common health problem in dogs with many
    associated health problems
    • causes urinary “spay incontinence” in 4-20% of female dogs
    • increases the risk of persistent or recurring urinary tract infections by a factor of 3-4
    • increases the risk of recessed vulva, vaginal dermatitis, and vaginitis, especially for female dogs
    spayed before puberty
    • doubles the small risk (<1%) of urinary tract tumors
    • increases the risk of orthopedic disorders
    • increases the risk of adverse reactions to vaccinations."

    So when do the benefits outweigh the risks and when do the risks outweigh the benefits?

    How to know what the best decision for your individual dog is?
    ADD: I've always had my dogs spayed/neutered by 6 months of age so this is an eye opening question for me

    What is better for my dogs health is a bigger concern to me then pet overpopulation at the moment? (A responsible pet owner can keep an intact dog and not have any accidental litters)
    All my dogs come from shelters so chances are I won't face this because they usually come to me spayed/neutered

    • ANSWER:
      Good question. The truth is that spaying/neutering isn't the healthiest thing for dogs. But the truth that tops that one is that about 98% of the population isn't nearly responsible enough to prevent their intact dogs from breeding. That's why people on here preach spaying and neutering. Hang out here for a while and read the dozens of questions daily by backyard breeders who haven't a clue how to do anything breeding related, yet they blithely put their b1tch's life at risk.

      For a responsible dog owner, there's no reason to spay/neuter. The only dogs I've ever owned who've been spayed/neutered have been rescues who came that way. I've also spayed older b1tches because it does cut down on the chances of cancer and pyometra.

      I've never neutered any of my males and have also never had an accidental litter.

  32. QUESTION:
    wondering why any doctor would subject anyone to chemo?
    Chemotherapy Quotes
    "Two to 4% of cancers respond to chemotherapy….The bottom line is for a few kinds of cancer chemo is a life extending procedure---Hodgkin's disease, Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL), Testicular cancer, and Choriocarcinoma."---Ralph Moss, Ph.D. 1995 Author of Questioning Chemotherapy.

    "NCI now actually anticipates further increases, and not decreases, in cancer mortality rates, from 171/100,000 in 1984 to 175/100,000 by the year 2000!"--Samuel Epstein.

    "A study of over 10,000 patients shows clearly that chemo’s supposedly strong track record with Hodgkin’s disease (lymphoma) is actually a lie. Patients who underwent chemo were 14 times more likely to develop leukemia and 6 times more likely to develop cancers of the bones, joints, and soft tissues than those patients who did not undergo chemotherapy (NCI Journal 87:10)."—John Diamond

    Children who are successfully treated for Hodgkin's disease are 18 times more likely later to develop secondary malignant tumours. Girls face a 35 per cent chance of developing breast cancer by the time they are 40---which is 75 times greater than the average. The risk of leukemia increased markedly four years after the ending of successful treatment, and reached a plateau after 14 years, but the risk of developing solid tumours remained high and approached 30 per cent at 30 years (New Eng J Med, March 21, 1996)

    "Success of most chemotherapy is appalling…There is no scientific evidence for its ability to extend in any appreciable way the lives of patients suffering from the most common organic cancer…chemotherapy for malignancies too advanced for surgery which accounts for 80% of all cancers is a scientific wasteland."---Dr Ulrich Abel. 1990

    The New England Journal of Medicine Reports— War on Cancer Is a Failure: Despite billion spent on research and treatments since 1970, cancer remains "undefeated," with a death rate not lower but 6% higher in 1997 than 1970, stated John C. Bailar III, M.D., Ph.D., and Heather L. Gornik, M.H.S., both of the Department of Health Studies at the University of Chicago in Illinois. "The war against cancer is far from over," stated Dr. Bailar. "The effect of new treatments for cancer on mortality has been largely disappointing."

    "My studies have proved conclusively that untreated cancer victims live up to four times longer than treated individuals. If one has cancer and opts to do nothing at all, he will live longer and feel better than if he undergoes radiation, chemotherapy or surgery, other than when used in immediate life-threatening situations."---Prof Jones. (1956 Transactions of the N.Y. Academy of Medical Sciences, vol 6. There is a fifty page article by Hardin Jones of National Cancer Institute of Bethesda, Maryland. He surveyed global cancer of all types and compared the untreated and the treated, to conclude that the untreated outlives the treated, both in terms of quality and in terms of quantity. Secondly he said, "Cancer does not cure". Third he said "There is a physiological mechanism which finishes off an individual".)

    "With some cancers, notably liver, lung, pancreas, bone and advanced breast, our 5 year survival from traditional therapy alone is virtually the same as it was 30 years ago."---P Quillin, Ph.D.

    "1.7% increase in terms of success rate a year, its nothing. By the time we get to the 24 century we might have effective treatments, Star Trek will be long gone by that time." Ralph Moss.

    "….chemotherapy’s success record is dismal. It can achieve remissions in about 7% of all human cancers; for an additional 15% of cases, survival can be "prolonged" beyond the point at which death would be expected without treatment. This type of survival is not the same as a cure or even restored quality of life."—John Diamond, M.D.

    "Keep in mind that the 5 year mark is still used as the official guideline for "cure" by mainstream oncologists. Statistically, the 5 year cure makes chemotherapy look good for certain kinds of cancer, but when you follow cancer patients beyond 5 years, the reality often shifts in a dramatic way."—Diamond.

    Studies show that women taking tamoxifen after surviving breast cancer then have a high propensity to develop endometrial cancer. The NCI and Zeneca Pharmaceuticals, which makes the drug, aggressively lobbied State of California regulators to keep them from adding tamoxifen to their list of carcinogens. Zeneca is one of the sponsors of Breast Cancer Awareness Month.

    "Most cancer patients in this country die of chemotherapy…Chemotherapy does not eliminate breast, colon or lung cancers. This fact has been documented for over a decade. Yet doctors still use chemotherapy for these tumours…Women with breast cancer are likely to die faster with chemo than without it."—Alan Levin, M.D.

    According to the Cancer Statistics for 1995, published by the ACS in their small journal (2), the 5-year survival rate has improved from 50%-56% for whites and 39%-40% for bl
    Gary, did you bother to read? if I'm not mistaken the NEJ of medicine was quoted as well as several md's which if I'm not mistaken stands for medical doctors, also some with PHD's. what more do you need?I don't recall mentioning anything about alt med.
    I watched my mother, my aunt, her husband , a friend die from this treatment, and now my cousin is dying from this junk science, don't even bother to defend it. it's monstrous, but you are welcome to believe it if you want, I don't and I'll take my chances, as you'll take your's. good luck

    • ANSWER:
      "Quotes" ?

      Yep, quote mining is a poor and frequently invalid form of taking a quote out of context and pretending it is a fact on its own.

      Don't forget: Increases in cancer are due to people living longer so they are more likely to die of cancer (we all have to die of something!). Dying at 85 from cancer, rather than at 35 from scurvy is known as "medical progress".

  33. QUESTION:
    How does bad news affect you as you age?
    I just received word from my niece that her cancer has now spread to her lung. I need to explain to my elderly father, but do you feel it is best to only stick with the basics? In other words, too much info that may confuse him. He does know how dire her condtion has been over the years. Her malignant tumors have gone from one on her brain which was successfully removed in 96, to her liver in 04, bone in 08, and now is invading her lung. She has a 7 yr old and an 18 yr old and a loving husband. Though I know my son would miss me terribly, I would give my life for hers, but we know it doesn't work that way. I have faith in God and know He is in control, but it still hurts knowing her time is getting closer. Many families face this as we know. We have had her 12 yrs+, from her first diagnosis with this rare cancer. Yesterday with the rate of the cancer spreading, she was told she has six months to one year. Though you do not know her, would you please remember my niece and her family in your prayers? She is a good Christian young lady, and precious as can be. I know she would appreciate your good thoughts, hopes and prayers, as would I. Thank you.
    Her name is Wendy.
    My father is 85.
    Thank you all very much. You do realize that picking a best answer is virtually impossible. If you don't mind, I prefer to let the community pick. I just can't say one answer is better over another. I hope you understand.

    • ANSWER:
      Jackie Blue, I'm so sorry to hear of your niece's prognosis. I find that I'm especially upset by bad news about my young friends and family members. It somehow just doesn't seem fair, although I know that fairness has nothing to do with it. I do feel that unless your elderly father absolutely needs to know her prognosis, it's enough to let him know that she's had a relapse and is in treatment again. Of course, if he asks questions, I would answer them honestly.

  34. QUESTION:
    Can someone take Plexxikon if they have malignant melanoma, stage 4, and the cancer has spread?
    Dear All,

    One of my family members has malignant melanoma, stage 4, and the doctors at the hospital they are at (overseas) told my family member that Plexxikon cannot be given because it might, or will make the brain cancer/tumors spread even more. It has spread to the brain, (had brain surgery, it is growing back, spreading to a different area) liver, and is in the bones as well.
    So, my question is, can Plexxikon be given to my relative, or it will, indeed, make her brain tumors grow worse? If it can be given, thanks to extremely powerful and influential family friends the drug will be asked to be administered by the hospital for a recovery.

