Chemotherapy Blood Count

Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment where drugs are given to the patient to destroy and kill the cancer cells. It works by killing rapidly dividing cells like cancerous cells and other healthy cells such as hair follicles, bone marrow and the reproductive system. I have listed some valuable information for you to read in one easy-to-read webpage. This is a free service for our valued readers which can be located on this link: Chemotherapy

Usually the chemotherapy drugs are given intravenously which means they are injected into a vein of the patient. However, there are some drugs that are administered through injection into the muscles while others are given orally. Doctors and researchers are still trying to evaluate and study whether a patient suffering from a particular type of cancer may be benefited to a greater extent if the chemotherapy drug is directly administered into the cancerous area. Chemotherapy is a cyclic treatment which means that there is a period when drugs are given and this is followed by a period of recovery. This process is continued until the patient completely recovers. Often even after the cancer is destroyed, chemotherapy drugs are given until the time the patient's body can tolerate them.

Chemotherapy can be conducted anywhere such as the outpatient department of the hospital, in a doctor's office or even at the patient's home. Usually there is no need to stay in the hospital to receive chemotherapy treatment.There are different side effects of chemotherapy and most of them depend on the type of drug used and the dosage given. When blood cells are affected because of chemotherapy, the white blood count reduces dramatically along with the platelet counts. A patient then is more prone to illnesses as the body's defense mechanism is hindered. On the lighter side there are side effects like vomiting, nausea, hair loss, dry mouth, constipation and loss of appetite. Beware that some problems like damage to heart, lungs and kidneys can show later on after the treatment. However, not all cancer patients get all the side effects. Some patients suffer from few side effects while others from all of them. There are also patients who do not have any side effects from chemotherapy.

While chemotherapy is an effective tool in shrinking tumors and slowing the spread of cancerous cells it is oftentimes used in conjunction with other medications and other forms of treatment for the best results. When chemotherapy is combined with either surgery or radiation there is an increased success rate in slowing or ceasing the spread of the cancer throughout the body. Sometimes chemotherapy is the only treatment a patient receives. More often, however, chemotherapy is used in addition to surgery, radiation therapy and biological therapy. For more information on chemotherapy feel free to visit our website.

Frequently Asked Questions

  1. QUESTION:
    Regenerate Blood Cell Count After Chemotherapy?
    my uncle just went through chemotherapy and is suffering side effects such as weight loss and fatigue. He needs to raise his red and white blood cell counts to get better. he needs to know if there are any remedies, herbs, vitamins, or foods that he can use to recover. this is urgent, he's not getting better and if they don't improve soon they say he will die. his lung cancer is gone, but he needs help with this.
    thank you

    • ANSWER:

  2. QUESTION:
    What does it mean when your doctor says your white blood count is low? Never had cancer or chemotherapy.?

    • ANSWER:
      A low count could be due to infections, autoimmune disorders, certain medications, radiation therapy, and bone marrow disease such as leukemia. Depending on how low and out of the normal range it is, your doctor may need to do additional testing to determine the exact cause.

  3. QUESTION:
    What are natural ways that someone can increase their white blood cell count due to a fall from chemotherapy?
    This person has agressive CLL

    • ANSWER:
      About the above answer, keep in mind that if you are neutropenic you cant eat fresh fruits or veggies.

      I have aml. On some of my treatments I wasnt given anything and had to just wait around for my counts to come up. On other treatments I was given neupegen shots (same thing as the neulasta advertised on tv).

      Although honestly, with all the rat poison and other crap this person is getting right now, I wouldnt be so concerned with doing anything natural.

  4. QUESTION:
    How long to recover white blood cell neutrophil count?
    A family member has just completed chemotherapy for colon cancer. Her white blood counts are way down, especially the infection-fighting neutrophils (her count was 700 two weeks after the final chemo).

    Does anyone know typically how long it takes after chemo is completely finished for the neutrophils to recover to the normal range? She is not receiving any medication to accelerate the process.

    • ANSWER:
      Good answer by "midnight" - but recovery after colon carcinoma chemotherpay is much more rapid than the usual recovery from leukemia chemotherapy. Your family member should have safe blood counts - an absolute neutrophil count >1000 - in week three after the last chemotherapy - and the neutrophil count should be back to almost normal in week four. There are multiple factors which affect recovery, but I've given you a good guess based on the limited information provided. The oncologist who knows all the details of this person's medical history and the treatment regimen employed could give a much better estimate. We don't even know the age of this person.

  5. QUESTION:
    I am receiing chemotherapy. What is considered a normal white blood cell count?

    • ANSWER:
      Normal Adult Range: 3.8 - 10.8 thous/mcl
      Optimal Adult Reading: 7.3
      My oncologist is happy if I have more than 3,000.

      Hang in there!

  6. QUESTION:
    how can someone build up their white blood cell count?
    My mom is going through chemotherapy and her white blood cellcount is very low. Please does anyone know anyway she can build up her white blood cell count? Like for example any foods she can eat?

    • ANSWER:
      you will have to ask her Oncologist, my husband's told him to eat foods with a lot of protein in it and to drink a lot of 100% pure juice's like orange, carrot,home-made V 8 and sports drinks.protein drinks. your mom and your family are in my prayers.

  7. QUESTION:
    Neutropenia/low blood counts from chemotherapy.....?
    I have been getting chemotherapy (doxorubicin and ifex) for 2 rounds. After the first round I took neuprogen to keep my blood counts up and they stayed up. The second time I also took neuprogen but I now have very low blood counts. I need my counts to be up by sunday so I can go to camp, do you think there is a chance they will?

    • ANSWER:

  8. QUESTION:
    Is it safe to see my friend tomorrow if I have low blood counts from chemotherapy...?
    ...and want them to get higher by Thursday. I am taking neuprogen to stimulate my bones to make more white blood cells. My freind said she is not sick.

    • ANSWER:
      You are on chemo for goodness sake!!!
      ANY question you have needs to be addressed with your oncologist.

  9. QUESTION:
    Is there a recourse to persistent low hemoglobin counts following chemotherapy,other than blood transfusion?
    The question relates to my mother's( age, 70) condition following a diagnosis of stage III Endometrial cancer. She was treated with radiation therapy followed by chemo therapy.

    • ANSWER:
      Low hemoglobin is a side effect of this chemo. You will have to discuss this with her Oncologist. He she wants her to have a transfusion, then she should have it. The Oncologist knows better and best. Good luck and I pray your mom does well. Blessings

  10. QUESTION:
    IS there an alternative medicine way to reduce blood platelets without using chemotherapy?
    I have a bone marrow disorder called 'essential thrombocythemia'. This means I have too many blood platelets.
    Prognosis is that I "over clot" causing potential heart attack and stroke. THe treatment is to use chemotherapy to reduce platelets: namely hydroxyurea, and/or angrelide, or interferon alpha. Meanwhile, I have read Dr Weils book 'Spontaneous Healing' and wonder if anybody in the world knows of a way to reduce platelets without resorting to these chemo meds. The chemo meds knock out your healing ability as they also reduce white blood cell and red blood cell counts (along with the platelets). Thanks!

    • ANSWER:
      Do take the chemotherapy ! The risks you are taking if you don't are enormous. Do not listen to ANYBODY conselling you not to take the treatment, they are lying to you and trying to take advantage of your suffering.

      You can take some natural products that help you boost your immune system, like echinacea, but do consult your doctor to insure that there is no clash with the chemotherapy. You can also ask for a drug called hematopoietine (called "epo" by athletes) which can help you replenish your red blood cells.

      You can also look for LEGITIMATE experimental treatments on your own and consult your doctor about it.

  11. QUESTION:
    I have diarrhea and have low blood counts due to chemotherapy....?
    Could the diarrhea jeopardize the chances of my blood counts going up if I am taking neuprogen?

    • ANSWER:
      No. The diareah is a result of the chemo. Im sure you know that chemo kills all rapidly dividing cells, not just the cancer cells, right? Thats why some people loose their hair with chemo. Well, a lot of your digestive system is also composed of rapidly dividing cells. Essentially, the chemo is creating lil ulcers and sores in your digestive tract because its killing those cells. As you recover from the chemo they will heal and your diareah will go away.

      Ive read your questions. You might still be able to go to camp, but make sure you follow all of your doc's instructions. Also, if you havent told the doc about the diareah yet, make sure they know. They will want to rule out an infection. With me, after they made sure it wasnt an infection they would give me immodium to try to help the diareah.

  12. QUESTION:
    Im trying to find foods and herbal remedies to "lower" white blood count?
    My grandmother has a white blood count of 30,000 ! Doctors are saying if it doesn't come down that they are talking about chemotherapy. which i really do not want! she is 87 and i think that would be the worst thing for her. i am looking for foods she can eat or herbs she can take to help lower her white blood count.
    I will greatly appreciate any advise! thank you.

    • ANSWER:
      Try a food supplement marketed by an MLM company. You can write me at jade_flowershop@yahoo.com for details.

  13. QUESTION:
    Why is gardening not permitted when my white blood cell count is low?
    The count is a little low due to chemotherapy.

    • ANSWER:
      you can pick up a germ very easy and when your white count is too low its hard to fight off the most smallest infection such as a simple cut on the finger if you wont to garden try putting your knees on a pillow and wearing gloves and maybe a mask that covers your mouth and nose i know how it feels to wont to do thing and they tell you ,you cant because you have cancer but there is always a way to do it if you put your mind to it dont give up the things you love thats what keeps you going and good luck

  14. QUESTION:
    A question about neutropenia, chemotherapy, doxorubicin, ifosfomide/ifex and blood counts? Please help!?
    I KNOW IT IS A LITTLE LONG BUT PLEASE EVERYONE HAS ONE OF THOSE QUESTIONS THEY JUST NEED ANSWERED, THIS IS MINE PLEASE HELP ME OUT!

    Here are the facts:
    -I am getting a chemotherapy treatment of doxorubicin and ifosfomide.
    -I get chemo every three weeks, my first dose was the 10th of july and my last was the 31st.
    -The first time (july 10th) I took neuprogen and was never neutropenic.
    -This time (july 31st) I also took neuprogen and went to the doctor today and discovered I am "very neutropenic".
    -It is the 10th day after treatment and the blood counts are supposed to be the worst from the 10th-14th day after treatment.
    -I was supposed to go to a camp for kids with cancer on sunday for a week but my doctor said I cannot go unless my counts improve (I can still be neutropenic just not as neutropenic as I was today).
    -I am still taking neuprogen.

    My questions are:

    Will my blood counts improve by thursday (the next time I go to the doctor)?

    What can I do to help raise my blood counts?

    Is it safe to see my friend tomorrow? (I have asked if she is feeling well and not sick and she said yes)

    Would seeing my friend jeopardize my ability to go to camp?

    I got diarrhea today and am worried, that it too could somehow jeopardize my ability to go to camp...?

    • ANSWER:
      Im actually surprised you did not become neutropenic with your first dose, with those chemotherapy meds its pretty common for you to become very neutropenic. There really isnt anything else you can do to help your counts improve, continue your neuprogen and just wait.
      Cant really say how long it takes, its different every time.
      It terms of seeing your friend, like im sure your doctor has told you, currently you are very susceptible to infection so if you go see your friend i would be very carefull, had washing ect. Do you wear a mask when you go out?
      The diarrhea could be from the chemo, the gi tract is very sensitive to chemo and can slough off causing diarrhea. However it could also be first signs of infection so any hint of a fever or other symptoms you need to go to the ER right away.

  15. QUESTION:
    How could the hemogloblin count go up during chemotherapy?
    I got some results that show that as a patient was getting chemotherapy (Daunorubicin and Cytarabine), the amoutn of white blood cells and platelets went down, but the mass of hemogloblin per Liter went up. Anybody able to explain this?

    • ANSWER:
      Possible that the patient being treated with a red blood cell booster drug like Arnasep or Procrit? (i.e. EPO.)

      My hemoglobin was ridiculously low at diagnosis for advanced stage Hodgkin's Disease -- it was actually around 7.0. So I started getting Arnasep shots and it increased despite the chemo. Once it hit 11.0, the Arnasep was discontinued, but my hemoglobin still kept climbing despite the chemo. If the patient was like me and had a heavy disease burden, perhaps knocking back the cancer is allowing the body and bone marrow to function better.

      Would also consider dehydration -- makes the blood more concentrated which can make the hemoglobin level seem higher.

  16. QUESTION:
    how do you keep your white blood cell count up?
    this question is for someone looking for a natural boost to keep her count up for chemotherapy from cancer

    • ANSWER:
      This sounds so mean, but by living Healthy. If she's on Chemo, take a snack to eat AFTER chemo on the way home. I know she won't necess. feel like it, but it will help usually keep her from getting even sicker. My aunt did this and actually put on weight during Chemo. She didn't enjoy it, but she said it made her life so much better. She would pull over and eat Chips and other light snack items, NOTHING to salty or heavy. Walk, get lots of clear air (perhaps sit on the porch if in the country), perhaps her doctor may recommend a transfusion for more white cells, she can always ask. : ) Good luck to her.

      ps tell her to look for cancer treatment centers nearby, they usually offer free get-togethers and free group therapy where you can get free wigs and offer and get free advice from other cancer patients and survivors.

  17. QUESTION:
    What could be the cause of a very low white blood cell count?
    I am not getting chemotherapy either.