    I am looking forward to your answer and I really do appreciate your help and input.

    Sincerely,

    L

    • ANSWER:
      Plexxikon's drug, PLX4032 is a Roche drug and is in clinical trials - it is not available outside of trials since it is not approved. I don't think the BRAF/PLX4032 drugs can pass the blood brain barrier so this might not be an option for those with brain mets. Many of the people who have taken the drug have had a huge reduction in tumors...but they have recurred and the tumors come back with a vengeance. See this article on BRAF drugs. http://www.nature.com/news/2010/100907/full/467140b.html ... You can see the PLX trials here: http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/home

      Ipilimumab is also available for compassionate use and it does cross the blood brain barrier: http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00495066

      You should visit these online forums for more help with your questions on Stage IV melanoma. These are the people living with the disease and know the best answers. http://www.melanoma.org/community/mrf-bulletin-board/recurrences-brain-mets-brafmek-drugs
      http://forum.melanomaintl.org/toastforums/toast.asp?sub=show&action=topics&fid=4

  35. QUESTION:
    prostate cancer and high PSA reading?
    My dad had a PSA reading of 15 in 2007, so this has been going on for quite some time, 4 weeks ago his reading was 38, so they decided to do a biopsy, the results have come back that he has a benign tumor and also malignant cells in his prostate, now he is waiting to have a bone scan and a mri scan done, has any one else had the same drama with having to wait years before they actually do anything? He is 74 and it's as if they really don't care or want to do anything for him. We are obviously hopeing that the scans come back negative, but what are the chances?
    Thanks

    • ANSWER:
      I don’t understand your question – what are the chances of what?
      What makes you think they really don't care or want to do anything for him? I’m sure a biopsy was recommended before now and it would have been discussed with your father.
      And what are you expecting to be done? The are no hard fast rules to treating prostate cancer and many men chose to be monitored for years before beginning any treatment.

  36. QUESTION:
    What Is the Chance of my Giant Cell Tumour Recurring?
    Hi, I'm a 13 year old girl and I was recently diagnosed with a giant cell tumor (rare in children, I know) in the bone of the top right of my left tibia. I had it surgically removed three weeks ago, through curettage I think, and they had to remove some of the unhealthy bone and gave me a bone graph. I've been on crutches for three weeks and I still have three more weeks on crutches until my appointment at the hospital where they will x-ray my knee to see if the tumor has started growing back and test whether I will be able to walk yet. Basically what I want to know is, judging by my age, gender, the type of tumor etc., what chance is there of the tumor recurring, how often and for how long will I have to go for x-rays and scans, what is the chance of it spreading to my lungs (I have read that it is one of the only benign tumors that can spread to the lungs) and what are the chances of it turning malignant. I tried to ask my surgeon and specialist all these questions but the surgeon kept looking at me like I was stupid and dodging the questions and the specialist sugar coated everything to the point of lying (He said I'd be in hospital for only the day of the surgery and on crutches for two days and I was in hospital for four days and I'm on cruches for six weeks!) Please only trained professionals or people with experiance answer this question as I don't want people who have no idea what they are talking about commenting on something as serious as my health. Thanks to everyone who answers, any information, including links to helpful sites, is appreciated :)

    Ps. The tumor was about the size of an Australian twenty cent coin if that helps.

    Thanks Guys :)

    • ANSWER:
      Sam, Giant cell tumor of bone (GCT) is a rare, aggressive non-cancerous (benign) tumor. It generally occurs in adults between the ages of 20 and 40 years. It occurs in approximately one person per million per year. Giant cell tumors are named for the way they look under the microscope. Giant cell tumors of bone most frequently occur around the knee joint in the lower end of the thighbone (femur) or the upper end of the shinbone (tibia). In rare cases, they may be associated with increased parathyroid function. If not treated, these tumors will continue to grow and destroy bone. Surgery has proven to be the most effective treatment for giant cell tumors.
      Scooping out the tumor (curettage) is generally performed. This technique causes a hole in the bone that can be filled with a bone graft. With never a 100% guarantee, I think your chances of recovery are excellent.

  37. QUESTION:
    Gastric stomach cancer?
    Hi...my Dad was diagnosed with a malignant stomach tumor about a month ago. He only had trouble sleeping and eating and decided to have his stomach checked for an ulcer. Not only was it an ulcer that he had had for many years, but it became malignant. They live out of state and I went to visit for about 2 weeks, when he had a PET scan which showed it was in his bones and lymphnodes. They told him he may have about 6 mos.! It was totally shocking news for us all. Now as of this past Sat. he's on chemo through a chemo port and also many meds. Today he had his first blood transfusion since his counts are poor and calcium is high. Since starting chemo on Sat. he only tastes metal in anything he tries to eat and is very sensitive to cold things...ie: refrig, AC, water, etc. Does anyone have an experience they can share? Up until mid June we thought it was just the ulcer, but through much research we found that it is the most undectibe type since symptoms are like heartburn.

    • ANSWER:
      I am SO sorry about your dad. Spend as much time with him as you possibly can.

      My father had stomach, liver, etc cancer. He got so bad that he could no longer eat, anything at all.
      He could feel and see bumps inside his stomach. By the time he finally went to the dr. it was too late. He was told he had 3 months to live and sadly that was about all he had.
      I don't think anyone should tell another human being they have x amount of months, years to live because I think the patient then focuses on that.
      Anyway, the only thing he could do was drink protein shakes.
      Prayers to you and your family.

  38. QUESTION:
    Horse has misterious lump?
    My horse recently last year had a tumor about the size of a plum by his ear which turned out to be malignant. Luckily we caught it in time and it was removed. However ive just noticed a soft lump inbetween his lower jaw bones. It is not connected to the bone but is very close to it and is circular and quite soft. Im worried it may be another tumor but wondered if it could possibly be a tooth absess or something else? Any help please.

    • ANSWER:

  39. QUESTION:
    Help? Multiple conditions, looking for diagnosis? (cancer/autoimmune?)?
    Hello all,

    I have come to the internet in desperation after years of constant medical problems that seem to have no end. My GP is not very helpful. It is getting to the point where my medical problems have taken over my life and I would like to just know what is wrong (if anything).

    I am an obese 20 year old female. I had multiple ear infections as a child; my ear drum popped twice so I have slight hearing problems in one ear. At seven, my tonsils and adenoids were so large that I suffered from severe sleep apnea, so they were removed as the ENT was worried about brain damage. When I was six, they discovered that I was missing 9 adult teeth and they considered it to be a genetic defect of some sort, the cause was never investigated. Aside from cholestrol issues at 8 (solved through the Atkins diet, ironically enough), I was very healthy from about age 7 to puberty. At this point, I was just a little chubby. Puberty hit, and I gained probably 70-80lbs in a year. Although I developed in all other ways, I never produced a period. This was not dealt with until last year. Around this time, I started suffering from gastro-intestinal distress but it was tolerable, so life continued.

    Around 14, I noticed that my left pupil was constantly dilated. I had multiple test and was referred to many doctors before I was diagnosed. They had suspected a brain injury/tumor (cancer was brought up), but it turned out to be Adie's tonic pupil. Adie's can be caused by lesions on the neurons/muscles that contract the pupil, or it has no cause (like in my case). There is also no cure.

    Then I discovered a large lump on my right foot. Doctors orginally thought it was osteomyelitis, or sarcoma/similar cancer. I underwent multiple tests. They still weren't positive what it was, but they decided surgery was the best option so it was removed in January. It turned out to be an ostechondroma, so they removed it, I spent 3 mos on crutches and they told me that there was less than 5% chance that it would ever recurr. It had recurred by the time I went back for a checkup. Because of it's incredibly fast regrowth, they were worried it had come back as a malignant lesion so I underwent surgery again in August of the same month. Turned out it was just a regrowth of the osteochondroma, so they removed a ton of bone from the surrounding areas as well, so I was non-weight bearing and on crutches for nearly 6 months this time. By the time I went for my 3 month checkup, it had regrown. I was referred to a new, younger orthopaedic surgeon for another surgical option but it was an extreme idea so I declined. The foot is just xrayed 3x a year to make sure it doesn't become malignant.

    At this same time, I also had dental implant surgeries to try and correct my missing adult teeth. Also, my gastro-intestinal distress became so severe that I couldn't function properly so I was sent to a gastro-entrologist as my mother sufferes from Crohns disease and they were afraid I did too. My GP sent me for a blood test for Celiac, but it came back as negative. She suggested I go gluten-free anyways because sometimes the blood test is wrong. I went gluten free and almost all my gastro symptoms disappeared. I went for an endoscope and colonscopy approximately 8 months after I went gluten free, but by then (as the gastro-enterologist explained to me) any damage to the villi from Celiac would have been healed, so no problems were found.