    • ANSWER:
      Low numbers of WBCs (leukopenia) may indicate:

      * bone marrow failure (for example, due to infection, tumor, fibrosis)
      * presence of cytotoxic substance
      * collagen-vascular diseases (such as lupus erythematosus)
      * disease of the liver or spleen
      * radiation

  18. QUESTION:
    I underwent six rounds of BCNU chemotherapy. Why did my red blood cell counts get so low in rounds 5 and 6?
    My cbc showed that my red blood cell counts were 3.25 out of 4.4. Why did my counts get so low in the 5th and 6 th rounds? Why did my doctor not do anything to help get my counts up? Is it because I was a healthy 39 year old brain tumor patient who had a grade 3 astrocytoma brain tumor removed with 7 hours of brain surgery?

    • ANSWER:
      As long as my cbc red blood cell count didnt go below 3.0 I didnt have to take anything to up my cell counts. The more rounds of Chemo you have the greater amount of CHEMO is in your system. So naturally they would get lower with the more treatments you take. I was told that the 2 wks after my chemo and radiation treatments is when I would be at my lowest. You really need to be talking to your doctor about ANY questions you have during and after your treatments. Good Luck to you

  19. QUESTION:
    I underwent six rounds of BCNU chemotherapy. Why did my red blood cell counts get so low in rounds 5 and 6?
    My cbc showed that my red blood cell counts were 3.25 out of 4.4. Why did my counts get so low in the 5th and 6 th rounds?

    Why did my doctor not do anything to help get my counts up?

    Is it because I was a healthy 39 year old brain tumor patient who had a grade 3 astrocytoma brain tumor removed with 7 hours of brain surgery?

    Why were my red blood cell counts still very low two and four weeks after I had my ififth and sixth nfusion?

    • ANSWER:
      Did your doctor explain to you this process would wreak havoc on your blood count? It normally takes the body approx. 90 days to turn over/generate fresh rbcs. It sounds like if your chemo sessions were close together you would not have time to replenish your cells. I do now that the astrocytoma is one that is star like in it's formation and reaches outward into the brain tissue . The design is to be agressive to kill the sells of the tumor which ius agressive - other cells will most definitely be affected as will by the treatment. YOU NEED TO SPEK WITH YOUR DOCTOR ABOUT YOUR ILLNESS AND HOW THE TREATMENT WILL AFFECT YOUR BODY.

  20. QUESTION:
    With testicular cancer, is it safe to delay a round of chemotherapy due to low white blood cell counts?
    My boyfriend is on a chemotherapy regimen of etopocide and cysplatin. He goes for 5 consecutive days and is off for 2 weeks. He has 4 rounds of this process. Before going in for round 2, the doctor postponed due to low white blood cell counts and he continued treatment the following week. This means he was off for 3 whole weeks. We have read some research saying that postponing chemotherapy for testicular cancer could make the treatment less effective. He is meeting with his oncologist tomorrow. Any feedback or reputable research is appreciated, thanks!
    I think I may have used the wrong term, I didn't mean safe, I meant, is it okay in the sense of effectiveness of the chemotherapy. As I said before, some research shows with his particular regimen, the chemo could lose effectiveness with a "break" in treatment. As it may be okay for some types of cancers, all chemotherapy is different.

    • ANSWER:
      Is it safe? Of course it is. It is far safer than proceeding.

  21. QUESTION:
    Can you donate blood after chemotherapy?
    I had a Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma, a blood cancer, but my treatment ended in June.
    My counts are still low, so I'm sure I can't donate this year, but can i donate later on in life? Like years later when my counts are fine and I'm all healthy, could I donate then?

    Or do they just not want any of my blood just to be safe? I know that they only want blood from healthy individuals without a history of certain diseases....

    • ANSWER:
      You cannot donate blood to the American Red Cross if you've ever had Lymphoma.

  22. QUESTION:
    Regenerate Blood Cell Count?
    my uncle just went through chemotherapy and is suffering side effects such as weight loss and fatigue. He needs to raise his red and white blood cell counts to get better. he needs to know if there are any remedies, herbs, vitamins, or foods that he can use to recover. this is urgent, he's not getting better and if they don't improve soon they say he will die. his cancer is gone, but he needs help with this.
    thank you

    • ANSWER:

  23. QUESTION:
    what vitamins to take for low white blood cell counts?
    my mother have a low white blood cell count. the red is normal and she doesn't have cancer or she is not going through chemotherapy so is there any kind of vitamin she should take in order to replace the low white blood cell counts?

    • ANSWER:
      http://www.drhoffman.com/page.cfm/125

      read

  24. QUESTION:
    Biology question about drug used for chemotherapy?
    5-Fluoro-uracil (5-FU) is a drug commonly used in chemotherapy treatment of cancer. Cancer cells are usually very fast growing cells; other cells in your body, which are also fast growing, are bone marrow cells (which produce red and white blood cells) and hair follicle cells (which produce hair). Suggest why 5-FU can be a good treatment for cancer. Also, describe why 5-FU has side effects of low blood counts and hair loss.

    • ANSWER:
      5-FU is an anti-metabolite which means it resembles a naturally occurring nuclear structural component. After being converted to its active form in the body, 5-FU is competes with deoxyuridine monophosphate (dUMP) for the enzyme thymidylate synthetase. The binding of 5-FU to thymidylate synthetase prevents the cell from producing thymidine and consequently thymine (one of the four base pairs of DNA) resulting in decreased DNA synthesis, imbalanced cell growth and cell death. 5-FU is also inhibits RNA synthesis by acting as an analog for uracil. DNA and RNA synthesis is necessary for cell replication so the faster a cell duplicates the more affected it will be. As you stated, cancer cells are usually very fast growing cells. This makes 5-FU a good treatment for cancer since it slows or prevents tumor growth. However, chemotherapy drugs not only affect cancer cell but all cells in the body. Therefore, 5-FU also has a significant impact on other fast growing cell such as bone marrow and hair follicles resulting in low blood counts and hair loss.

  25. QUESTION:
    Can a patient die from chemotherapy? Or do doctors know when to stop?
    My son just finished his first one (9? more to go). He has to be in the hospital one week, then two weeks home, for the next 6-9 months.

    I know he can easily get sick from his blood count being so low, but can the chemo itself kill him? This stuff is horrible!

    • ANSWER:
      Chemotherapy is given under close observation of Specialist.
      All clinical and blood and biochemical parameters are monitored before and after chemo.
      Further dosing is decided after analysis.
      And Medical oncologist are well trained and experienced.
      So what you are asking is most unlikely.

  26. QUESTION:
    Low white blood cell count?
    Just after a little advice/reassurance. I have been feeling really run down and tired all the time recently to the point where i fall asleep even when talking to others (if im sat down)! I had some bloods done and got called to my drs yest to be told the results have come back as low white blood cell count. I am being sent to a haematologist for more blood work and a chest x ray. I had leukemia 20years ago which i successfully fought off with chemotherapy. Do you think the possibility is that it has returned? thanks all

    • ANSWER:
      Its possible that a low wbc is a sign of emerging leukemia (it would then spike to a high count). But its very unlikely.
      I went through the same thing. My Dr found a low WBC count. I was sent to a hemotologist. they evaluated me. they did a bone marrow biopsy.etc. everything was fine. Some people just have low counts.

  27. QUESTION:
    Simple question about leukemia and blood platelet, white blood cells etc?
    A patient with leukemia is being treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The patient is found to have a low blood platelet count and a high percentage of the white blood cells are abnormal.
    Which is this patient’s symptoms?

    The answer is: Disease Resistance - Low, Blood Clotting - Low, Oxygen Transport: normal

    I picked: Disease Resistance - High(since there are a lot of white blood cells), Blood Clotting - Low(Since there is low platelet count), Oxygen Transport - High

    Why am I wrong? Why is the answer right?

    • ANSWER:
      "high percentage of the white blood cells are ABNORMAL"

      Even though the white blood cell count is high, almost all of the white blood cells are malformed or immature and not doing their jobs.

  28. QUESTION:
    Cut on finger with low platelet count from chemotherapy?
    My dad has cancer and he's been getting chemotherapy for awhile, so his platelet count is low. Not ridiculously low, he's never needed a blood transfusion, but still much lower than the average person. He cut his finger today while cutting raw meat with a pretty sharp knife...his nail is cut in half and the cut went deeper into the finger. He says he feels like it's about 1/3 of the way into his finger (he won't let me open it up and see for myself lol). He was bleeding for about 15 min before it stopped, which I expected, but now he says he has pain and a tingling sensation and I'm thinking he might've cut a nerve. I cleaned the cut with water and put bacitracin on it and bandaged it. There's some blood on the band-aid now but nothing major. Should we go to the ER tonight...is this something that would need immediate attention?

    • ANSWER:
      He NEEDS to call. DONT go to the er, call the after hours number for his oncologist and ask what to do. They generally dont like to bring chemo patients through the er, too many germs.

      His platelet count isnt the only thing to worry about. His white blood cell count is ALSO lowered. He needs to have it properly cleaned, stiched if necessary, and dressed, as well as cultured, and he will need to monitor his temp. The low white blood cell count combined with the raw meat puts his cut at high risk for infection.

  29. QUESTION:
    Blood Building Foods!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!What would you like to ask?
    My mom is taking chemotherapy for lung cancer and her blood count is low, so we are trying to find foods that will help build her blood so she wont have to have another blood transfusion. Any suggestions?

    • ANSWER:
      Beef liver is the best..also PORT wine.

  30. QUESTION:
    why does cancer patients being treated with chemotherapy are monitored closely for changes in red and white?
    cancer patients being treated with chemotherapy desined to destroy rapidly dividing cells are monitored closely for changes in their red and white blood cell counts. why?

    • ANSWER:
      That's how we adjust the doses of the various chemotherapy drugs.
      We don't want the white cell count - particular the neutrophils which fight bacterial and fungal infections - to drop too low for too long because of the opportunistic infection risk. For most combination chemotherapy regimens (and there are hundreds of different ones), there is no way to treat effectively without dropping the neutrophil count. The trick is to adjust the doses for the individual. Every person is different.
      Red blood cells normally live 120 days and are much less affected by most chemotherapy agents than the WBC's which are replaced daily.

  31. QUESTION:
    White Blood Cell Count?
    What is the following information for each of these: Neutrophils, Monocytes, Eosiniphils, and Basophils?

    1.Normal range
    2.Function
    3.Contribution to evaluation of patient
    4.Significance of decrease
    5.Significance of increase

    Example of answer:
    Leukocytes
    –Normal 5,000-10,000/mm3
    –Helps in evaluation of a patient with an infection, neoplasm, allergy or immunosupression
    –Decrease: Leukopenia< 4000/mm3 occurs in patients with bone marrow failure (chemotherapy, radiation, overwhelming infections, autoimmune disease or dietary deficiencies)
    –Increase: Leukocytosis > 10,000/ mm3 occurs in patients with infection, inflammation, tissue necrosis, trauma, stress, leukemic neoplasia

    • ANSWER:
      Nuetrophil- 3000-7000 function is to phagocytize bacteria

      Eosinophil- 100-400 function is to kill parasitic worms, and also play a role in allergy and ashma

      Basophil- 20-50 function is to release histamine and other mediators of inflammation

      Monocyte- 100-700 function is phagocytosis, develop into macrophages in the tissues

      An increase in these would indicate an infection in the body either parasitic or bacterial. Dont know about thier decrease. I hope it helped :)

  32. QUESTION:
    my niece is 13 yrs old, she is diognised of blood cancer lukemenia (m1) she finished her 1st chemotherapy, and?
    her counts had gone down but had come to normal after like 16 days so the doctors did second chemotherapy on her, the 5 days one, and now her platelets are gone down to 20 and hameoglobin is only 7.00
    very worried what shall we do to get it up......

    • ANSWER:
      I am so sorry about her diagnosis. My niece was diagnosed with High Risk Pre B ALL when she was two. She is in her maintenance phase of chemo now. As I'm sure you know, there is so much to learn so quick once someone you love is diagnosed. I strongly suggest having her parents talk with the oncologist directly to address all questions and concerns. They should be able to give solid advice and supply the parents with any special instructions and/or lists of things to watch out for. Also, they should be able to give you a list of additional resources to refer too. I'm sorry I don't have any specific answers for you.

  33. QUESTION:
    What kind of vitamin can I boost my immune system with?
    I had chemotherapy about 4 years ago and with that my immune system went out the door along with my hair (I am truly blessed that my hair came back just like it use to be) and red blood count. I am tired of feeling tired and always getting sick. Is there a brand of vitamin I can take to help me with this?

    • ANSWER:
      Proffesional atheletes get B 12 shots once a month to boost their immune systems. U should also look into taking Tai Chi classes. Tai Chi is a martial art with many health benefits including helping ur immune system when practiced everyday.
      Good luck

  34. QUESTION:
    Chemotherapy causes arthritis pain ?
    Mother had chemotherapy for her multiple myloma . That problem got better her blood count came back up and the protein deposited cells start dying and new cell started to generate. Now with all this the doctor thinks that her bone marrow is also getting better which is contributing to increase of blood but unfortunately caused her arthritis to become severe and she is in lots of pain. None of the meds like tylenol, vicodine and such work except when she was in the hopspital the morphine was working. So what can we do for her ?

    Thanks in advance

    • ANSWER:
      Take her to see a rheumatalogist. hopefullty they will find something that works well for her. When my arthritis is acting up sometimes soaking in a hot tub helps with the pain a little.Good luck and God bless

  35. QUESTION:
    Is it ok to take OTC energy pills while undergoing treatment for Leukemia?
    My sister has Leukemia and has been in the hospital doing her chemotherapy. She has been waiting for her blood counts to recover before she goes home. I have just been made aware of her taking over the counter energy pills. I was wandering if this is healthy or can it cause a problem?

    • ANSWER:
      I am a leukemia patient and my best advice is ASK THE DOC.

      My personal recommendation is NO. First these pills really are not healthy for anyone to take. Second, her lack of energy is coming from her low blood counts and these pills will not do anything to help that. Third, her treatment is already damaging her heart and these energy pills further can damage the heart depending on whats in them.

  36. QUESTION:
    Donate blood every 4 weeks or platelets every 16 weeks?
    I donated blood for the first time 4 weeks ago, I am due to give blood again next week.
    I have been told by the practise nurses though, that my veins look suitable to donate platelets instead (blood cells to help patients recovering from cancer and leukaemia, whose blood cell count has been destroyed by chemotherapy).
    I am looking for advice from fellow donors or those of you with a medical background as to which is more beneficial.
    You can donate blood every 4 weeks or platelets every 16 weeks.
    If it helps decisions, or just as a bit of extra information, I am blood type 'O' Rhesus Positive, 25 year old male with excellent health.
    Many thanks for any advice

    • ANSWER:
      Good day. I also have the same blood group as you. It is in fact the most popular blood group in the world, but donations are especially important this time of year becasue anyone afflicted with influenza cannot donate blood. There is also a shortage of platelets - simply because fewer people donate platelets, and they don't survive as long as blood.

      Either blood or platelets will be very beneficial. You can be proud of yourself whichever you decide to donate. Perhaps talk it over with a nurse next time you are due to donate, or call them in advance for more information.

  37. QUESTION:
    Help me, I got New kind of diease from printer ink desyroyed my bone marrow. ATTN:All worlds blood specialist?
    have been suffering with Myelodysplastic Syndromes since 2001, it started with
    tiredness, dizziness and shortness of breath. The lowest blood counts are
    the hemoglobin and red cells, the hemoglobin range from 6.0 to 9.5,
    and the red cells range from 2.0 to 2.45.

    The normal value for Hemoglobin is 14.0-10.0 g/dl, the normal red cells are 4.30-5.90 M/cu mm.

    Myelodysplastic syndromes affect blood cell production and behavior. Blood carries oxygen, chemicals and hormones to the cells in the body and helps remove toxins and waste.

    Red blood cells carry oxygen to the tissues (muscles, bones, nerves and organs). Low red blood counts or malfunctioning red blood cells can cause anemia. Symptoms are paleness, feeling tired, fast-beating or pounding heart, dizziness, shortness of breath or headaches.

    The five categories of MDS are:
    Refractory anemia
    Refractory anemia with ringed sideroblasts
    Refractory anemia with excess blasts
    Refractory anemia in transformation to acute leukemia
    Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia
    The disease categories on the lower end of this list are more serious and have a worse prognosis than those at the top. Refractory anemia and refractory anemia with ringed sideroblasts primarily affect the red blood cells and are the most common forms of MDS. Refractory anemia with excess blasts is present when immature white blood cells are found in the bone marrow in abnormally large numbers (five to 20% bone marrow blasts, compared to normal blasts of less than one percent). Refractory anemia with excess blasts in transformation occurs when blasts become markedly increased (more than 20%) and may indicate that MDS will change to an acute form of leukemia.

    The category that I come under is Refractory Anemia.

    MDS is difficult to diagnose because of the absence of symptoms in the early stage of the disease. Often it is accidentally discovered during a routine physical exam or blood test. Routine screening tests do not exist for MDS, but if the disease is suspected, the doctor may order these tests:
    Complete blood count. A small amount of blood is drawn from the arm, and the lab measures red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets in the sample.
    Bone marrow biopsy
    An examination of the chromosomes that carry genetic material

    I get the complete blood count done every week and receive blood transfusion
    once every three weeks or earlier sometimes. Medicines such as Procrit,
    Arenesp, Epogen has no effect on me. Revlimid and other similar drugs
    do not help either. Presently I am given Chemotherapy (Vidaza) for the past 12 months and there has been no positive results so far.
    Actually it was my friend who has this disease and he reported to me that he used to sit in a Lucent Technology printer room and the ink particles in the air got in his blood stream through inhelation. Originally that was the diagnosis from doctors hardly any one survive this disease. In his case 20% of baby blood cells produced by bone marrow were dead and appeared black under microscope. One of the worlds greatest doctor is treating him with Chemotherapy and seems like symptoms has somewhat different now. Now it is some kind of severe anemia however he has extra iron in his blood. He took some experimental drug to cure above disease which seems to cause neuropathy at the bottom of his feet which is very painful. So far that has no cure for that side effect also available.
    Actually it was my friend who has this disease and he reported to me that he used to sit in a Lucent Technology printer room and the ink particles in the air got in his blood stream through inhelation. Originally that was the diagnosis from doctors hardly any one survive this disease. In his case 20% of baby blood cells produced by bone marrow were dead and appeared black under microscope. One of the worlds greatest doctor is treating him with Chemotherapy and seems like symptoms has somewhat different now. Now it is some kind of severe anemia however he has extra iron in his blood. He took some experimental drug to cure above disease which seems to cause neuropathy at the bottom of his feet which is very painful. So far that has no cure for that side effect also available.

    • ANSWER:
      You have no choice but to keep having blood transfusions and be monitored for any progression of your disease. I don't know of any links between MDS and printer ink. What makes you think that has caused it?

  38. QUESTION:
    Anaemia during chemotherapy?
    I know that sometimes chemotherapy has to be postponed due to low white blood cell counts, but is this the same for someone with low haemoglobin/anaemia? Why? Does it have to be a certain level? Thanx.

    • ANSWER:
      It is because chemotherapy kills both healthy and cancer cells. If the white blood cell counts are too low, you might be killed by secondary infections. You might like to try Yunzhi. It has been shown to improve immunity and survival in lung cancer and nasopharyngeal cancer

      http://healthreason.com/2011/02/06/yunzhi-slows-progression-of-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer/

      http://healthreason.com/2010/09/12/yunzhi-danzhen-improves-immune-system-in-nasopharyngeal-cancernpc-patients/

  39. QUESTION:
    At what point, should treatment start in elderly Leukemia patients?
    My father was diagnosed with Leukemia about a year ago. His white blood cell count is at 30,000 now. 4 months ago it was at 11,000. When is treatment recommended and what type is typical? His Dr said he would begin treatment if his levels reached 60,000 but didn't say what type of treatment. Chemotherapy? Radiation? What is most usually recommended? I would love any information you could share with me! Thanks!

    • ANSWER:
      When it goes up thirty thousand more in count The doctor may feel its time for chemotherapy

  40. QUESTION:
    Anyone know anything about breast cancer and white blood cell counts?
    A very dear friend of mine has been battling with breast cancer for 4 years now. It went into remission for about 1 1/2 years and now has spread to her liver. She is doing chemotherapy and it is making her sick-so sick she can't keep anything down. She wound up in the ER this morning and her sister-also a very dear friend-informed me that her white blood cell count is at 400 and her fingernails are brown. I have looked everywhere on the internet and can't find anything. I'm doing this all on my phone, so that could be one of the reasons why. Does anyone know what this means? She's only 29 and we don't want to lose her. Please help us to understand what's going on.

    • ANSWER:
      When you have chemotherapy it attacks healthy cells as well as cancer cells. It is common for the white blood cell count to drop when someone is having chemo which means that their immune system is very low and it's easier and more dangerous to contract infections etc. She is in the best place for her being the hospital and I am sure they are taking good care of her.

      As fingernails and toe nails are made from the same substance as hair it stands to reason that some chemo treatments will affect the nails as well. If your friend is having Taxol or Taxotere, one of the side effects is black nails which can eventually even drop off.

      Try to remember that it's probably the treatment causing her to be so sick, not the cancer. Hopefully the treatment will slow down the progression and you will see your friend looking much better soon.

      Best of luck to her.

  41. QUESTION:
    I am a 59-Year old male. I am having total leucyte count (TLC) of 2600 which is low.?
    I am on chemothrerapy. My Doctor has suggested 5 days of Chemotherapy in one cycles. I would have to take 6 such cycles in a period of 6 months. I am getting treated in a private reputed hospital in New Delhi. I would have got the 5th day of the first cycle on 14 Aug 2007. But, this would not be possible since my TLC is less than the minimum of 3500. My TLC level has gone down after the blood transfusion on 8 Aug 2007 to raise the plate count. Kindly comment.

    • ANSWER:
      Neutropenia is a common side effect of chemotherapy and can interrupt your treatment. Cycles are given in hopes that during the periods the patient is off chemotherapy the body will have a chance to recover naturally. However, due to dosage or type of chemo being given sometimes a patient is not able to sufficiently recover their blood counts by the time the next cycle comes around.

      There are meds that you can take to stay on target with your schedule, but your doctor will determine if you are a candidate for this. My son stayed on schedule by using a filgrastim which is a human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) regularly. It is given as a shot beginning the day after treatment stops and continues until the WBC responds (usually in a week to ten days). Some people because of their overall health may take longer to respond. But response usually occurs sometimes after nadir (the lowest point wbc drop after chemo).

      You can read more about low blood counts and neutropenia:

      Managing a Low White Blood Cell Count (Neutropenia)
      http://www.chemotherapy.com/side_effects/white_blood_cell/managing_low_count.jsp

      Best wishes to you, stay strong, and you might ask your doctor about taking the G-CSF shot to help boost your WBC.

  42. QUESTION:
    chemotherapy question?
    My dad has had four treatments. He is getting very skinny and has low white blood counts after every treatment.Does this mean that the treatments are not working. Has anyone else had this after chemotherapy and been ok? I guess I am just worried he looks so sickly.Any advise? Do you think he has a chance at beating this monster.
    I do not want info on alternative treatments/ These do not work otherwise people would be alive Just want the facts from someone who has been through chemo Thanks
    Good luck to all who are fighting this and your journey through cancer. May you all win and my prayers are with you. Some days are better than others keep your heads up

    • ANSWER:
      I have leukaemia for the 2nd time and have had a lot of chemo. Unfortunately, chemotherapy has unpleasant side effects. Although the good thing is, this doesnt mean it's not working. Chemo destroys your immune system as it attempts to kill the cancer. It knocks the life out of you and does make you look very ill, although it's doing a good thing

      You should speak to his doctor and find out about his exact case, but it sounds pretty normal

  43. QUESTION:
    IS IPT CHEMOTHERAPY ILLEGAL IN THE US OR DO MOST CHEMO DOC PERFORM THIS KIND OF CHEM?
    MY MOM HAS STAGE 4 COLON CANCER, AND ON MEDICAID WHICH MADE IT DIFF TO FIND A GOOD CHEM DOC. THE DOC BEDSIDE MANNERS WHERE HORRIBLE BUT HE IS THE ONLY DOC IN THE AREA THAT WILL TAKE HER INSURANCE SO I VE BEEN GIVING HER HERBS LIKE MUSHROOM EXTRACT, NONI JUICE, VITS, IRON, WHEAT GRASS AND TRYING TO KEEP HER HAPPY. SHE GOES TO HER DOC TOMMOROW AND I KNO HE WILL RECOMMEND A HIGH DOSE CHEMO AND HER BLOOD COUNT IS 7.5 AND SHE REFUSES BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS DUE TO RELIGION. HAS ANYONE EVER HAS IPT CHEM OR KNOW SOMEONE WHO HAD IT AND WAS SUCESSFUL. ANY ADVISE WOULD BE HELPFUL?

    • ANSWER:
      As long as the drugs are FDA approved it is not illegal. Her surgeon should have given her prescriptions to get her blood count up so she could start chemo. I strongly suggest you go with her to her appointment with the oncologist. Stage 4-colon cancer is not curable. Treatment is given to slow down the disease and prolong life. I don’t know if anyone has discussed this with her yet, as sometimes doctors leave it to the oncologist to explain. The 5-year survival rate for stage 4 colon cancer is 5%. I am very sorry.

  44. QUESTION:
    How does chemotherapy work?
    Here are some brief details. My sister weighed about 230 before all this started happening. For about the past 6 months she has been complaining that her stomach hurts all the time and whenever she eats, she gets sick. She has dropped down to 130 just in the past 3 months. We had been telling her way before now to go see a doctor and she said she was fine and she didn't want to go. Anyways, Wednsday she decided to go because the pain became too much to bear. The doctor pretty much called her a crazy anorexic and said she would run some tests just to make my sister happy. Well they did bloodwork and an ultra sound to check her gal bladder. The doc called my mom at 2 in the morning and said she needs to get to a hospital right away. He said that her white blood count was 5 times what it should be. Then, when the nurse was undressing my sis to put on a gown, she stumbled upon a mass on her shoulder that was 5 inches in diameter. We can't believe my sister hid this from us for so long.
    She would always wear loose fitting shirts. Then they did a CT scan and said that they found more than 10 more masses inside. They did a biopsy and diagnosed it as lymphoma(not sure how to spell it) and now she is really scared because they told her she must undergo chemotherapy. My family is wondering if that will take care of the tumors, inside and out and how the process works. She is scared of losing her hair but I told her that her hair is just a thing that can be replaced but she can't be replaced. I am kind of upset that she didn't tell anyone sooner or see a doc sooner but all that matters now is that she is gonna get better. By the way, she is only 23 years old. Please tell me anything you know about this disease and also they implanted this device in her chest that is supposed to make it easier to administer IVs though I can't remember the name. Please help, I am trying to be strong.Thanks for anything you can offer me.