    I had to have my gallbladder removed in Feb of this year due to gallstones, after which I developed GERD. I went to an OBGYN because I was 19 and had never had a period, and testing concluded that I have PCOS, or poly-cystic ovarian syndrome, which explains my excessive weight gain and lack of period. (I do have bad eating habits, but I should not be as large as I am - I have always been a very active person so the PCOS/hormonal imbalance explains some of that).

    Finally, for the last year or so, I have been overwhelmed by all consuming exhaustion. I need about 12 hours of sleep to function, and the, and then that can usually get me through class or a bit of work, but then I need about a 3 hour nap if I want to do something in the evening. I was given 2 at home sleep apnea tests - the first came back as indictiative for central apnea (not obstructive!), the second test came back as inconclusive. I am currently on a 2 year wait list to get into our local sleep clinic.

    Recently, I found a lump in my throat. The week later, I fainted at work. The ER doc performed blood work and an EMG, said it was probably heat exhaustion, which doesn't make sense at all. He also checked my throat lump, and said it was likely a cyst so he sent me to an EMT who said tonsil regrowth. I also have frequent dizzy spells, incidents where my eyes shake, recurrent headaches and a recurrent rash in my inner elbows and across my abodomen (not weight related). I am always incredibly flushed and hot & awake sweaty.

    • ANSWER:

  40. QUESTION:
    Help: seemingly unrelated disorders, possible underlying condition? (cancer/autoimmune, etc)?
    Hello all,

    I have come to the internet in desperation after years of constant medical problems that seem to have no end. My GP is not very helpful. It is getting to the point where my medical problems have taken over my life and I would like to just know what is wrong (if anything).

    I am an obese 20 year old female. I had multiple ear infections as a child; my ear drum popped twice so I have slight hearing problems in one ear. At seven, my tonsils and adenoids were so large that I suffered from severe sleep apnea, so they were removed as the ENT was worried about brain damage. When I was six, they discovered that I was missing 9 adult teeth and they considered it to be a genetic defect of some sort, the cause was never investigated. Aside from cholestrol issues at 8 (solved through the Atkins diet, ironically enough), I was very healthy from about age 7 to puberty. At this point, I was just a little chubby. Puberty hit, and I gained probably 70-80lbs in a year. Although I developed in all other ways, I never produced a period. This was not dealt with until last year. Around this time, I started suffering from gastro-intestinal distress but it was tolerable, so life continued.

    Around 14, I noticed that my left pupil was constantly dilated. I had multiple test and was referred to many doctors before I was diagnosed. They had suspected a brain injury/tumor (cancer was brought up), but it turned out to be Adie's tonic pupil. Adie's can be caused by lesions on the neurons/muscles that contract the pupil, or it has no cause (like in my case). There is also no cure.

    Then I discovered a large lump on my right foot. Doctors orginally thought it was osteomyelitis, or sarcoma/similar cancer. I underwent multiple tests. They still weren't positive what it was, but they decided surgery was the best option so it was removed in January. It turned out to be an ostechondroma, so they removed it, I spent 3 mos on crutches and they told me that there was less than 5% chance that it would ever recurr. It had recurred by the time I went back for a checkup. Because of it's incredibly fast regrowth, they were worried it had come back as a malignant lesion so I underwent surgery again in August of the same month. Turned out it was just a regrowth of the osteochondroma, so they removed a ton of bone from the surrounding areas as well, so I was non-weight bearing and on crutches for nearly 6 months this time. By the time I went for my 3 month checkup, it had regrown. I was referred to a new, younger orthopaedic surgeon for another surgical option but it was an extreme idea so I declined. The foot is just xrayed 3x a year to make sure it doesn't become malignant.

    At this same time, I also had dental implant surgeries to try and correct my missing adult teeth. Also, my gastro-intestinal distress became so severe that I couldn't function properly so I was sent to a gastro-entrologist as my mother sufferes from Crohns disease and they were afraid I did too. My GP sent me for a blood test for Celiac, but it came back as negative. She suggested I go gluten-free anyways because sometimes the blood test is wrong. I went gluten free and almost all my gastro symptoms disappeared. I went for an endoscope and colonscopy approximately 8 months after I went gluten free, but by then (as the gastro-enterologist explained to me) any damage to the villi from Celiac would have been healed, so no problems were found.

    I had to have my gallbladder removed in Feb of this year due to gallstones, after which I developed GERD. I went to an OBGYN because I was 19 and had never had a period, and testing concluded that I have PCOS, or poly-cystic ovarian syndrome, which explains my excessive weight gain and lack of period. (I do have bad eating habits, but I should not be as large as I am - I have always been a very active person so the PCOS/hormonal imbalance explains some of that).

    Finally, for the last year or so, I have been overwhelmed by all consuming exhaustion. I need about 12 hours of sleep to function, and the, and then that can usually get me through class or a bit of work, but then I need about a 3 hour nap if I want to do something in the evening. I was given 2 at home sleep apnea tests - the first came back as indictiative for central apnea (not obstructive!), the second test came back as inconclusive. I am currently on a 2 year wait list to get into our local sleep clinic.

    Recently, I found a lump in my throat. The week later, I fainted at work. The ER doc performed blood work and an EMG, said it was probably heat exhaustion, which doesn't make sense at all. He also checked my throat lump, and said it was likely a cyst so he sent me to an EMT who said tonsil regrowth. I also have frequent dizzy spells, incidents where my eyes shake, recurrent headaches and a recurrent rash in my inner elbows and across my abodomen (not weight related). I am always incredibly flushed and hot & awake sweaty
    In case it helps, I am on medication for GERD and depression. I apologize for writing such a lengthy question but I seriously hope someone can help!

    Is it possible the throat lump is not a tonsil but lymphoma?

    • ANSWER:
      Going Gluten free has helped me in a few ways, However weight was not one of them , In addition the life style will bankrupt you as it did me , However it may be worth a try it does help with a host of health conditions and I too suffer from GERD and am obese as well but Im twice ur age, Good luck!!

  41. QUESTION:
    very serious question about canser?
    my bf has something that looks like a growth or tumor right on his butt crack you know wen girls wear lowrise n bend over u see the begining of the crack yeah well he has it exactly there,

    its small not very big, i'd say about the size of, dam i dnt even know lets say a bubbulisious gum chewed up and balled up.....dats say about a little less than an inch long n it sticks out of his skin bout a quarter of an inch...

    well im really scared for him hes got it removed but they couldnt remove it all because the place he went to supposablly they werent speciallised for that n didnt want to damage like a nerve or something although he had another one on his tail bone n that one was succefully removed but the other one grew back =(

    i looked up some info n came accros bening growths n malignant growths which are skin cancers well incase u dnt know what im talkin about bening growths are non canceres n wen removed dnt grow back n malignant are cancerous n when removed grow back....

    i an really scared cus i obviouly dnt want that to be the case.....

    on n he sais it hurts alot wen he touches it hard or sits and lays on it....

    plz if u know n e information about, if you had one ur self let me know...thanxs alot
    for the samart asses out there...i meant to write cancer......shit!

    • ANSWER:
      if he is experiencing loss of appetite and weight loss, fatigue and cachexia (wasting), excessive sweating (night sweats), and anemia it maybe Cancer. visit your GP asap for proper management.

  42. QUESTION:
    beast cancer case study help?
    I need help answering thses questions for the case study

    Case Study: Breast Cancer

    Mrs. Alice Spencer, age 52, felt a small, hard, painless lump in the upper outer quadrant of her left breast during a regular breast self-examination. Her mother and a cousin had had breast cancer. Mrs. Spencer has no children and still has menstrual cycles. After seeing her physician and having a mammogram, a biopsy was scheduled, which confirmed that the nodule was malignant.

    1.Explain why this lump is not typical of a benign condition.

    A lumpectomy was performed, and a number of axillary lymph nodes were removed.

    c.Explain why the axillary lymph nodes were removed.
    d.The tumor cells tested positive for estrogen receptors. Explain the significance of this information and the implications for Mrs. Spencer.
    e.Mrs. Spencer’s lung and bone scans were negative. Explain the purpose of these scans.

    Only two of the axillary lymph nodes were positive for tumor cells. The prognosis appeared good, but the oncologist recommended a course of radiation and chemotherapy.

    f.Explain why additional treatment is recommended in this case.
    g.Explain why Mrs. Spencer will have an increased risk of infection after she starts the radiation and chemotherapy treatments.
    h.Explain why Mrs. Spencer will have to undergo frequent mammograms and checkups for the next few years.