    • ANSWER:
      There are more than fifty chemotherapy drugs and more than a dozen that work for lymphomas - - but most of these work by interfering with the process of cellular division. For non-medical people, I sometimes explain this as "throwing a monkey wrench into the process of cells dividing and tumors growing." Most of these medications are given intravenously.

      Lymphomas (you spelled it just right) are usually very responsive to chemotherapy, so all is not lost here. These malignancies respond better than most to currently availably chemotherapy drug combinations.

      But we do not know what type of lymphoma this is. There are more than two dozen types of lymphoma. Her doctors should be explaining her type and the treatment expectations for her special case. Every patient is different and special. It would help if you could be there to listen to these explanations. Your sister's doctors have more details than we can possibly give you online.

  45. QUESTION:
    Can I rebuild my damaged immune system?
    I've had cancer for 6 years from 6-12 years old. Whenever I get blood labs done my blood counts are much lower than when I started out and they aren't going up even a few years after the cancer. The doctors say that the Chemotherapy damaged my immune system so the normal levels are much lower. Is it possible to regain my immune system to a normal level by eating a certain diet or working out on a regular basis? Plz don't answer unless you know what you're sure about your answer.

    • ANSWER:
      Your doctors are correct about the chemotherapy. Unfortunately, cancer patients (even after remission) are much more prone to infection than the general population, because the treatment you received to kill cancerous cells also killed healthy cells in your immune system. You will probably always have a slightly less functional immune system than the average person, but don't give up hope! If your treatments have stopped and you are in remission, your situation will improve. Think of it like growing up - it happens slowly, but it does happen.
      You are recovering, and so is your immune system. Take it easy and don't push things too far too fast. Your body needs to regenerate white blood cells and build up an anti-body system to fight off infections. It will do so, but it takes time. Chemotherapy is a toxic treatment that breaks down the body's natural defenses to attack the cancer, and so your body has to start all over with building up defenses once treatment ends. Have faith - it will get better!

  46. QUESTION:
    Is pain after chemotherapy normal?
    My mom has breast cancer and just had a mastectomy about a month ago and got the first chemo treatment this Monday. Yesterday she went for the follow up shot (for the red blood cell count). Today she is in unbearable pain through her legs and cramping in her abdomen. Is this normal? Is she supposed to be in so much pain?
    Thank you... She did call her doctor already and was given a painkiller but I just wanted to know if this pain was common. Thanks for your answers :)

    • ANSWER:
      I too got severe pain from the follow up shot and had to go on painkillers. I'm happy to hear she called her doctor and was able to get medication.

      My best to you mom.

  47. QUESTION:
    Chemo patient coming down with a cold?
    My mother is currently having Chemotherapy. She knows that she needs to be careful of infections because her white blood cell count is already so low. The nurses have asked her to keep an eye out for infections and to phone them immediately if she gets a sore throat or her temperature raises higher than normal. She is coming down with a cold at the moment and is not sure if she needs to contact the nurses at the hospital to let them know,her temperature is currently fine and she doesn't feel very unwell. Should she contact the hospital while her temperature is fine?

    • ANSWER:
      I always called, just to be on the safe side. More than likely they will tell you to make sure she gets plenty of fluids and checks her tempature often and regularly. But, my opinion is call just incase. If nothing else, they will have a record of what was going on when in case she does get sick later.

  48. QUESTION:
    Cancer && Lupus ; is Chemotherapy safe?
    My mother had Lupus for 35yrs and was recently diagnoised with Cancer about three weeks ago - she died last sunday. I'm not sure if Chemo was the right choice for her since I believe her lupus was active & her white blood cell count was low. Chemo gets rid of white blood cells right?

    The doctors told us she didn't have any white blood cells which meant she couldn't fight off infections. While hospitalized she got double Pneumonia & the cancer was spreading. Since she had no white blood cells // no immune system she couldn't fight it.

    Was Chemo the right choice for her????
    My mom told us it was Lymph Node cancer but the doctors said she had breat & lung cancer & was to be tested for the Lymph Node cancer.

    I'm sorry I don't know much of anything since she died so suddenly. I dont know what type of chemo treatment she was given . i just know that my mother was perfectly fine before the chemo . She got the chemo about a week n a half before she died ...

    • ANSWER:
      What type of cancer? There are over 200 types.
      What type of chemotherapy? There are over 100 drugs.
      What was the stage of the malignancy?
      How old was she?
      What was her white blood count at the start of treatment - especially the absolute neutrophil count?
      How can we answer such a vague question?

      Chemotherapy is sometimes used to treat SLE (lupus), so that is not a contraindication.

      Chemotherapy is never completely "safe." It is always risky.
      But the alternative is to do nothing for many cancer patients.
      Most patients and family members will not accept the no treatment approach.

      Neutropenia (low white blood cells) is a risk taken with most of the hundreds of different chemotherapy regimens for the many types of cancer. Patients are lost to infections such as pneumonia when they have had aggressive chemotherapy. There is no way to treat a cancer aggressively without taking that risk. In retrospect, you now know that the treatment may have shortened you mother's life. Hindsight is 20/20 as they say. Would you have elected to let the cancer run its course and end her life without trying treatment? She would have had no chance then - depending on what cancer you are asking about.

      Added note - The person "Jozifina" is probably not a doctor judging from the recommendation for tamoxifen not even knowing the type of cancer. This person has no profile listed to verify MD credentials. People who lie on this site make it difficult for real doctors who are trying to help here.

  49. QUESTION:
    What is the negative impact of missing a chemotherapy treatment?
    My mother has stage 3c ovarian cancer. Very healthy up until her diagnosis. She's only 63 years old. She was scheduled for her 6th and last chemo treatment this past Thursday 8/14/08. All through her treatment, everything has been very good. Her blood counts have all been good, her CA-125 level has always been below 10. When the doctor completed her surgery - he was very confident that he removed all of the cancer. The only reason it's level 3c to my knowledge is that one of the lymph nodes checked for cancer came back positive. They checked 14 in all, and one came back. Damn that cancer!

    As I mentioned, she was scheduled to get her 6th and last treatment. She gets carboplatin and taxol combined...and she's also on a study for Avastin. I hope she's getting that too! The study will continue on, but the chemo is done after this last time. Unfortunately, she could not get her chemo done this past Thursday because her platelets were low... they were around 80 or so. Today (Monday) she got her blood work done, and they have raised up to 125 which is an acceptable level to have the chemo treatment. Here is my question....How bad is it that she had to postpone her treatment. Are there any known longterm side effects to this? She can have her treatment as early as tomorrow (Tuesday) 5 days after her intial schedule....My family and I are going to Wisconsin Dells with my nieces and parents this upcoming weekend. My dad turns 70 on the 22nd of August and we were also going to celebrate my mom finishing her chemo treatment. I worry that if she receives the treatment tomorrow (Tuesday) - she won't feel that well for the trip. (we only live 3 hours away in chicago)... Typically she is fine for the first 3 days after chemo, then it gets kind of iffy for the following 4 or 5 days. So if she gets it on Tuesday I'm worried she won't feel right. She could get it on Thursday however and probably be OK for the trip...but that means it will have been a week since her scheduled day to receive the treatment.

    I know asking questions on Yahoo might not be the best solution. Of course we are waiting to hear from her gynecology-oncologist on what we should do....but i would love to hear from anyone on here their opinion. Have the chemo on Tuesday or Thursday? My common sense tells me she should have it asap, regardless of what the plans are for the weekend...but i also know how much she is looking forward to this trip..and i want her to be healthy for that... does an extra 2 days really matter a lot? Thanks for any advice or help!

    • ANSWER:

  50. QUESTION:
    What can I expect during and after my dad's testicular cancer chemotherapy treatment?
    Well my Dad actually started treatment about 4 weeks ago (BEP chemo) for his testicular cancer, but his oncologist delayed his second cycle by a week because of his high white blood cell count and severe vomiting/dehydration. He had surgery to remove his testicle about two years ago and then was treated with radiation 8 months later when the cancer spread to a lymph node in his abdomen. This time he's being treated with chemo (BEP, an intense treatment from what I hear) when a CT scan showed cancer in a lymph node in his neck about six weeks ago... I'm not sure what to think this time and I'm very worried about his condition/prognosis. He's been hospitalized four times since his first week of outpatient treatment, I don't know how he will get through another two cycles of this. Does anyone have any information/experience with this type of treatment? Is it successful? Thanks so much in advance. -Sim
    I'm sorry, I should have listed the type of cancer and his age in my description. He is 54 and his original cancer two years ago was classical germ cell seminoma (sp?). I hope that's specific enough, if not I apologize... Part of the reason I came here to ask this question is because he's been very secretive about his condition and how serious it is and I'd like to find out for myself so I can be more realistic in my approach to take better care of him. Thanks. -Sim

    • ANSWER:
      There is no way to answer you without knowing at least his age and the type of cancer he has.

      EDIT: Thanks for the additional information. Your dad is acting like a typical man and he may not be able to answer your questions if he were willing to talk about it; they just don’t ask questions like we do. Anyway, luckily he has a very treatable type of cancer. Depending on stage, most men with this type (80-99%) are cured with radiation as these cancers are very sensitive to it. Those that recur even at stage C, have a 5 year survival rate of 70-80%. You should know because your dad has a positive node in the neck area his cancer is a stage C, which is the last stage for testicular cancer.

      Not to get ahead of ourselves, but even patients who do not achieve complete remission with BEP are still curable with salvage chemo. I thought you should know this in the event it happens, as the doctor probably hasn’t mentioned it to him. It doesn’t help to give patients too much information as they are usually overwhelmed as it is and best to take one step at a time. If I remember correctly I believe this is the same type of cancer Lance Armstrong had and I believe he had lung and brain mets. Either way, you should check out his website it is pretty informative and designed for patients and their families. It might help your dad to take a look at it too. Best wishes to you both.


Chemotherapy Colon Cancer

Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment where drugs are given to the patient to destroy and kill the cancer cells. It works by killing rapidly dividing cells like cancerous cells and other healthy cells such as hair follicles, bone marrow and the reproductive system. I have listed some valuable information for you to read in one easy-to-read webpage. This is a free service for our valued readers which can be located on this link: Chemotherapy

Usually the chemotherapy drugs are given intravenously which means they are injected into a vein of the patient. However, there are some drugs that are administered through injection into the muscles while others are given orally. Doctors and researchers are still trying to evaluate and study whether a patient suffering from a particular type of cancer may be benefited to a greater extent if the chemotherapy drug is directly administered into the cancerous area. Chemotherapy is a cyclic treatment which means that there is a period when drugs are given and this is followed by a period of recovery. This process is continued until the patient completely recovers. Often even after the cancer is destroyed, chemotherapy drugs are given until the time the patient's body can tolerate them.

Chemotherapy can be conducted anywhere such as the outpatient department of the hospital, in a doctor's office or even at the patient's home. Usually there is no need to stay in the hospital to receive chemotherapy treatment.There are different side effects of chemotherapy and most of them depend on the type of drug used and the dosage given. When blood cells are affected because of chemotherapy, the white blood count reduces dramatically along with the platelet counts. A patient then is more prone to illnesses as the body's defense mechanism is hindered. On the lighter side there are side effects like vomiting, nausea, hair loss, dry mouth, constipation and loss of appetite. Beware that some problems like damage to heart, lungs and kidneys can show later on after the treatment. However, not all cancer patients get all the side effects. Some patients suffer from few side effects while others from all of them. There are also patients who do not have any side effects from chemotherapy.

While chemotherapy is an effective tool in shrinking tumors and slowing the spread of cancerous cells it is oftentimes used in conjunction with other medications and other forms of treatment for the best results. When chemotherapy is combined with either surgery or radiation there is an increased success rate in slowing or ceasing the spread of the cancer throughout the body. Sometimes chemotherapy is the only treatment a patient receives. More often, however, chemotherapy is used in addition to surgery, radiation therapy and biological therapy. For more information on chemotherapy feel free to visit our website.

Frequently Asked Questions

  1. QUESTION:
    Orange juice for a Chemotherapy patient with colon cancer?
    Is it okay if my father drinks orange juice if he is going through Chemotherapy and has colon caner?

    Thank you.

    • ANSWER:
      Yes, it is OK for your dad to drink orange juice.

  2. QUESTION:
    can a patient with colon cancer recieve chemotherapy twice a day?
    Also are there cases where patients would have to practically live in the hospital to have chemo done?
    What are common side effects of chemotherapy?

    • ANSWER:
      Yes, a drug called Xeloda (Capecitabine) used in colon cancer is used twice daily.
      In addition other medications will also be there as combination chemotherapy is usually prescribed.

      Yes in alternative therapies as FOLFOX, FOLFIRI etc, admission to hospital is required, as they are continuos therapies.
      Side effect of therapy depends on the drugs used.

  3. QUESTION:
    What is the success rate of chemotherapy(colon cancer)?
    Thanks!

    • ANSWER:
      What do you mean by success rate?
      The fact the patient needs chemo means it is a later stage cancer and success means there is a response to chemo whether it is several weeks or forever. In this respect the success rates are high, more than 85%.
      If you are referring to survival, that is dependent on the stage of the disease.

  4. QUESTION:
    Under chemotherapy for colon cancer. Is there anything that can tamper off mouth numbness (the?
    oral numbness like after a dental procedure)? The oncologist has already reduced the amount of chemo drugs twice.

    • ANSWER:

  5. QUESTION:
    Is chemotherapy helps patient to survive from colon cancer?what is the best way to survive in this sickness?
    my family member diagnosed has a stage 2 colon cancer..i am very much scared and feeling hopeless,when i heard after operation he need a chemotherapy for survival, i had a bad feeling every time i heard a chemotherapy beacause all people ive known that undergo for this therapy is nothings happen.,please help us and pray for us.
    thanks guys for all the answers..it helps a lot...

    • ANSWER:
      Mark I feel sorry for you. If you only knew who prayer helped. Please don't dismiss it until you've tired it. Prayers work wonders. If it wasn't for prayers, my sister would not be here today. What's the harm in trying both. Chemo and prayer. and I don't care in the least how many thumbs down I get because nothing will sway me either way.

  6. QUESTION:
    What side effects should one expect with chemotherapy for stage-4 colon cancer?
    My loved one has stage-4 colon cancer. They removed 18" of his colon, but it has spread to the liver and throughout his abdomen. Please help me to know what to expect. He starts chemo tomorrow. Any knowledge would be most appreciated.

    • ANSWER:
      that depends on the chemo regiment that he's put on, but I'll agree with fatigue and nausea being the most common side effects.

  7. QUESTION:
    colon cancer chemotherapy question... Doctors only please!!!!?
    Ok so 4 months ago my mum found blood in her stool, so she went to the doctor. The doctor diagnosed the case as colon cancer in stage 3 on the descending colon. They did the surgery and removed 30cm from the colon. They also found 1 out of 17 lymph nodes carrying cancer. Due to that, she had to take chemo. The oncology doctor told her she has to take the chemo 12 times, every 2 weeks. Until now, she took 7 but she says she can't take it anymore. She becomes tired whenever she takes the chemo, not to mention the emotional distress she goes through every 14 days. Of course the side effects are a lot; vomit, fever, nausea, weakness and some other stuff. Sometimes I wonder if 12 times of chemotherapy is too much?? Keep in mind they only found 1 lymph node!! My mum is this close to giving up the whole thing.. Is it really too much?? Or should she just keep going despite all the effects it has??
    How can I help her emotionally?? I'm not that good at soothing people, especially my mom. I've never thought it could happen to any member in my family. It was a shock, that's why none of us was prepared....
    Thanks

    • ANSWER:

  8. QUESTION:
    where can my grandmother from china do late stage colon cancer chemotherapy in bay area California?
    My grandmother is 78 years old and is currently doing chemotherapy for late stage colon cancer in Beijing China. My grandmother is not a citizen or a resident in the usa and does not have a social security number. We want to bring her over to the bay area California on visa and then apply residency for her to stay in the states to do Chemotherapy and we are willing to pay any bills out of pocket. Which hospital can accept her and which company can give her health insurance? we are willing to pay everything but just don't know where to look. please help and thank you so much

    • ANSWER:
      talk to your family doctor or local cancer center

  9. QUESTION:
    Chemotherapy and colon cancer.?
    As everybody knows, memorial day is coming up fast. Seven years ago my grandfather died of colon cancer on memorial day. My mom and my grandma say that he fought until the end, but I really want to know what he went through. The choices he had to make, and the outcome. Can you please tell me what chemotherapy feels like if you have colon cancer? Please I feel like I need to know.

    • ANSWER:
      I am so sorry about your granddad love. I had breast cancer nine years ago. Four cycles of chemotherapy. While I can't say specifically what he went through I can tell you that Chemo is not painful Most times it is given via an IV or a shunt directly into the abdomen. It does make you feel tired, and a bit woozy, Sometimes it can make you nauseated so the Doctor will often order a prescription anti-nauseant. Stronger than gravol. I don't envy him the choices he had to make each step of the way. Treatment varies by stage. At stage one he likely did know he had it. Stage two he had to choose whether or not to have surgery, and what type of chemo to have. Some chemo takes about an hour and you go home afterward. Others you stay in the hospital over night. Stages three and four are the all out, knock down, drag out, no holds barred cat fight. My thinking is that he had to choose between several heavy duty chemo therapies, hormone therapy, more surgery and radiation, and ultimately to discontinue curative treatment and carry one with palliative care only. Choosing between living and accepting death was not an easy choice for him. trust me on that.

      You really loved your granddad, I can tell. And this is a painful memory for you. trust me it will get easier. Remember that those we truly love are never totally gone as long as we remember them.

  10. QUESTION:
    IP Chemotherapy and Colon Cancer?
    I am a 33 Year old Female- I was diagnosed with Stage 4 Colon Cancer last month. The Oncologist is saying that IP Chemotherapy is the best option at this point. I've had the right half of my colon removed, (which included the baseball sized tumor) 18 lymph nodes (of which 8 were cancerous) my appendix and my omentum fat (both cancerous as well) and the surgeon spotted many cancerous nodules on the inside of my abdominal wall. I was trying to find information on how effective IP chemo is on Signet Ring Cell Mucinous Adenocarcinoma. Or at least research on IP chemo with colon cancer? Everything I'm finding is about IP chemo with ovarian cancer.
    thanks!

    • ANSWER:
      Intraperitoneal (IP) chemotherapy is performed by surgically implanting a line into the patient for delivery of liquid chemo drugs directly to the abdominal area.

      You need to find out what chemo drug(s) will be administered and on what schedule via the IP process. Then you can look up the drug names within the colon cancer section of the Merck Manual or other resource to learn about drug efficacy (effectiveness). Link to Merck Manual below.

      Best wishes.

  11. QUESTION:
    what vitamins should i take before starting chemotherapy for colon cancer?

    • ANSWER:
      Do not take any vitamins before Chemo without your doctor's consent or advice. You do NOT want a cross reaction that could be very bad. I am very serious here. ASK YOUR ONCOLOGIST! Do NOT listen to me or anyone else here. ASK YOUR ONCOLOGIST! I wish you the very best of luck in the ordeal you are about to go through. I hope you succeed with full remission. The advances in cancer control have been wonderful. I volunteer for the ACS. IF you have questions and/or fears, please contact your local ACS immediately for help. You will find they will help you get to and from chemo, will help you with your shopping, whatever you must do. We are out there for you, we fully sympathize with your present state of being. Again, I am rooting for you to be a survivor.

  12. QUESTION:
    Is there anyone who has taken Erbitux for colon cancer? What are the side effects?
    My cousin is taking Erbitux chemotherapy for colon cancer. He is in constant pain. His pain did not begin until he started Erbitux therapy. He has a facial rash now and terrible pain. Can Erbutix cause pain? Your help is greatly appreciated.

    • ANSWER:

  13. QUESTION:
    Colon Cancer III... Chemotherapy...?
    My father in his early 50's got diagnosed with Colon cancer stage 3. Had surgery about 7 weeks ago. VERY little has spread past his colon wall to his lymph nodes (less than 3)

    His chemo is about to start in 4 days through a PICC line. The medicine in the chemotherapy is Oxaliplatin, Leucovotin, 5-Fluorouracil insfusion.

    He'll be in chemo for 2 months, the radiation with chemo and then chemo... Is this kind of treatment good for this stage of colon cancer? More information on the drugs?? Could he possibly find another treatment? What is the best thing for him to do right now?

    • ANSWER:
      What you outlined is very appropriate treatment for Stage IIIB or Stage IIIC rectal cancer.

      I assume his colon cancer was actually located in the rectum since you mentioned that he was getting radiation. The rectum is attached to the pelvic wall with fascia, therefore does not move so the Radiation Oncologist has a non-mobile target to treat. The rest of the colon is mobile, so is not treated with radiation. (The rectum is the last 6" or so of the colon.)

      5-FU + Leucovorin has been the standard post-op chemotherapy for colon cancers for years with a good success rate. Studies have shown the addition of oxaplatin increases the rate of relapse-free survival (which is important).

      5-FU is an antimetabolite drug. Specifically, it interferes with thymidine synthesis. Thymidine is one of the bases that makes up DNA. So, it interferes with DNA synthesis. Since cancer cells are rapidly multiplying cells, they need to replicate their DNA frequently. 5-FU interferes with their ability to do this. It also interferes with the DNA synthesis in other, normal, rapidly dividing (or multiplying cells, like the cells lining the gastrointestinal tract (stomach, intestines).

      Leucovorin is folinic acid, activated folic acid. It enhances the effect of 5-FU.

      Platinum-based drugs, like oxaplatin, have been used in the treatment of colon cancer for years. Oxaplatin works by inhibiting DNA synthesis via a different pathway.

      The combination of these 3 drugs used to treat colon cancer postoperatively is called FOLFOX:
      FOL = folinic acid (Leucovorin)
      F = 5-FU
      OX = oxaplatin.
      FOLFOX is a schedule of administering these 3 drugs at a specified dose. It is standard post-op chemotherapy for colon cancer. The reason it is the standard treatment is because it works pretty well. While not 100% effective, it is the best combination of drugs to treat colon cancer right now.

      You can find out more about these 3 drugs.
      http://www.chemocare.com

      This site gives a lot of information about how the drugs work, their side effects, and things patients and their caretakers can do to minimize the side effects during and after treatment.

      Realistically, outside the scope of a clinical trial, I don't think you can find another treatment that works as well as the combination of these three drugs.

      I hope this information helps.

  14. QUESTION:
    Chemotherapy for a 70 year old colon cancer patient?
    Firstly, whats the difference between CHEMOTHERAPY and RADIOTHERAPY?..

    Secondly, for a 70 year old colon cancer sufferer who will be undergoing chemotherapy, what effects should we expect? Will her hair fall out? What about her skin? Anything else I should know?

    • ANSWER:
      I am a colon cancer survivor. I won't go over covering the difference between radiation therapy and chemo cause everyone else has done a great job.

      If they do radiation they will probably still do chemo too. By far the most taxing on the body is the radiation. For me it lasted for 35 treatments - 5 days a week for 7 weeks. I was also on a constant infusion of chemo through a "port" during that time. It may be different for her.

      Radiation is definitely tough on the skin as it burns it where it is targeted. Sometimes radiation is done before surgery, sometimes after, depending on the stage and size of the tumor.

      After the radiation was over, I went once a week for 3 consecutive weeks then off a week for chemo for 6 months of treatments. I was on 5FU and lukavoren( spelling may not be accurate). There are other treatments available but this was the one most often used 5 years ago.

      Because of the radiation and chemo I became anemic and had to have several injections of Procrit. I also had to take iron during this time.

      Radiation caused severe diarrhea in the last half of the radiation treatments and the biggest challenge I had was finding something to eat that didn't excessively aggrivate that problem.

      I didn't lose all of my hair, but it did thin. I did lose weight and was extremely tired a lot of the time.

      And finally, no, 70 is not to old to be considering agressive treatments. The cure rate for colon cancer is high if caught in the early stages.

      Hope this helps

  15. QUESTION:
    I just ended chemotherapy for colon cancer last week. Now I'm worried...?
    I had a mammogram 3 weeks ago. They found a mass in my right breast. I had a second mammo and ultrasound the following week. They were able to see the mass on the second mammogram but not on the ultrasound. I will have a biopsy done soon.
    About 4 days ago I developed a very painful lump under my right armpit. Could this be related to whatever may be the issue with my breast? Normally I wouldn't be concerned, but since I have been recently diagnosed with cancer, I'm scared. I was told colon cancer typically does not spread to the breast, but you never know.

    I am 35 years old. Colon or other cancers do not run in my family.

    • ANSWER:
      Is there a reason you had a mammogram at such a young age?

      You are correct about colon cancer, it rarely spreads to the breast and it very rarely bypasses the liver. It is also rare to have 2 cancers at the same time especially in some one so young. Also 80% of breast biopsies are negative. You should have had metastatic work up before your treatment began and this usually involves a PET scan. Since this would have happened a few months ago, it would have most likely picked up cancer in the breast unless it was very small. I really doubt it’s cancer, but if it is, this leads me to believe it would be a very early stage cancer.

  16. QUESTION:
    can someone that has had chemotherapy for colon cancer (maybe stage 3) help me...?
    Someone very dear to me has just had a foot of their colon removed with a large tumor and 15 of 18 of the surrounding lymphs showed positive for cancer from the pathology report, now the suggested treatment is 6 months of chemo, 3 days in a row (port surgically implanted) every other week. I have no idea what other kinds of treatments there are, i am just so worried about this regiment, and how hard it is going to be, has anyone gone through this that can help me? I want to know more about the subject so that i can help my loved one through this and help make sure this is the right decision on the chemo. Does chemo make you extremely ill? ANY insight will be much appreciated....

    • ANSWER:
      I just finished chemo for stage 3 colon cancer at the end of April, and I was lucky. I never got sick, and my oncologist said there wasn't any reason anybody should with all the anti-nausea medicines that are available now. I got two different types of anti-nausea medicines during chemo, and they gave me pills to take in case I needed them for the few days after treatment (I never did).

      The chemo will consist of 3 different medications: oxaliplatin, leucovorin, and 5-FU (Flouracil). 5-FU has been in use since the 1950's, and has a very good success rate. Leucovorin is a vitamin that helps the 5-FU work better, and oxaliplatin (Eloxatin) is a newer drug. The chemo usually takes about 4-6 hours. She should be given at least two anti-nausea medicines during treatment. I received an anti-nausea medicine first, then a second one at the same time as the Leucovorin and oxaliplatin, then the 5-FU, then calcium and potassium, which also helped prevent nausea. The worst symptom I had from the chemo was my hands hurt if they got cold, even from drinking cold drinks (many people wear cotton gloves when they have to do things like open the refrigerator). Other people also get mouth sores, but they can give you a medicine to gargle with, or you can just use salt water. You can lose you hair on rare occasions, but it only happens in about 5% of cases, and about 25% of people have thinning hair. Mine started thinning at the very end, but only because it stopped growing, and wasn't replacing itself.