    • ANSWER:
      1. Hard, painless and familial history

      c. The axillary lumph nodes will trap any cancer cells that are on the move
      d. Pre-menstrual hormones, such as estrogen, are like fertiliser to a tomour. Mrs. Spencer will have to take something like tamoxifen to inhibit oestrogen.
      e. Breast ca often metastasises to the lungs and bones.

      f. because the ca had obviously moved from the primary site.
      g. lowered immunity
      h. Could recur

  43. QUESTION:
    Cardiomyopathy and Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator?
    I was just informed by the Cardiologist that I need a defibrillator implanted in my chest. My heart condition (Cardioyopathy) has become very serious and I am at risk for "sudden death". My doctor has me very frightened. I have looked up a lot of information online and what I read also scares me. I'm afraid of the possible adverse effects, I am worried about how the scar and appearance of how the defibrillator will look since it will be inserted just under the skin beneath my collar bone. Will it distort the smooth look of clothing and will it be seen when I wear a low neck outfit? I know I have no other choice but have the surgery. But I am worrying myself sick. This surgery was to be scheduled as soon as possible, but because I also need a hysterectomy at this time (tumor on my ovary) the doctor now wants to wait to do the defibrillator after the hysterectorectory in case it's malignant and I need radiation. I am absolutely LOST. I hope someone has an answer for me.

    • ANSWER:
      What is the nature of your cardiac problem, that the Cardiologist wants to put a defib. in your heart. one thing you should be rest assured that the treatment of cardiomyopaties has changed a complete U turn. I agree with the decision of your cardiologist, he is excellent, and you are in safe hands.
      I fully agree with him. As far as the scar is concerned I do not think so it will be a problem , it will be checked out by your doctor.
      Go ahead with it, your life is important not the scar.
      Best of luck.

  44. QUESTION:
    Endocrinology Center?
    Complete diagnostic in our thyroid cancer operation center to prevent thyroid gland disorders symptoms.
    Most often the first symptom of thyroid cancer is a nodule in the thyroid region of the neck. However, many adults have small nodules in their thyroids, but typically under 5% of these nodules are found to be malignant. Sometimes the first sign is an enlarged lymph node. Later symptoms that can be present are pain in the anterior region of the neck and changes in voice.Thyroid cancer is usually found in a euthyroid patient, but symptoms of hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism may be associated with a large or metastatic well-differentiated tumor.Thyroid nodules are of particular concern when they are found in those under the age of 20. The presentation of benign nodules at this age is less likely, and thus the potential for malignancy is far greater. In the thyroid cancer operation center we do all of the diagnoses in a range that we can cure every patient. The treatment of thyroid cancer may require surgery. Common surgeries include thyroidectomy, lobectomy, and tracheostomy. Radioactive Iodine-131 is used in patients with papillary or follicular thyroid cancer for ablation of residual thyroid tissue after surgery and for the treatment of thyroid cancer. Patients with medullary, anaplastic, and most Hurthle cell cancers do not benefit from this therapy. External irradiation may be used when the cancer is unresectable, when it recurs after resection, or to relieve pain from bone metastasis. Some can cause a calcium deficiency after thyroidectomy, our after service we can manage and monitoring the symptoms.

    http://www.vejthani.com/web-english/thyroid-cancer-disorders-operation-center.php

    • ANSWER:
      If you say so!

  45. QUESTION:
    My dog has a tumour in her nose. Can I still do the following?
    I'm 15 years old and my dog is probably my best friend. We bought her from a rescue centre the year that my dad died, in 2002, and she's around 10 years old now as we did not have her as a puppy. She means the world to me.

    However, she has been sneezing blood for a few weeks and I begged my mum to get an appointment for her at the vets because I hate seeing her uncomfortable, and I had researched the situation and discovered that it could be a sign of a tumour.

    The day before yesterday she was taken in, and the vet said that it was just because she had some fairly bad teeth that may have caused an infection, so we took her home and had to take her back the next day for an operation to remove them.

    Last night when we went to pick her up, they confirmed my suspicions, as well as having the bad teeth removed, they found out that the bones in her nose have been seriously infected by them, and they also found a tumour. They said they would send the sample they took out to see if it was cancerous, if she gets any worse. Even though it still may not be malignant, I spent several hours crying last night and this morning. I can't bear the thought of losing her, yet I know if it is, she will have to be euthanized.

    I've tried to make her really comfortable, we've put her on some nice soft food to be gentle on her mouth as she has had the teeth removed. I've made her bed for her really soft, and she's getting lots of rest. I took her in the garden today and I sat on the grass with her and hugged her, brushed her and she ran up and down the garden with me.

    She looks quite sorry for herself though. She doesn't know how to play with toys, so the only stimulation she gets is from either our contact, or walking her. But I wanted to know, can I take her for a walk today? Or is it a bad idea? After she had the operation yesterday to take some of the tumour from inside her nose out?

    If not, can anyone give me any suggestions on how to make her feel even more loved and comfortable?

    http://rosemary-t.deviantart.com/art/Shilo-Portrait-89403772

    • ANSWER:
      First off, it is generally okay to take them for gentle walks the day after dental surgery. Avoid letting her nibble on things like grass to prevent her from getting too many outside germs in her mouth. Take frequent rests on the walk to pet her and such. There are few dangers, but they can be avoided by following those general rules.

      As for her tumor, I sincerely hope it isn't cancer. Getting dental cleanings on dogs is really important. Brushing their teeth to remove plaque will help to extend the time required between cleanings. Bone infections can lead to tumor growth. If it is a benign tumor, it can get larger and cause some discomfort, but good dental care from now on can prevent new ones and they don't spread to other systems.

      Cancerous tumors can also develop from poor dental health and the infections that go with it and the most common types generally have a very poor prognosis so I'm very, very sorry you're going through this.

      Our dogs mean so much to us and yours has even more meaning. You can love up on her and be with her and that alone will help her to keep her immune system stronger and give her a boost.

  46. QUESTION:
    I am worried about a small lump on the top of my ear. Is it possible that it is a tumor?
    I first discovered this lump when I was ten. My parents brushed it off and told me that it was some excessive bone cartilage. I am thirteen now, and I am kind of worried about the lump. I have scheduled a doctor's appointment tomorrow regarding the lump, but I'd like some other people's opinion if the lump looks cancerous or could possibly be a tumor (malignant or benign).

    Thanks!

    Below is a picture of my ear. The lump is hardly visible, but you can see the outline. See it yourself:

    http://i548.photobucket.com/albums/ii336/lhlee96/Lump.png

    • ANSWER:

  47. QUESTION:
    I am worried about a small lump on the top of my ear. Is it possible that it is a tumor?
    I first discovered this lump when I was ten. My parents brushed it off and told me that it was some excessive bone cartilage. I am thirteen now, and I am kind of worried about the lump. I have scheduled a doctor's appointment tomorrow regarding the lump, but I'd like some other people's opinion if the lump looks cancerous or could possibly be a tumor (malignant or benign).

    Thanks!

    Below is a picture of my ear. The lump is hardly visible, but you can see the outline. See it yourself:

    http://i548.photobucket.com/albums/ii336/lhlee96/Lump.png

    • ANSWER:
      Looks like some type of cyst.

  48. QUESTION:
    I am worried about a small lump on the top of my ear. Is it possible that it is a tumor?
    I first discovered this lump when I was ten. My parents brushed it off and told me that it was some excessive bone cartilage. I am thirteen now, and I am kind of worried about the lump. I have scheduled a doctor's appointment tomorrow regarding the lump, but I'd like some other people's opinion if the lump looks cancerous or could possibly be a tumor (malignant or benign).

    Thanks!

    Below is a picture of my ear. The lump is hardly visible, but you can see the outline. See it yourself:

    http://i548.photobucket.com/albums/ii336/lhlee96/Lump.png

    • ANSWER:
      THE DOCTOR WILL LET YOU NO.

  49. QUESTION:
    I am worried about a small lump on the top of my ear. Is it possible that it is a tumor?
    I first discovered this lump when I was ten. My parents brushed it off and told me that it was some excessive bone cartilage. I am thirteen now, and I am kind of worried about the lump. I have scheduled a doctor's appointment tomorrow regarding the lump, but I'd like some other people's opinion if the lump looks cancerous or could possibly be a tumor (malignant or benign).

    Thanks!

    Below is a picture of my ear. The lump is hardly visible, but you can see the outline. See it yourself:

    http://i548.photobucket.com/albums/ii336/lhlee96/Lump.png

    • ANSWER:
      I have exactly the same lump and lived with it for years. It's not cancer or tumor.

  50. QUESTION:
    I am worried about a small lump on the top of my ear. Is it possible that it is a tumor?
    I first discovered this lump when I was ten. My parents brushed it off and told me that it was some excessive bone cartilage. I am thirteen now, and I am kind of worried about the lump. I have scheduled a doctor's appointment tomorrow regarding the lump, but I'd like some other people's opinion if the lump looks cancerous or could possibly be a tumor (malignant or benign).

    Thanks!

    Below is a picture of my ear. The lump is hardly visible, but you can see the outline. See it yourself:

    http://i548.photobucket.com/albums/ii336/lhlee96/Lump.png

    • ANSWER:


Metastic Cancer

Metastatic Brain Cancer Survival Rate
My point being, there is a multi-billion dollar cell phone industry that has a vested interest in keeping the public unaware of the dangers of cell phones.

Metastatic Brain Cancer Survival Rate

It's now official, the studies are out, there is a definite link between cell phones and malignant brain tumors.