      Make sure your friend goes to a good cancer center. I went to the Simon Cancer Center in Indianapolis, which is one of the best (Lance Armstrong went there when he had prostate cancer, even though he lives nowhere near Indy). If you go there, I would strongly recommend my oncologist, Dr. Paul Helft. He is an ethicist, which means he believes in including the patient and his family in every stage of treatment. He spent 3 hours with me and my family the first meeting, and met with me before every treatment, which my cousin, an oncology nurse, said was unheard of. Good luck to you and your friend.

  17. QUESTION:
    My mother has colon cancer and will be on the folfox 4 regimen for chemotherapy.?
    Does anyone know if the generic drug of Oxaliplatin manufactured by Dabur Pharma Limited,India , is as effective as the branded Oxaliplatin drug?

    • ANSWER:
      I have no idea, but with something this serious and Oxaliplatin is essential for colon cancer, I would not use drugs from another country. There have been instances of problems with imported drugs.

  18. QUESTION:
    My brother-in-law has colon cancer,his colon has been removed now the dr has adviced for chemotherapy..?
    My brother-in-law has colon cancer,his colon has been removed now the dr has adviced for chemotherapy as it has spread in his pancreas.Doctors has adviced for a test to know exactly its a pancreatic cancer or not...what does this means and how do we know the cancer is @ what stage?

    • ANSWER:
      Hello

      Hard to answer this question because it'll be first too long to explain all this, than to answer in details is impossible because only the dr knows exactly this patient.
      Otherwise I'll try to give you the maximum of informations with the little wich you wrote.

      They need to know where is exactly the first hearth of the cancer. That means where did it appear first and then it metastased to the colon. When that will be well diagnosed, the therapy will be perhaps different: surgery, chemotherapy...
      The stage of any cancer depends on how big it is, wich body is reached, if only the original body is affected or also the neighbor bodies, or the others such as ganglions...

      All this is important to test and know to make right decisions by therapy.

      Now, wath I can say is that it's not easy FOR HIM and for all the familie; but one of the most important think for the cure, is his mood and the presence of all her family, friends all lovest persons with him. You've got to be strong and courageous and never show him that it's stressfull even it is.

      Good luck

  19. QUESTION:
    can i qualify for disability stage 3 colon cancer?
    Anyone know if I'm likely to quality for SS disability if I have stage 3 colon cancer? Due to chemotherapy, my ability to work is severely impacted.

    • ANSWER:
      Good luck with that in the U.S. due to delays in the bureaucracy.
      My patients never had much luck with this.
      The waiting time was so long that they were finished with chemotherapy
      by the time any approval was possible.

  20. QUESTION:
    How does cancer chemotherapy work?
    How does it target exactly the colon cancer?

    I can't seem to find this anywhere online but just simple things like it prevents growth of cancer, prevents spreading but I want to learn what active chemicals actually does this and how

    thank you!

    • ANSWER:
      Chemotherapy drugs work by targeting and destroying fast dividing cells. cancers are groups of rapidly dividing cells. This is also the reason why chemo patients suffer hair loss because hair cells are fast-dividing so they too are detroyed by the chemo drugs.

  21. QUESTION:
    i just started back on chemotherapy after having colon cancer surgery and clear followups for two years,,?
    last catscan showed i have now have involvement in 3 areas of my lymph system...i was on 5FU and leucovorin before, now i am on irinotecan and avastin... has anybody here gone through this ?....would like advice and hopefully many success stories..thanks in advance

    • ANSWER:
      I can certainly wish you all the best, I can also suggest consideration of opeartive removal of involved areas as well as radiotherapy, it is of course decided by the treating doctor, good luck

  22. QUESTION:
    Colon Cancer Chemo Question for anyone who has ever experienced it, first or second hand...?
    Can someone who has ever been through chemotherapy for colon cancer or sat through a chemo treatment with someone or who is in oncology field please give me a run down of what a typical chemotherapy infusion is like for a patient? Specifically, I'm looking at the FOLFOX regimen.

    I'm a writer and I'm trying to describe my character's first chemotherapy treatment, so a full account with as many details as you can offer would be greatly appreciated.

    Thank you!!

    • ANSWER:
      http://www.cancerhelp.org.uk/help/default.asp?page=15970

      Hope this helps

  23. QUESTION:
    Is there any natural cure for colon cancer?
    My Mother has has colon cancer for about 3 years now & the chemotherapy was never helping her. About a month ago I found out that the cancer has spread in the lungs and breasts, she also has Internal bleeding. I hear that there are natural cures that the doctors do not speak of, but I really need help because she is dying. My question is, do anyone know of any natural medicines for cancer that could help my Mother?

    • ANSWER:
      About the best chance she might have is becoming part of a clinical trial for a new treatment. You should ask her oncologist if there are any in which she might participate. There could be a medicine that could help her ... but even if not, she could be helping future generations fight the disease by helping bring tomorrow's treatments to market.

  24. QUESTION:
    In being treated for Stage IV colon cancer, how would one know if the body is rejecting the chemotherapy?

    • ANSWER:
      Chemotherapy is a form of cancer treatment often used in conjunction with surgery or radiation therapy. It involves introducing toxic chemicals into the body with the intention of killing dividing cancer cells. The side effects of chemotherapy include nausea, hair loss, diarrhea and fatigue. Going through such a dramatic treatment is hard on the body and the psyche, but chemotherapy is often effective in slowing or halting the spread of cancer.

      Step One
      Be patient while your doctor performs tests. Tests are the only reliable indicators of whether the chemotherapy is working. Your doctor may frequently perform body scans or blood tests. Ask questions about what your test results indicate.

      Step Two
      Do not use the presence or lack of side effects as a method of judging whether chemotherapy is working. Side effects do not indicate how your body is responding to treatment. The effects merely are a reaction to the ingredients of your chemotherapy.

      Step Three
      Give your treatment the best chance of success by making a few lifestyle changes. Healthy eating is one of the best ways to keep your body's strength and energy levels up. Try to eat foods rich in proteins such as lean meat, eggs and skim milk. Your body needs protein to rebuild healthy cells that may be damaged by the chemotherapy. Breads, fruits and vegetables are also necessary components of a healthy diet.

      Step Four
      Follow your oncologist's advice regarding chemotherapy follow-up. Additional treatment may be necessary, or your doctor may tell you you're now cancer free. No matter what the outcome, frequent monitoring of your condition is still necessary to prevent recurrence.-

  25. QUESTION:
    Has anyone here survived stage 4 colon cancer?
    We just found out my dad has colon cancer and it's stage 4 (all over the liver) the oncologist said he has 2 months to live without chemo and a max of 2 years before it takes over him even with the chemo......
    Please anyone give me any info. Has anyone survived cancer spread to the liver and lymph nodes???? Is it possible to overcome this with the most aggressive chemotherapy?
    He is in his early forties!

    • ANSWER:
      Sorry to hear about it. The hard question to answer is quality versus quantity of life left. If he will lose weight, be nauseated, lose his hair and just be miserable and in pain for the (potential) two years - only he can answer if it is indeed worth it. Unfortunately, in my experience, oncologists tend to be OVERLY optimistic in expected outcomes.

      Has it spread to the bones as well? A lot depends on his age and overall physical and emotional condition. Obviously, he has been given a death sentence either way. Without knowing any other specifics, his chances of making it five years is likely less than 10%.
      If he is young and in his 60's or younger and has the will, I would encourage him to fight the damned thing. New therapies are coming out often and you might just buy enough time for something more effective. If he is in his 70's or older, or is in frail health, maybe this is a time to say the things you wanted to - but never did, including your goodbyes.

      Thermo-ablation can be useful to 'cook' the liver metastases and buy more time. This is dome with a needle that is inserted into the liver and heats up - thereby cooking the tumor. But this is only effective if the liver is not loaded with multiple small tumors. There is also something called microembolization therapy.

      I'm bringing up diferent options and possibilities. I will keep your father in my thoughts and prayers. Sounds like he is a good man to have had a child as caring as you.

  26. QUESTION:
    Can chemotherapy cause new moles to form on the body?
    My mother is now taking injection chemotherapy after her colon cancer surgery.She has been taking it for about a month now and she is stating to form more moles on her body.Is this normal?

    • ANSWER:
      that is very possible.anything strange can happen during that time.it reacts to people in differ way.but its normal

  27. QUESTION:
    How long will my mother live when she is diagnosed with colon cancer - adenocarcinoma at stage 3?
    Feb 2007, my mom was diagnosed w adenocarcinoma stage 3. she had her sigmoid resection and for past months been undergoing chemotherapy. she's now on her 9th of 12 sessions. d med she's taking is eloxatin (oxyplatin). so far so good. she's weak right after each session but regain her strength after a week. Do u think she will survive cancer?

    • ANSWER:
      Your mother does have a very good chance of survival. While stage III adenocarcinoma is serious it is probably (emphasis on probably) still confined to her colon. With God's help I pray the surgeon removed all affected areas of the colon. If so, with chemo therapy to fight any remaining malignant cell growth she has a better than good chance of beating it. I wish you and your mother God's blessings.

      Please note that any diagnosis or prognosis given without proper records, as well as all biopsy, radiology, lab and other diagnostic test results is suspect. I will of course keep the both of you in my prayers. Remember, whether or not you believe in God the power of faith and strength of human will can have a dramatic effect on anyone's health.

      God bless
      fishergirl

  28. QUESTION:
    Do people with stage 0 colon cancer need chemo or is this an insurance income for doctors and staff?
    My friend had a resected bowel in January 2010 due to precancerous cells found during a routine colonoscopy in November 2009. She is 50. They said it was between a Stage 2-3, but because she is a non-smoker, that drops it to a Stage 0. She is not tolerating the procedure of her chemotherapy very well (air passages closed briefly in cold weather) and is wondering if she even needs it! Any suggestions for her?

    • ANSWER:
      Stage 2 cancer will require Chemo, and there is nothing called stage 0 (Just from stage 1 to 4, stage 1 doesn't require but beyond that stage chemo is beneficial). Enquire what chemo is being given. Rouine chemo for colon cancer is 5FU and Levamosol which is usually well tolerated by most of the patients (a mild chemo). She may be receiving some new or advanced chemotherapy.
      Smoking has nothing to do with staging and it is not a very major risk factor for colon cancer too (unlike lung/ esophagus/ pancreas and bladder). Any time if she is not able to pass flatus then surely it is not because of chemo but due to previous surgery (?stricture) or ?adhesions or ?rercurrence.
      Best wishes
      PS: By your mail I gathered that her CEA (tumour marker) dropped down to normal after surgery, Yeah here smoking will contribute, CEA remains high in smoker. Stage 0 does not mean normal CEA but Cacrinoma in situ i.e. Tis, so once she had node positive disease surely Chemo is a must, advice her to complete the course coz colon cancer is one cancer where cure rate is good

  29. QUESTION:
    What is the best treatment for Colon cancer stage 4?
    Wheter surgery or chemotherapy?

    Else suggestion, please?

    Thanks
    some how there is a puncture in the liver
    Thanx a lot ;)
    Thank you for the answer Grizzler..... I appreciated it much.
    What is the % chances of success in Colon Cancer Treament?
    Thanks heckkon.... :)
    Thank you Yagen :)

    • ANSWER:
      The below suggestions highlight why internet searches can be harmful to people. Unfortunately, the likelyhood is that with stage 4 (Dukes D) colonic cancer, there will be no curative treatment. It has spread to other organs, most commonly the liver, but also the lungs and potentially the bones. The latter two are less common, but are more common in rectal cancers.

      Treatment options. Most of the time the primary bowel tumour will be removed, mainly to prevent the chance of obstruction of the bowel, which can obviously cause major problems. At the operation, the extent of the liver mets will also be assessed, sometimes using intra-operative USS, other times just manually feeling the liver. If there is a solitary lesion, or multiple lesions in one lobe of the liver, then there is a chance of curative treatment.

      An MRI will usually be performed as it gives finer detail of the liver and ensures there are no other smaller mets not visible on CT or other modes of imaging. Post bowel surgery, normally give chemotherapy (several regimens available) and then re-scan to see if the liver disease has changed in the interval. If it is still deemed operable, then hepatectomy may be possible if there is enough residual liver left.

      If as is most often the case, liver surgery is not possible, then post resection chemotherapy will be offered, with the hope of improving the survival.

      If bowel surgery is not an option, then palliative chemotherapy will be offered, sometimes with radiotherapy depending on the site of the tumour, and the symptoms.

  30. QUESTION:
    Dad diagnosed with Colon Cancer?
    My dad was just diagnosed with colon cancer. He just had surgery last Thursday and they removed a tumor about the size of an egg. The Doctor said they removed all of the tumor. Then the pathology came back and he said that 24 of 27 lymph nodes had cancer seeds. That's when they officially said he had stage 3 colon cancer. He starts chemotherapy in the beginning of August. I guess my question is if that many lymph nodes have cancer seeds, then does that mean it has likely spread to other organs? To me, that number of infected lymph nodes sounds really serious. The Doctor said that during the surgery, the liver looked fine, but he also said the lymph nodes looked fine. Sometimes I feel like my parents are holding back information, and I really hate it.

    • ANSWER:
      His situation is really serious.
      With that many lymph nodes positive he is a stage 3C which has a 5 year survival rate of 50%.
      The doctor cannot be 100% sure the liver is okay you only know by looking at it under a microscope, but his or her opinion is the best you have. Typically during surgery they will palpate and look at the liver for gross disease.
      It doesn’t sound like your parents are holding anything back. What you stated is pretty typical of the information patients are told. The doctor may or may not have given the 5 year survival rate. Sometimes they leave that to the oncologist and most doctors will give patients the information in steps as it can be very overwhelming. Best wishes to you and your family.