An article published in The Sun titled "Cancer Risk in Mobile Phones: Official" starts with the sentence "MOBILE phones DO increase the risk of brain cancer, scientists claimed yesterday."

The article goes on to say French scientists found that a person who is a long-term mobile phone user is more likely to develop a malignant brain tumor called glioma.

"The chances of developing a malignant tumour are "significantly increased" for people who use a mobile for ten years. The shock finding is the result of the biggest ever study by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, part of the World Health Organisation."

This is just one newspaper article out of thousands that are saying essentially the same thing.

Lung Cancer Secrets Revealed Click here

If you do some deeper research into the peer reviewed studies, you'll find out cell phones actually heat up the brain around the ear area by a degree or two. This effectively breaks down the blood brain barrier, which is a defense against the poisons in your body becoming lodged in your brain.

With an open blood-brain barrier, harmful things like heavy metals, are allowed to cross into your brain and cause permanent damage. Talking on your cell phone for ten minutes opens your blood-brain barrier for the next 14 hours.

Take your health into your own hands, do some research on cell phones and brain cancer, and then take steps to protect yourself and loved ones.

lung cancer treatment breakthroughs Click here

Frequently Asked Questions

  1. QUESTION:
    Does Metastic Breast Cancer mean that the cancer is in your blood?
    I can only find that it means it had spread from your breast to other organs. My doctor has said that I have Metastic Breast Cancer. That the cancer is in my blood therefore it is incurable and nothing more can be done.

    • ANSWER:
      Metastatic means that the cancer in your breast has spread from your breast THROUGH your blood to another organ. It does not mean it is in your blood, it merely used it as a highway.

      Metastatic (or stage 4) cancer is difficult to treat, but in some cases can still be managed. Depends on how far and how deep the cancer has spread. Try to find a second opinion. And even if it is incurable, I've seen patients given 3 months to live go on for ten or more years.

  2. QUESTION:
    Is metastic breast cancer to the brain curable?
    I mean breast cancer that has spread to brain. Is it curable?

    • ANSWER:
      Treating cancer in the breast in the first place is difficult enough with the right treatment. When the cancer spreads from the original source, it's more difficult because it's not only more cancer to treat, but it means it is advanced. So it's unlikely that it can be cured, but it's not impossible. :) Remember that.

  3. QUESTION:
    What is the life expectancy for metastic lung cancer?
    The cancer has stread to the pluerea, lymph nodes, brain and bones, and is in a 4th stage!!! My mother is 75 and is now very very depressed! This is from 2nd hand smoke as my mother is not a smoker!!!

    • ANSWER:
      I'm so very sorry for you and your mom. People that have never smoked or been around smokers also get lung cancer, so I wouldn't put blame on someone else if they are a smoker.

      You can only get this answer from your mom's doctor. Please make a list of questions (so you won't forget any) and give them a call. I bet they will be happy to take your call and answer your questions.

      I'm very sorry.

  4. QUESTION:
    Are there any survivors of stage IV metastic cancer?
    What worked for you? Where were you treated?

    • ANSWER:
      Yes. There are surivors of stage IV metastatic cancer. However you need to understand that cancer is a broad term that encompasses over 200 separate types of disease.

      My son has an aggressive type of abdominal sarcoma that in the majority of cases presents as multiple tumors in the abdomen. Despite the often dismal prognosis we hear we are in contact with at least ten long term survivors of the disease. In his type of disease a multi-modality approach is commonly used which has resulted in the long survival of many of these patients. Treatment is still at the trial and error stage since everyone is an individual but there is hope that if it works for one it will work for another.

      Complete surgical resection of all visible tumor seems to be the best approach to eliminating the disease. However, because the disease is almost always advanced complete resection is nearly impossible. In these cases high dose chemotherapy is used with surgery to shrink large tumors and try to stop further growth. Sometimes cytoreductive surgery and heated chemoperfusion placed directly into the tumor bed can kill off microscopic disease. If minimal residual disease can be obtained than the patient becomes a candidate for autologous peripherial stem cell transplant. The transplant has a 50/50 chance of stopping the spread of disease. After the transplant it is common to use a whole body radiation as the period on the end of treatment. Children seem to be able to tolerate this type of treatment better than adults. But again there are long term survivors of both adults and children most of whom had stage IV disease.

      St Judes Hospital: DSRCT
      http://www.stjude.org/disease-summaries/0,2557,449_2167_7502,00.html

      The survivors that I know who were stage IV were primarily treated by pediatric teams under a sarcoma program or by sarcoma specialists. Complete surgical resection appears to be the best modality, but because of widespread disease the multi-modality approach is used.

  5. QUESTION:
    What are the prognosis for prostate cancer metastic patients?

    • ANSWER:
      Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States among men, and this disease is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in American males. Most prostate cancer–related deaths are due to advanced disease, which results from any combination of lymphatic, blood, or contiguous local spread. However, not only have continuous advances have provided a new understanding of the diagnosis, staging, and treatment of metastatic and advanced prostate cancer, but the earlier definition of advanced disease (bone metastasis and soft-tissue involvement) has also been improved in recent years.
      For more visit it: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/454114-overview

  6. QUESTION:
    If a bone scan 'lights up' on certain spots can that be evidence of metastic breast cancer?
    My wife had stage 4 breast cancer and is now in remission. She had a bone scan (needed for a new clinical trail) and the scan 'lit up' in places that previously there was cancer. I don't want any surprises when we see the oncologist next week. So, can it 'light up' because of bone damage, reoccurence of cancer or both?

    • ANSWER:
      Do not listen to ill advice. Only a doctor can tell you that. We, on this site, can NOT SEE the scan, so therefor, we CAN NOT DIAGNOSE anyone. As you well know, there is always a chance of cancer returning. My dad had it. So far, so good. You should wait and see what your oncologist has to say. It could be other things instead of cancer. I wish you and your wife the best and do not assume the worst even though that is sometimes hard to do. I am the same way.

  7. QUESTION:
    Can metastic brain cancer be benign?

    Sorry I meant a metastatic brain tumor and whether if it is secondary can it be benign or does it depend on the primary tumor.

    • ANSWER:
      um, no.

      cancer means it is malignant.
      metastatic means it has moved there from wherever it originally started.

      benign means NON-cancerous.

  8. QUESTION:
    Do you think there will every be a cure for cancer, especially metastic cancer? Why or why not?

    • ANSWER:
      There are many cures, to find out more check the link below.

  9. QUESTION:
    hormone receptive metastic breast cancer?
    My mom was diagnosed with breast cancer 13 years ago, had lumpectomy, chemo and radiation. 2 years ago it came back into her lungs. they did a scope but were not able to scrape the breast cancer cells from her lung. She was put on Arimadex. Her last cat scan showed the arimadex had stopped working and more breast cancer cells were on her lung. She is now off the arimadex and will be getting injections of faslodex ( spelling?) she willl get this injection once a month. I have been reading up on all this and from what I understand metastic means stage 5 correct? What should I be ex[ecting???? I look forward to hearing any suggestions, coments, answers or words of wisdom from anyone outthere

    • ANSWER:
      Best wishes that your Mom's condition can be stabilized.

      FYI, metastatic cancer is stage 4. There is no stage 5.

  10. QUESTION:
    when diagnosed with metastic melanoma cancer is it common for the onclogists to wait ovr 2 weeks for trtment?
    2 tumors on the brain 1 on the lung 1 on the liver

    • ANSWER:
      If you had surgery they may wait a bit. Depends on the approach they're taking.

      My husband had a brain tumour removed and radiation about 5 years ago. Had successfully survived non-hodgkins lymphoma 20 years ago.

      He has been fighting cancer again on the winning side. It's just gotten more stubborn! He's been the last year and a half with chemo and surgery and now they supposed found something else.

  11. QUESTION:
    has anybody ever experienced "spots" in the lymph system suspected of being metastic cancer, being wrong?
    had colon cancer surgery in 2004, right colon resection followed by chemo...after the chemo i had 2 colonoscopies, and two catscans that were clear..in sept. of 2006, i had a catscan that showed 3 cm. "spots" in ly lower abdomen lymph system, based on that they diagnosed it as "metastatic colon cancer" and put me back on chemo. different drug this time..irinitacane and avastin.. i had two catscans, 3 months a part that showed absolutely no change in "spots"...oh, i also had a petscan before the chemo started that was "inconclusive"...after last catscan doctor took me off of chemo, saying that the "spots" may just not be what they thought they were...they are not able to biopsy them either..i will have another catscan in september to see what if any thing has changed without the chemo treatments....would love to hear from any body who has this experience, how you are doing, and how common this is. All blood work has been good through out this too. thanks in advance..

    • ANSWER:
      It is very frustrating that cell work (a biopsy) is the only way to confirm whether these spots are cancer or not. I thought I was finished with breast cancer after my treatments 3 years ago. Then 2 years ago the lymph nodes in my neck and over and under my collarbone swelled up and my doctors diagnosed metastatic breast cancer without ever doing another biopsy. I got a month's worth of radiation and did chemo for 7 months (FEC-T) and was hoping that I'd managed to kick some serious butt. Now I have spots in both lungs and am keeping them under control with weekly Herceptin. Again, these were not biopsied so I still sort of wish that I could ignore the dx. I get CT scans every 3 months too and last week's results showed that the lung spots look smaller (hurray) BUT :-( a single lymph node next to my heart is swollen. The blood work looks OK. My doctor says that he wouldn't rule out other reasons for the swelling but that it is likely to be cancer related. I feel fine ( a good thing!) and am continuing with my weekly Herceptin until my August scans. Then, if there is any growth or more swelling in the nodes, it's time to bring out the artillery.

      I hope that you can continue to feel well and that the spots are indeed "nothing."

  12. QUESTION:
    74yr old with metastic colon cancer, current LDH level is 1218, what is considered critical level?

    • ANSWER:
      The short answer - LDH level is not a good indicator for critical level of cancer, to many other things can elevate and contribute to elevated LDH.

      The long answer:
      A typical range for LDH (Lactate dehydrogenase) is 105 - 333 IU/L. LDH is found in many body tissues like the heart, liver, kidney, skeletal muscle, brain, blood cells, and lungs.

      LDH exists in 5 forms, which differ slightly in structure.

      LDH-1 is found primarily in heart muscle and red blood cells.
      LDH-2 is concentrated in white blood cells.
      LDH-3 is highest in the lung.
      LDH-4 is highest in the kidney, placenta, and pancreas.
      LDH-5 is highest in the liver and skeletal muscle.
      All of these can be measured in the blood.

      Other uses of LDH are assessment of tissue breakdown in general; this is possible when there are no other indicators of hemolysis. It is used to follow-up cancer (especially lymphoma) patients, as cancer cells have a high rate of turnover, with destroyed cells leading to an elevated LDH activity. Also note that in empyema, the LDH levels generally will exceed 1000 U/l.

      God bless

  13. QUESTION:
    If you have Ewing's sarcoma cancer(specifically metastic), will you definitely have a lump or fever?
    i am 14.i did a lot of research on cancer cuz i have extreme pains(often) in my elbow and wrist that radiate through my lower arm. other times in my chest. after a minute the pain disappears. until a few days, weeks or hours later. in the metastic type of Ewing's sarcoma cancer, the pain spreads. i looked and looked on google. i am always tired even though i get 8 hours of sleep every night though i am tired for many hours later, i have shadows under my eyes, i don't think I'm losing weight, i have pains in my chest(all of my pains feel the same, nothing triggers the pain, it just happens), i don't feel lumps, and i don't have fevers(but i do get dizzy), i have persistent fatigue. i found that it can be in your bone marrow. if its in your bone marrow, would you feel lumps? also, would you necessarily have a fever?

    • ANSWER:
      You can’t diagnose yourself over the internet and even if you could, you could not treat it anyway. Even doctors go to doctors when there is something wrong. If you are truly concerned that is what you should be doing.

  14. QUESTION:
    My mother is in her mid 60s she has metastic bone cancer that started in her breast ...right now she has it ?
    In her arms, legs, ribs andevery bone in her spine ...what kind of life expectancy does she have?

    • ANSWER:
      She doesn’t have metastatic bone cancer. She has metastatic breast cancer.
      A lot depends on her hormone receptors and if she chooses to continue treatment. The 5 year survival rate is 20%, but I have seen patients survive as long as 10 years.

  15. QUESTION:
    Metastic Breast Cancer Diagnosis?
    Hi, my mum was diagnosed with breast cancer 6 weeks ago. She had a biopsy and the tumor was found to be estrogen receptive. Her Bone Scan showed that the cancer had spread to her 7th rib and the CT Scan showed a small lesion in her lung, lymph nodes under armpit and lymph nodes in chest.

    The oncologist said that cancer is controllable but not curable. She has to stay on hormone therapy for the rest of her life and cannot receive surgery as the oncologist said the wound wouldnt be able to heal as their is cancer cells in the chest. She also wont be receiving chemotherapy as the oncologist said the hormone therapy is as just as good.

    Surely if the hormone therapy is stopping the cancer cells from surviving then surgery is an option? And is radiation not also an option for the other sites of cancer?

    What do you think of the prognosis? Does it look like a bad outcome?

    Please dont spare details to not hurt my feelings. I can take it!

    Thank you

    xx

    • ANSWER:
      This therapy potentially makes complete sense. If I may restate her case, your mom is suffering with metastatic, estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer, which is present in her bone and lymph nodes, ? small lesion in lung.

      In patients who are ER+, we go to great lengths to maximize benefit from hormonal therapies, because in fact they do work just as well (or better) than chemotherapy many times, and are so much easier to take/tolerate. Patients would generally receive chemo if they have organ-threatening disease (extensive lung or liver involvement for example) or other occasions where a more rapid response from chemo is desired.

      I am not sure what specific surgery you are inquiring about, but since her disease has metastasized, surgery is not going to cure her; we normally rely on the medicine therapy to control disease. Radiation could be used to painful bone sites if needed. The hormone therapy will potentially treat all of her disease.

      She may well need chemotherapy at some point, but it looks like your doc doesn't think so now. Getting a second opinion is always reasonable, though, but also just sitting down and talking over your concerns with the current oncologist may be sufficient.

      Prognosis-wise, survival can be several years even with widely metastatic disease, sometime longer.

      God bless, best wishes

  16. QUESTION:
    Metastic breast cancer question...?
    My mom was diagnosed with breast cancer in late 1999,had her lymphnodes removed and was eventaualy in remission.Just after 5 years later,we found it metasticized to her lungs in early 2005.She had been on chemo and Herceptin for 2 years when we found it metasticized to her bones (primarily right hip) just in February.She had intense radiation and is being treated with stonger chemo,but have had problems with it lowering her white blood count.Two of the past 4 weeks of her new chemo they had to cancel it so they could give her a shot 3 days in a row to try to boost it back up.Just very recently,she's been having headaches,diarrhea,and very pale complexion.Though it could possbily be the side effects of the stronger chemo, she had an MRI done yesterday morning but won't find out the results until next week.My sister and I are afraid the cancer has spread to her brain,but she acts like nothing is wrong like she did just a few months ago when she knew the cancer had spread to her hip....
    They could not remove the legions on her hip since the cancer was metastatic, only chemo and radiation. IF it has spread to her brain, what are the chances treatment would work? I've heard once cancer metasticizes to the brain it's very hard to control. Anyone with experience/advice? My sister and I are both grown and know when our mom is lying about her being "fine", not knowing is driving us crazy. Since breast cancer primarily spreads to the lungs, bones and brain, there is a good chance it has spread to her brain. What are her chances of beating it for the 4th time?

    • ANSWER:
      get a pet scan done.. it will help u detect where exactly the cancer has spread in the entire body.. also in the case of metastatic cancer, please do not rely only on allopathy as your only option. this is the time when u start looking at other options like, homeotherapy, ayurveda, yoga etc..About her blood count, give her lots of wheat grass juice or even pomogranate juice..and yes go for a PET SCAN for a final answer. sometimes, even MRI is not able to detect a lot of things. my mother is undergoing the exact same thing..

  17. QUESTION:
    Surgery with metastic stomach cancer?

    • ANSWER:
      What is the question?

      Yes, it is possible to have surgery with metastatic stomach cancer. Much depends on the extent of the disease, health of the patient, and response to treatment.

      Often oncologists will recommend that a patient with stage IV disease go through systemtic chemotherapy before a surgery. The reason for this is that if the cancer has metastasized, than it has spread via the blood system or the lymphatic system. Systemic chemotherapy will follow the same path that the metastatic cancer followed and hopefully find it and kill it off or shrink it enough to allow surgery.

  18. QUESTION:
    How long will someone live with metastic breast cancer.?
    My mom was diagnosed in Nov. '09 with bone metastases. There is a couple small lesions in her pelvis. She has is being treated with Zometa I.V., every three weeks. Nothing in her organs or any other bones. (Her original cancer was lobular breast cancer treated with chemo diagnosed three years before the metastases) She has some pain and is nauseated at times from the Zometa. I was just wondering how long she has. Her oncologist says 3-10 years, and my mom says he won't be here next year at this time. I think she is wrong and that she will still be here five years from now. Thank you for your time.
    She just had a bone scan that showed no spread of the lesions. And her tumur markers went down to very low levels.
    BillParkhurst-My mom is not doing chemo, and as for a "natural remedy" my grandfather did that and died exactly one year after starting his "natural" treatment. My mom has survived 11 years total since her original diagnosis, I did not mention that because it was not relevent. She was diagnosed in early 1999 with ductal carcinoma, treated with chemo and did great until 2006 when she was diagnosed with lobular breast cancer.

    • ANSWER:
      Sorry to hear about your mom. But, no one can say for sure how long she has. Honestly, the person who would know best would be her doctor because he has her medical history or access to it.