  31. QUESTION:
    cancer in the lymph nodes colon cancer sorosis of the liver hepatitis c?
    just found out mom has sorosis of the liver and hepatitis c and colon cancer they went in took the tumor out and now they are saying the cancer is in her lymph nodes the dr is talking about chemotherapy i always herd once its in the lymph nodes there is nothing u can do for it if i am wrong please help me understand

    • ANSWER:
      Your Mom's multiple diagnosis of cirrhosis, hepatitis, and regionalized colon cancer presents a substantial medical challenge. Each of these conditions is extremely serious.

      You mention lymph node involvement and ask if that means "nothing" can be done. Fortunately, treatments are available for all stages of cancer, including regionalized. You Mom may be offered a combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation.

      Your Mom's oncologist will conduct testing and imaging to assess the exact location(s) and characteristics of your Mom's cancer. The oncologist will then present a detailed treatment plan based on the stage and nature of her condition. Special attention will be taken due to the cirrhosis and hepatitis.

      The American Cancer Society is a good resource of information on the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of cancer. I attached their weblink below. Best wishes.

  32. QUESTION:
    I have a question about cancer and chemotherapy.?
    my mother has colon cancer and was treated for five weeks with chemotherapy capsules. She finished her five week treatment and discovered that her cancer spread to her liver. She is off treatment for a month and will start her iv chemotherapy in a month. I heard that there is something called "Titano" en Mexico that allows her to have a spot for her injection to go in without them having to poke her and stuff. Any idea what it can be ? What is the best hospital we can attend in L.A that accept medical. Harbor UCLA is not working for us atm the app. dates are to far from each other i feel like we are letting time pass by (btw i have the iv question because my mom goes through pain everytime they inject her because they cant find her vains) thank you.

    • ANSWER:
      As the others have said, she needs a port-a-cath.
      You question is confusing as she does not have medical. She has Medi Cal which is called Medicaid in every state in the country except California.
      You should know it is very likely the hold ups may not be because of the hospital, but because of Medi Cal and may continue to happen regardless of where you go.
      If you are going to Harbor General, USC may be too far for you. They have to take Medi Cal as they are a teaching facility and part of the UC system. In order to go to City of Hope they must accept you as a patient first and they do not accept everyone. Cedars is required to take a number of Medi Cal patients as they are a teaching facility although privately owned. UCLA is an excellent hospital, but they treat many of their Medi Cal patients out of Olive View. A very good community hospital that accepts Medi Cal is Lakewood Regional.

  33. QUESTION:
    POLL: Would you have chemotherapy if you had terminal cancer?
    If I had a fair-to-good chance of living through the cancer, I may get the radiation/chemotherapy. If the cancer was too far gone (metastasized and terminal), I would choose not to have radiation/chemotherapy.

    My great-grandmother and stepdad both died from colon cancer. My great-grandmother (age 89) had chemotherapy but it only bought her a couple more months, zero appetite, and much, much misery. My stepdad (age 37) had his colon cancer discovered in the advanced/terminal stage, and he chose not to have chemotherapy. While he was in pain and on morphine, he was able to get up and fix himself TV dinners in the microwave up until two days before he died.

    • ANSWER:
      if I knew that it was for sure terminal...no. I would volunteer for them to use me to try new treatments at a university or something...maybe I could help in finding a cure for future patents....

  34. QUESTION:
    do you always lose your hair with chemotherapy?
    my friend has colon cancer & needs chemotherapy,will he definitely lose his hair?

    • ANSWER:
      It affects everyone differently. You can't compare the results of it between people. Everyone responds to treatment differently. Some may experience things your friend wouldn't and vice versa.

  35. QUESTION:
    Colon cancer question?
    If you had bowel/colon cancer and treated it with chemotherapy, if it returns how will you treat it the 2nd time around?

    • ANSWER:
      I had bowel cancer and it was treated with surgery and chemotherapy.

      When it came back a year later after another cancerous polyp was found, I had the polyp removed during a colonoscopy, and underwent a course of chemo therapy again.

  36. QUESTION:
    Hi there, My dad just told me he has colon cancer. The doctors said that it's next to his tail bone?
    and that with radiation and chemotherapy, they are going to try to shrink it so that it detaches from the bone and they can remove it, and that he has a good chance. I'm not sure. My mom passed away exactly three years ago from breast cancer and hers spread to the bone, and that was the worst news. Could you please give some insight? Has this happened to someone you know? I can't find any information on this exact issue. Thank you.

    • ANSWER:
      Did you get that information from your dad?
      You don’t mention the results of any of his tests, but if he has a stage 3C he has a 5 year survival rate of 50%, if it is stage 4 it drops to 5%.

  37. QUESTION:
    My husband has colon cancer and is now taking chemptherapy. I'm worried about him because he drinks liquor.?
    I'm worried about my husband because he is drinking liquor, mainly beer, while undergoing chemotherapy. Almost every weekend he hangs out in bars and drinks to the point that when he comes home I can smell the liquor coming out of his skin. I'm worried that this is affecting his liver. Is it bad to drink while undergoing chemotherapy whether beer or hard liquor
    .

    • ANSWER:
      Probably drinking that much, yeah. I would go have a drink once a week while doing chemo and radiation and I'm fine.

  38. QUESTION:
    How long does my grandmother with stage 4 colon cancer have to live?
    She is 76 and was diagnosed in September of 2010. She went through one surgery to get a "mass" out of her colon. She then began chemotherapy all the way until March of 2011. Just a week ago, she had to go back to the doctor due to intense stomach pains and found out that she had fluid and gas building up in her chest, she has a blockage in colon and the cancer has spread all over her body. They drained the fluid and she was starting to get better but she took a turn for the worst last night and began throwing, refuses to eat and is unable to urinate or defecate. She has a tube in her that is taking out more fluid yet again and they can not operate. I am beginning to fear for how long she will live. Thank you for taking the time to read my question. Any and all answers are greatly appreciated.

    • ANSWER:
      I'm so sorry to hear this. I am a nurse in a gastroenterology practice so we see this a lot. there is a poor prognosis, or survival rate, for anyone in stage four cancer of anykind. because of her age and the complications she is experiencing, unfortunately you are looking at an end pretty soon.
      keep in mind, when you have cancer and pain, you don't want to eat, you can't function like you used to, and you get to the point where you are just ready to die. therefore think twice about using extensive measures to keep her alive. would you want to live the rest of your life with a tube in your stomach forcing you to eat and stay alive? its controversial, but being a nurse i've seen suffering, and death is my better option.
      whatver happens is meant to happen. but get ready for goodbye. no one but the higher power you believe in knows WHEN.

  39. QUESTION:
    Stage 4 colon cancer?
    My mom has stage 4 colon cancer. It has spread to her lungs, liver, and bones. Chemotherapy has not helped. I have heard of natural remedies. I know that stage 4 is very very hard to cure, but are there any possible ways to help it at all? Any natural oils, pills.. ANYTHING please help. Thank you.

    • ANSWER:
      I am very sorry to hear about your Mom.....You are right, stage 4 is not good...... she could go into remission, but even with all the chemo or pills or natural remedies, (herbs) she is going to have a very rough time., and with stage 4 , there really isnt a cure..., this is hard to hear I know, but I have been through it with my Mom..... .You need to be aware that she might not come through this..... spend as much time with her as you can....... be there, talk about your life....laugh, hug her alot .... If you live near an herbalist, maybe they can help....... look one up in your area...... and God bless you ........ let me know how she is doing.... please........ I care.......... email me at yahoo......

  40. QUESTION:
    How long to recover white blood cell neutrophil count?
    A family member has just completed chemotherapy for colon cancer. Her white blood counts are way down, especially the infection-fighting neutrophils (her count was 700 two weeks after the final chemo).

    Does anyone know typically how long it takes after chemo is completely finished for the neutrophils to recover to the normal range? She is not receiving any medication to accelerate the process.

    • ANSWER:
      Good answer by "midnight" - but recovery after colon carcinoma chemotherpay is much more rapid than the usual recovery from leukemia chemotherapy. Your family member should have safe blood counts - an absolute neutrophil count >1000 - in week three after the last chemotherapy - and the neutrophil count should be back to almost normal in week four. There are multiple factors which affect recovery, but I've given you a good guess based on the limited information provided. The oncologist who knows all the details of this person's medical history and the treatment regimen employed could give a much better estimate. We don't even know the age of this person.

  41. QUESTION:
    Colon Cancer..What to expect?
    My father has colon cancer and a secondary cancer in his pancreas. He is about to start chemotherapy. I know he is terminal, but I don't know what to expect and how bad it will get towards the end. Can anyone give me a idea of what will happen to him? I want to be prepared.

    • ANSWER:
      Any cancer that has metastasis to other organs has a poor prognosis, esp. when the pancreas is involved. Usually they do surgery to remove the colon cancer & do a colostomy if there is an obstruction. It seems he has what is referred to as an "aggressive" type, so they are only doing the chemo. Side effects from chemo are usually nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, loss of weight, weakness , and diarrhea ( it depends on what type of chemo is given). He probably will start to get more pain as the tumors get larger & press on the other organs.Please see if you can get Hospice in to help both you and him through this final stage for they will be a great help. Be there physically to help get him food or drink, get his meds, and help walk him to the bathroom so he doesn't fall. He will also start to get very weak, from not eating. Be there also emotionally so he has someone to talk to & even just to watch TV with. Good luck.

  42. QUESTION:
    Is a 26 year old female is too young to have colorectal cancer and to had a partial coloectomy done?
    Could it possibly be a genetic for someone to have colon cancer and needs a partial coloectomy and they dont need no treatment at this time such as, radiation or chemotherapy? Will this young person to have normal bowels again? Do doctors really recommend the person to be on a special diet? Does that means they have to wear a bag through their skin?

    • ANSWER:
      You have several individual questions:

      1. 26 is generally too young to worry about colorectal cancer, however some rare congenital condition can make it a possibility
      2. Treatment would be designed around location and severity of the cancer. If surgery is indicated, a colectomy would involve a colostomy (bag at the skin) which may be temporary and reversible.
      3. Normal bowel function would depend on extent of surgery, but is possible after reversal of colectomy.

  43. QUESTION:
    My friend underwent stage 3 colon cancer surgery. Anyway, she is healing well and?
    has to go through 6 months of chemotherapy. How awful is that? Now will the drugs make her very sick? Or will the doctors give her anti-nausea medication. That is a long time to be on "CHEMO." The cancer was in 3 of the 12 lymph nodes. She is around 50 or 60. I do not ask age due to it is personal.

    • ANSWER:
      I went through the exact same surgery on October 1 for stage 3 (2 lymph nodes invaded), and finished chemo, once every two weeks, on April 28. I was very lucky. My only symptoms from the chemo were tiredness (not bad) and my hands hurt when they got cold.

      She will probably be taking 3 medicines: 5-FU, which has been around since the 1950's, Oxalyplatin, which is another anti-cancer drug, and Leucovorin, which is a vitamin that helps the 5-FU work better. In addition, I received 2 different types of anti-nausea medicines, and was offered another pill in case I needed it the first few days after treatment (I didn't). My oncologist said that with all the anti-nausea medicines available, no one should have nausea.

      There is only a 5% chance she will lose her hair, 20% will have their hair thin. Mine stopped growing, so naturally it was thinner by the time I was finished. I was more tired than usual, but I slept an extra hour each night and I was OK. She will almost certainly have the problem with her hands, due to the Oxalyplatin. Most people get cotton gloves to wear when they have to deal with anything cold, like taking things out of the refrigerator. Her immune system will be suppressed because of the chemo, since it affects all types of fast-growing cells (like white blood cells), not just the chemo. If her white blood cell count is too low, they may have to delay chemo for a week or 2 to give it a chance to build back up. Most people get mouth sores, too, but they can prescribe a medicine to gargle with, or she can even use salt water. The coldness of drinks also can make some people have problems swallowing.

      My chemo took about 4 hours (6 hours later, because I had an allergic reaction). They will give her an anti-nausea medicine first, then the Leucovorin and Oxaliplatin, then another anti-nausea medicine, then the 5-FU. I was given the 5-FU in two parts: for about an hour at the hospital, then in a pouch like a fanny pack (I called it my saddle bag) for 22 hours. I was able to take mine off myself, since I had someone teach me, but they can send a home health care nurse to do it instead.

  44. QUESTION:
    Can late stage colon cancer be cured? How long is the life expectancy?
    My grandmother was diagnosed with stage 3 colon cancer (duke system C2) last year July and she lives in Beijing china. She did the surgery in August and took Capecitabine after the surgery for 6 months. In the early months of her capecitabine medication, she took half of the dosage (a mistake). This year May, through pet and ct scan, the doctor said her cancer has came back. She is now in Chemotherapy and just completed her 2nd cycle today. What is her current stage of colon cancer? is it still 3 or is it now 4 because it came back? Her cancer has not spread to liver or lung. Can the colon cancer in her situation be cured? How long is her life expectancy from this point? In china, there are two choices of chemotherapy, a United states kind and a china kind, the china kind is one third of the price, the doctor said it is the same, do you agree?