      Metastasis is not a good sign. If someone's going to get cancer, you want to find out it's not metastatic. Your chances are much better.

      Her oncologist has said 3 - 10 years. If she continues treatment and begins to improve, it might even be longer than that. They have no way of telling for sure, can only give you an educated guess.

      It sounds like she's depressed too if she thinks she will die within the next 12 months. You might gently urge her to talk to her oncologist about this. But, keep in mind the only person who knows just how your mother feels is her.

      Cancer is devastating to the entire being. Physically and emotionally. I hope your mom finds a way to enjoy her life, no matter if she has a year left or 30!

      My thoughts go out to you. Good luck.

  19. QUESTION:
    HOW CAN A COLON CANCER PATIENT WITH METASTIC TO THE LIVER HAVE A HIGH SED RATE IN THE BLOOD IT IS A HIGH NUMBE?

    • ANSWER:
      What????
      Please write in complete sentences.

  20. QUESTION:
    Why is the Choroid the most common location for metastic cancers?

    • ANSWER:
      It isn't. It's a bit more complicated than you think but in general the most common locations for metastasis (depending on the type of tumor) are lungs, liver, bones, and than the brain. Some types of cancer never metastasize to the brain.

      NCI: Metastasis
      http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/Sites-Types/metastatic

  21. QUESTION:
    Breast cancer question
    Why is Stage 4 breast cancer considered metastic cancer if it has begun in the breast????

    • ANSWER:
      hipster-
      All cancers are classified according to whether they are limited to where they started (stage I) or to how far they have spread (up to Stage IV).
      Stage IV describes invasive breast cancer in which:
      the cancer has spread to other organs of the body -- usually the lungs, liver, bone, or brain
      "Metastatic at presentation" means that the breast cancer has spread beyond the breast and nearby lymph nodes, even though this is the first diagnosis of breast cancer. The reason for this is that the primary breast cancer was not found when it was only inside the breast. Metastatic cancer is considered stage IV.

  22. QUESTION:
    lung cancer sreading to opposite side lymph node?
    I had a lobectomy for stage 1b lung cancer 3 years ago. March of this year clean pet scan. Now i went into the hospital for infection and they biopsied my opposite lymph nodes and found metastic lung cells. Oncologist is also checking for head and neck cancer. Why would they find this so soon after clean pet?

    • ANSWER:
      Because you had an infection and it was seen.

  23. QUESTION:
    Cancer? 10 points Help please!?
    Well ive had a swollen lymph node for about 3 months never has gone bigger or smaller its approximatly 1cm. if anything a bit shorter. its on my neck i think its the posterior or however you spell it beside the jugular vein. any way, its movable alot, not so squishy, texture is very soft. at some points it will be easier to feel and SOMETIMES its hard to even find :/ i have to dig my fingers to find it. when it moves it feels like its crushing or like a liquid sort of thing hard to explain. what i think is this is a cancer, like lymphoma, or luekimia, the only symptom i possibly have is constipation, aswell loss of appetite i think constipation and appetite are tied together. i went to the doctors office a month ago he said, if it gets bigger comeback, i asked what the reason it could be. he said "not to worry he doesnt suspect anything wrong, probably just an infection.

    Right now im worried that it will be lymphoma, odd cause i dont have anyother symptoms than i listed.
    Last question********** If this was like lymphoma WOULDVE this thing got bigger? it says like lymphomas grow. in the past 3 MONTHS wouldve this got worse? aswell as my symptoms? i sometimes think its a metastic cancer but i know its not cause they are hard,immobile, and usually painful i have expeirence because my grandpa had liver cancer due to smoking and drinking heavily for atleast 50-60 years, hes dead but not from the cancer he was 95 so it was probably from natural causes.
    Please help about the lymphoma questions Thanks! <3 p.s im 20 , female. no one has had lymphoma in my family
    never had sex either( attractive but nervous )

    • ANSWER:

  24. QUESTION:
    Could this be cancer?
    Well ive had a swollen lymph node for about 3 months never has gone bigger or smaller its approximatly 1cm. if anything a bit shorter. its on my neck i think its the posterior or however you spell it beside the jugular vein. any way, its movable alot, not so squishy, texture is very soft. at some points it will be easier to feel and SOMETIMES its hard to even find :/ i have to dig my fingers to find it. when it moves it feels like its crushing or like a liquid sort of thing hard to explain. what i think is this is a cancer, like lymphoma, or luekimia, the only symptom i possibly have is constipation, aswell loss of appetite i think constipation and appetite are tied together. i went to the doctors office a month ago he said, if it gets bigger comeback, i asked what the reason it could be. he said "not to worry he doesnt suspect anything wrong, probably just an infection.

    Right now im worried that it will be lymphoma, odd cause i dont have anyother symptoms than i listed.
    Last question********** If this was like lymphoma WOULDVE this thing got bigger? it says like lymphomas grow. in the past 3 MONTHS wouldve this got worse? aswell as my symptoms? i sometimes think its a metastic cancer but i know its not cause they are hard,immobile, and usually painful i have expeirence because my grandpa had liver cancer due to smoking and drinking heavily for atleast 50-60 years, hes dead but not from the cancer he was 95 so it was probably from natural causes.
    Please help about the lymphoma questions Thanks! <3 p.s im 20 , female. no one has had lymphoma in my family
    never had sex either( attractive but nervous )

    • ANSWER:
      Go schedule a friggin' doctor's appointment. Y! Answers isn't your MD.

  25. QUESTION:
    How can I convince my mom to get cancer treatment?
    She has stage 4 metastic breast cancer. She HAS options for treatment, she's just refusing them.

    She hasn't even tried anything yet! We just found out she has cancer...

    She's refusing to operate, and we need to act fast because she's already in such a late stage of cancer.

    I dont think she fully understands how much pain she would be in, if she DOESNT go through ANY kind of treatment for this.

    She just wants to be alone in her house that's hours away from her family, in a town where she doesnt know anyone. She wont let us go to her doctors appointments with her, she just wants to "handle this her way."

    And she's drinking, and alcohol ISNT good for people with cancer.

    Any and all suggestions are welcome, please dont be flip in your answers, this is my mother we're talking about.

    • ANSWER:
      She really sounds depressed. Does she have a friend she is really close to that can talk with her? She may need just a little time to come to terms with all of this.

  26. QUESTION:
    Spiritually Speaking: What Would Cause Aggresive Cancer in a Couple In Their 30's?
    I just read a very sad story about a young couple that both just received an advanced cancer diagnosis within days of each other. The woman has metastic breast cancer, and the husband has colon cancer. They have a very young daughter, and they are both in their mid to late 30's.

    Why would this happen at such a young age to both of them? Any ideas? It is a tragedy.

    http://www.foxnews.com/health/2011/03/25/young-parents-diagnosed-advanced-cancer-time/?test=faces

    • ANSWER:
      A lot of young people get cancer, the lucky ones live. I know a few survivors. I don't think that all of the causes for cancer are known.

  27. QUESTION:
    Has anyone ever survived and recovered from metastatic colon cancer?
    In 2002, I had colon cancer, had colon resection surgery, and was on chemo for 6 months. My oncologist told me that if the cancer ever came back it would be fatal. In Aug., 2006, I was diagnosed with metastatic colon cancer. It had spread into my liver, and several other areas, and I was prognosed with 6-10 months to live. I was on chemo for 10 months, which reduced the liver cancer, and liver resection surgery was done, removing 40% of my liver. All the other tumors had disappeared. Now it's in both lungs and abdomen, and I'm back on chemo (Erbotux and Irinotecan). I'm told there is no cure for this.

    Does anybody out there know if I have a chance of survival, or have know anyone who has survived metastic colon cancer longer than 5 years?

    Thank you so much for your answers.

    • ANSWER:
      yes

      www.cancertutor.com

  28. QUESTION:
    Adrenal cancer?
    can adrenal cancer (primary or metastic) cause addisons disease.

    Can it also cause other adrenal problems?

    Also what are the symptoms of adrenal cancer?

    • ANSWER:
      My wife died from widespread cancer. It began in her adrenal glands. Her first symptoms were outrageously high and uncontrollable blood pressure.

  29. QUESTION:
    Cancer .?
    Can adrenal cancer (primary or metastic) cause addisons disease

    • ANSWER:
      Yes. Cancer that destroys adrenal tissues can cause addison's.

  30. QUESTION:
    My mom was diagnosed with stage 4 Lung Cancer with metastatic to the brain?
    First a little over a month ago my mom was diagnosed with stage 4 Lung cancer that has metastic to the brain. She has 5 lesions on the right side of the brain and adema was so bad that she started to lose the function of her left side. Shes on steroids now and funtion has come back. The Tumor in her lung is very large and the doctor said that she has about three months left. My question is the are doing radiation two the brain and then will do radiation and chemo to her lung. The doctors said that it is pallative care. What will this do if she only has about three months? I have noticed changes with her since they started radiation to the brain. They are not good changes. Staggering, slowed speech, no ambition, lots of memory loss. The steroid is helping her have an appetite, that she didnt have before. They want to stop the steroid, will she lose her appetite again? She also has breathing problems and i'm worried that the chemo will make it worse. Will it?

    • ANSWER:
      I hate that they give time lines to people, I mean, if they are going to make an educated guess that's fine but it should be known that it's just one doctors best guess or opinion. Pallative care as you probably know can prolong a patients life. It can shrink cancer, or keep it from growing sometimes. If the pallative care continues to work and can shrink her cancer or keep it standing still, she may be prolonging her life. Pallative care is elected by the patient. If your mother doesn't want to continue with her life then she should tell them to stop the pallative care. The changes you mention may not be the radiation, they may actually be the cancer itself. The steroid I know can be a tricky balance, as I've been told it helps some cancers grow but it helps with energy and appetite. For appetite, I found the only thing besides Dexamethasone (the steroid they had me on 3 days a week) was Zofran, an anti-nausea med. Usually I took Zofran 3-4 times a day and about an hour after taking it, I would get a sudden appetite and binge, eat a full meal. Then I would starve myself literally for the rest of the day many times. I tried to make every bite count so I could get in at least 1000 calories, hopefully 2000 though to stay strong. I did lose a lot of weight still but never got to a sickly point, just skinny skinny. I am unaware of chemo causing breathing problems in any of the cancer patients I've met along the way. The most common complaints were nausea, lack of appetite, stomach pains, headaches, tingling in fingers and toes, being cold all the time, fatigue, diarrhea or constipation, sores in the mouth...those were the things most of us had to some degree, or at least a few of them in each of us.

      I think that the most important thing at this point is to keep your mom as comfortable as possible. I assume they have her on some heavy duty pain meds. Do they? Percocet worked for me, some people need morphine or Oxycotin. Also mentally, they should make sure your mom is as comfortable as possible. I still take xanax to this day even though I've been done with my treatment since november. It really helps me not to focus on the negative and it makes me happy. I guess thats why they call them happy pills. I hope they have given your mom ativan or xanax, or something to help her mentally if she needs it.

      Be your moms advocate, and if you notice changes in her after they begin or stop a treatment or drug, just speak up for your mom so they can do what needs to be done to adjust things.

      Sorry about your mom :( Having survived cancer, I cannot imagine going thru the treatments knowing there was no light at the end of the tunnel, I would say that comfort would be #1 on my list if I were at this stage.

      Best wishes.

  31. QUESTION:
    What other types of chemotherapy will work?
    My mom was diagnosed with metastic transitional cell carcinoma. She was given cisplatin and gemzar from April until September. While it brought the cancer volume down, the cancer is progressing. I need to know if anyone has any other idea of any chemotherapy that can work.

    • ANSWER:
      There are other chemotherapy regimens that can be tried for metastatic transitional cell bladder cancers (if that is where your mom's primary tumor was found). Since she has been treated with cis-platinum and Gemzar, she must be under the care of an oncologist. That person - who has full knowledge of your mom's case - should be explaining alternatives. If you are not satisfied with the answers, you and your mom could certainly get another opinion. But cures with any of the many possible chemotherapy regimens are not likely in this situation.

  32. QUESTION:
    I am going to the doctor for an EKG.?
    What all does this test show? I have had two done before because i have a leaky heart valve. But im only 24 so i don't ask questions. Anyways i was just wondering what this test shows? will it show if i have had a stroke or heart attack? Will it show metastic cancer in the heart?

    • ANSWER:
      An EKG shows the sequence of electrical impulses that travel across the surface of the heart. That's all it shows. If the timing, duration, or voltage is abnormal, the docs are often able to recognize the pattern and identify the cause. Sometimes the cause of an abnormality can't be identified without some other type of test.

      An EKG would detect any type of heart abnormality that interferes with electrical impulses, which would include some types of tumors, depending on their size and location. However, heart cancer is so rare that virtually does not exist.

  33. QUESTION:
    My sister has stage 4 cancer. Her birthday is Aug 12 & she is Carl edwards #99 biggest fan. Can he help?
    My oldest sister has stage 4 metastic melanoma and is having chemo. She continues to get worse. She will turn 60 August 12th and we really want to do something very special for her. This is the 2nd bought she has had with this terrible illness. We almost lost her the 1st time. She is a huge Nascar fan and her favorite driver is #99 Carl Edwards. She has told me several times that she would love to be able to ride around the track most especially in his car. She also said he is known to give his trophies to his fans and that she wouls just die if that happended to her. I have tried every way I know of to contact him other than by regular mail with no luck. If there is someone out there that could help us please let me know. My sister has really had a rough life and I love her so much please help me to give this wonderful gift to her. I realize Carl is extremely busy but if he could find it in his heart to do something for her it would be the most wonderful gift other than being cured.

    • ANSWER:
      Honestly, I would contact your local news station with the story. They will have the means to actually get in contact with his agents, rather than pr people hired to read the mail. I cant say for sure they can get this done, but they would have the best chance. And they love stories like this. It gets them brownie points with the public and ratings.

  34. QUESTION:
    Is it reasonable to want to put a port/pic line in someone with congestive heart failure?
    This person had stage iv breast cancer, metastic -spread to her liver and lungs. She was in hospital and told unable to put her to sleep for a different procedure less than a week earlier when they talked to her and she agreed to be put to sleep for this procedure. Less than a day later she died. Congestive heart failure was listed on the death certificate. The nurse said her breathing just got shallower and shallower and she didn't want the oxygen until she finally died. We were only called after her death. We really thought she would be getting out of hospital in a few days.

    Does it sound reasonable that they wanted to do this procedure since she was already so sick? I'm trying to make sense of it. I have to keep reminding myself she could have spent many months suffering horribly so I am glad she escaped that, but it is still not adding up to me and my family. She was 60 yrs old.
    I'm not looking to blame doctors. I'm just sorting it out and trying to understand it. In my eyes, she was not strong enough to be put to sleep so I think the procedure was enough to take her life due to how sick she was with the cancer. I know in the end it was the cancer that led to her death. I just wish so much that we could have had more time with her. I'm so sad inside for so many things left unsaid. I had so many questions for my mama and I miss her so much.

    • ANSWER:
      CHF is not a contraindication for insertion of a PICC line or a Port a Cath.
      I suspect the liver and lung metastases from her breast cancer
      contributed to her death.
      The central venous catheter did not cause her death. Her diseases did.
      It is very common for people to want to blame the doctors rather than the disease.
      She should not have required general anesthesia for a PICC line.
      They must have put in a Port a Cath.
      I had a patient die while I was doing a thoracentesis to remove pleural fluid
      and help her breathe more easily.
      It was Christmas eve near midnight. The family was right there at the bedside.
      They understood I did nothing wrong. I was just trying to make her more comfortable.
      Some families would have blamed the thoracentesis. It is human nature.
      People who die of lung cancers almost never accept the fact that
      they caused it themselves by smoking cigarettes for decades.
      They look for something or someone else to blame.

  35. QUESTION:
    what is indurated greater omentum consistant with peritoneal implants?
    this is a male with metastic lung brain and liver cancer

    • ANSWER:
      I am not a doctor (just been around them alot lately) so I'm not entirely sure. But, my son had stage IV intra-abdominal sarcoma so I'm familiar with some of the words here.

      I would suspect that this refers to metastatic spred (tumor implants or seeding) into the abdominal cavity. (the omentum appears hardened indicating 'seeding' of tiny nodules or tumors).

      You should ask your oncologist though.

      Stay strong.

  36. QUESTION:
    My Dog Has a Brain Tumor?
    My 11 year old Anatolian Shepherd Dog has a tumor in her brain. She has been spayed since she was six months old and I thought that spaying a dog would have prevented cancer! The vet says the tumor is metastic, and it will continue to spread. I adopted from a rescue and had her spayed when she was young. I thought this was suppose to prevent cancer!

    • ANSWER:
      It prevents some cancers, but not all.

      Hang in there, and good luck!

  37. QUESTION:
    Help with PET scan results?
    Got PET scan results back. Doc is vacation for 2 weeks. What does this mean please?

    A metastic lesion is seen in the right posterolateral chest wall. No evidence of other FDG-avid distant metastic disease.

    An ovoid hypermetabolisc mass (SUV max 8) is seen in the right posterolerateral chest wall between 5th & 6th rib, measuring 1.5 x 2.5 cm and is interposed between the 2 ribs. Mid scalloping of the interior cortex of the 5th rib is present, but no other destruction is seen.

    1. Specifically, does this mean that her cancer has metastized to the liver? The lungs? The chest? The ribs?
    Is this tumor considered to be large for that area?
    2. She was going to undergo chemo in a few weeks to help extend life. Will they put that on hold and take care of this problem first? And is this serious?

    Thank you for you help!

    • ANSWER:
      It means she has cancer in her chest wall and she has stage 4 disease.
      It is a good size tumor for mets.
      There is no reason this should delay chemo, unless it is causing her pain and they decide to do some radiation on it.