    • ANSWER:
      Watch this -> (new video released this year)
      http://naturalnews.tv/v.asp?v=F5B32D25BDC2E1977584DF9A1DF9CC0D

      And this -> (old video released in the 70's)

  45. QUESTION:
    Inoperable liver cancer from colon cancer?
    My father-in-law has been diagnosed with colon cancer and secondary liver cancer. He has just had surgery to remove the affected part of his colon, but the liver cancer is inoperable. He will undergo radiation and chemotherapy once he recovers from the surgery. The doctor has said, depending on how he responds to treatment, that he may have as little as 2 months or as long as 5 years to live.

    My question is regarding my husband. He lost his mother to breast cancer 9 years ago and now he is going through it all over again with his father. I know he is hurting, but he's very unwilling to talk about it. He and his father are very close. On top of it all, he is now becoming pessimistic about his own health, knowing that both of his parents will have died young.

    I am doing the best I can to imagine how he is feeling, but I know I can't really understand. Can anyone offer any advice on things I should say to him? I have tried optimism, but he doesn't want to hear it.

    • ANSWER:
      The best thing you can do for him right now, is just to be there when he wants to talk, if he needs a hug, or some encouragement. He probably already realizes he's going to lose his father and it's a bit much for him right now. Do what you can to help his father out in any way, ask him(or his Dad) what you can do, anything you can do, and it will go a long way with your husband. If he wants a little space right now, give him some, let him spend as much time with his father as he can...little things that will mean a lot once his father passes.

  46. QUESTION:
    Are there any herbal recipes that could help cancer?
    My father has colon cancer and has been fighting it for 5 years. He is taking strong chemotherapy treatments but they really take a toll on him. I recently watched a movie in my Medical Anthropology class about ancient chinese herbal treatments that could help along with the chemotherapy. After researching I couldn't find any straight foreword recipes that I could make for him. Help please?

    • ANSWER:
      The Chinese herbal remedy successfully used together with chemotherapy is called Chung Kuo Chung Hsi Chieh Ho Tsa Chih.
      Do more research now when you have the name.

  47. QUESTION:
    Colon Cancer question?
    If someone had colon cancer surgery and they removed 32 lymph nodes (in colon near tumor- non-metastatic) which tested NEGATIVE for cancer but the 2" tumor they removed in the sigmoid region was cancerous but the surgeon felt he got it all, why are they still recommending ChemoTherapy- does this make sense? The patient is a 45 years old Female- it has been categorized as stage 2A. Surgery was 2 weeks ago.

    • ANSWER:
      I have to disagree with your other answer, as they can tell if it was completely removed. They know this when the cancer was confined to the colon and there were clear margins. However, in this case the cancer went completely through the wall of the colon and cancer cells could be circulating in her body or are waiting in pericolic tissues, there is no way to know until it is too late. If she gets chemo now there is an 80% 5 year survival rate. If she waits and it spreads it drops to 5%.

  48. QUESTION:
    My aunt had surgery for her colon cancer, but now there's cancer lesions on her liver. Is it curable?
    She's in a hospice program for the terminally ill because they say there is no cure for colon cancer. If there was no cure, what is the chemotherapy for?

    How much time does she have left?
    http://www.webmd.com/colorectal-cancer/guide/treatment-stage?page=2

    This site says the 5-year survival rate for Dukes D Colon Cancer is about 8%.

    Does that mean only 8% of the people live past five years?

    • ANSWER:
      Unfortunately, if you're aunt has lesions in her liver, then her cancer is most likely incurable. It means that it has metastasized (spread from her bowel to liver). The reason they are offering chemotherapy is that chemo can be used even in palliative patients to slow progression, but primarily to reduce symptoms. i.e. If someone has a cancer in their throat that has spread to their liver, chemo may be offered to slow the growth of the cancer in their throat so they can continue to eat alone without the aid of medical devices.

      Your interpretation of the 5 year survival rate is correct.

  49. QUESTION:
    I was just wondering how long the life expectancy of liver cancer at the fourth stage was?
    My dad was just diagnosed with liver and colon cancer, he just got an operation and removed the colon cancer and he has liver cancer at the fourth stage. He is going through chemotherapy right now and i was wondering what his life expectancy was going to be and what is the worst possible thing that could happen with the chemo, we are figuring he will be on it for roughly 4 months and then a major surgery and then chemo again for another 6months to make sure everything is gone... if all goes well.

    • ANSWER:
      I don’t think your dad has liver cancer, as it is far more likely that he only has colon cancer with mets to the liver. I am sorry, but in this situation the 5year survival rate is only about 5%. He is being treated with chemo to buy him more time not to cure him. At this point the worst thing that can happen with the chemo is that it does not slow the progression of his disease. I have the feeling this is not what you expected to hear and I am so very sorry.

  50. QUESTION:
    COLON CANCER QUESTiON??? PLEASE HELP! THANKS?
    I recently found out that a member of my family has colon cancer. From what I have been told, he's had a grapefruit sized tumor removed from him. They said they didnt get rid of all of the cancerous cells so he has been recieving chemotherapy. I am very worried about him. The question that I am asking is what are his chances of survival? I know there are different stages of colon cancer but I dont know what stage he is in. Im assuming it wasnt in the earlier stages because of the grapefruit sized tumor they removed. I dont think he has stage 4 because I didnt hear anything about the cancer spreading to his organs. Can anyone please help me. And if any of you are religious could you please pray for him, his name is Jimmy. I would really appreciate it. Prayer and chemotherapy together will hopefully cure him.
    Not to be rude but there's always hope, lance armstrong had stage 4 cancer.

    • ANSWER:


Chemotherapy Animation

There are varying opinions concerning the ethics of canine cancer treatment. One of the reasons many people give for this line of thinking is the opinion the money on research and cancer treatment should be directed toward humans rather than animals. While this may appear to be a realistic line of thinking, the reality is that veterinary hospitals work completely separate from hospitals that treat people. In addition, the work oncologists do treating animals provides more knowledge and a better understanding of cancer, a step that can only help provide more effective cancer treatment for humans.

Another reason people give for feeling cancer treatment for dogs is unethical is because they have the misconception that animals endure the same side effects of chemotherapy that humans do. In humans the treatment is more invasive because oncologists are attempting to kill the cancer where canine oncologists are working toward slowing the spread of the cancer rather than killing the cancer cells completely. In some types of cancer the only solution is amputation, and only those who are directly involved can decide if the loss of a dog's limb is too unpleasant for either dog or owner to accept. Strangely, people do not have as much reluctance about treating dogs for other severe conditions including kidney failure or heart disease even though the treatments seldom provide the quality of life a dog acquires following cancer treatment. In fact, the side effects from the treatment of many of these potentially debilitating conditions are often worse than the side effects of canine cancer treatment.

Another reason some people believe treating animals for cancer is unethical is because they believe there is very little extra time added to the dogs lives. Any treatment is a gamble, even for humansa"there are many cases of people who undergo invasive chemotherapy and radiation and still do sometimes only live a few months because the cancer is so aggressive and quick moving. There is never a way to determine with any degree of certainty how much longer your dog will live if you agree to treat him for his cancer. However, if you don't provide some kind of treatment for malignant dog carcinoma, it is unlikely they will survive more than a few months. In addition, you may be lucky enough to discover the tumor is benign and will not cause any additional harm to your dog.


Chemotherapy

When one has cancer the next question would be: Are you going to undergo chemotherapy? Unlike before, cancer used to be a dreaded disease. In the earlier years, when you are diagnosed with cancer, it is like a death sentence. You are just waiting for your time to die or for the disease to spread. But with the advances in technology, there is already a cure for cancer and that is chemotherapy.

So what is chemotherapy and how does it treat cancer? Chemotherapy is a type of treatment that is used to treat cancer with the use of drugs. Cancer happens when a cell or a group of cells show these behaviors: uncontrolled growth, invasion and metastasis. With uncontrolled growth, the cells divide beyond the normal limit or when it is supposed to stop dividing already. Invasion happens when it intrudes and destroys tissues near it and metastasis is when it spreads to other locations through the lymph or the blood. When you have a cancer, it is possible that you will also have a tumor, that is, with the exception of leukemia.

The drugs used in chemotherapy are very effective at killing cells that are fast-growing. However, chemotherapy drugs cannot tell the difference between cancel cells and those that are fast-growing normal cells. These normal cells will grow back and be healthy but during the chemotherapy, side effects can happen. These cells are the blood cells, cells in the lining of the mouth, stomach and intestine as well as hair follicles. Some of the side effects are low blood count, mouth sores, nausea, diarrhea and hair loss.

Nausea usually does not happen early on the treatment. It usually happens when the treatment is halfway through. If the meds are administered through IV, you might even have this metallic taste every time the meds are administered. You might also experience severe salivation. As for nausea, talk to your doctor about it if it becomes unbearable as he might be able to adjust the treatment so that you will not feel nauseated most of the time and you will feel relief. As for losing your hair, not all chemotherapy patients lose their hair but they compose a very small percentage of chemotherapy patients. These side effects will go away as soon as the treatment is over.

Chemotherapy is administered usually through IV but there are also pill forms. IV-administered chemotherapy seems to be the most preferred choice of doctors because it works faster than when administered orally.

Once chemotherapy is done, you cannot go back to doing your normal activities as the treatment has taken a toll on your body. It will take a few months for you to be able to do your usual activities. You have to remember that chemotherapy killed all your fast-growing cells and that means you are vulnerable and susceptible to all kinds of diseases. Your immune system is weak and you will therefore need time to recover. Remember to enjoy your rest and always have constant communication with your doctor even after the treatment for any progress or decline.

Frequently Asked Questions

  1. QUESTION:
    Chemotherapy?
    How long is the process of kemo? I mean how long does a person have to go through it? And how many "sessions" are there...as in where they put the chemical killing substance in you?

    Lastly, does chemotherapy ALWAYS kill the cancer and ALWAYS the patient survives? If it's not guarenteed, what are the survival rates after kemo?

    • ANSWER:
      The chemotherapy regimen is dependent on the type of cancer. I had cancer back in 1982, and it lasted 18 months with a pattern of different drugs. It was every 3 weeks, with an AB, AC pattern. Halfway through it went to AB, AD.

      No, it doesn't always kill the cancer, nor is survival guaranteed. My treatment plan called for 8 weeks of radiation as well.

      The rates are dependent on the cancer as well. But, as my doctor had said - don't worry too much about the rates - it will be 100% or 0% for me. :)

      I lived, btw.

  2. QUESTION:
    chemotherapy?
    my teacher says that chemotherapy strengthens your senses. is this true? if it is, how come? oh and she said she knows this because shes been through it herself.

    • ANSWER:
      I agree with "midnight." She must mean sense of smell.
      Eyesight, hearing, and touch should not be increased by any chemotherapy. In fact, the sense of touch is diminished in some patients depending on the type of chemotherapy. The sense of taste may be altered in some, but I wouldn't describe that as "strengthened."
      You should know there are well over fifty different chemotherapy drugs with combinations and dosage or schedule variations that make up hundreds of very different chemotherapy regimens with vastly different side effects. Also, people vary greatly in their experiences regarding side effects.

      "Chemotherapy" is not one thing - - just as cancer is not one disease. There are more than 200 types of cancer.

      What your teacher is telling you is her unique experience. This should not be extrapolated to all people receiving many different types of chemotherapy treatments.

  3. QUESTION:
    How do chemotherapy drugs interact chemically with cancer to kill the cancerous cells?
    I have to give a chemistry project tomorrow in class and I need to have a basic understanding of what goes on chemically between chemotherapy drugs and the cancerous cells. Like what element interacts with what and how the chemo drugs stop the cancer cells from replicating. If anyone even has a most basic chemical explanation as to what occurs I would really appreciate it.

    • ANSWER:
      If you want a really general overview with how each type of chemotherapeutic agent works, wikipedia is the best place:

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chemotherapy

      Elementally speaking, a small number of elements are used to form complexes, which can bind to DNA causing apoptosis. The best example of this is cisplatin, which is platinum based.

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cisplatin

      The most basic explanation is that the majority of chemotherapy drugs act against cancer cells by inhibiting mitosis. There are many different ways to act against mitosis, such as inhibiting microtubule growth, inhibiting topoisomerases (enzymes which allows the compacting of DNA via formation of coils).

      good luck with your project!

  4. QUESTION:
    What is the difference between radiation, chemotherapy and dialysis?
    I know radiation and chemotherapy are mainly for cancer but what is dialysis for? I'm curious to know the difference. Both my parents (in their 70s now) have battled cancer and have gone through radiation but no chemo (thankfully). I have no clue what they do in radiation or chemotherapy and want to know.

    • ANSWER:
      Dialysis is for kidney failure. Basically the patient is hooked up to a machine 3 times a week to clean their blood.

      Chemotherapy can be given as an intravenous infusion or pill form. This requires many treatments.

      Radiation is performed in a hospital or treatment center. The patient is placed on the table and the technician programs the machine to give the correct dose of radiation at the exact site of the cancer. Several treatments are required.

  5. QUESTION:
    How long after starting chemotherapy does it take to lose your hair?
    My girlfriend just started her first cycle of chemotherapy for her Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma. Her chemotherapy regimen includes doxorubicin, vincristine, cyclophosphamide and prednisone. I was just wondering how long it will take for her to lose her hair. Is it a week after the start of treatment? A month? Thanks.

    • ANSWER:
      It varies a lot on the patient and the dosage of chemotherapy. Usually its around the one month mark (3-4 weeks), but sometimes as early as 1-2 weeks. And then some people don't lose any hair at all.

      Cancer runs really high in my family. My grandfather didn't lose any hair when he had lung cancer (although he died from the cancer), nor did my mother when she had thyroid cancer, and nor my father when he had non-hodgkin's lyphoma cancer.

      Haha. Wow both grandparents on my mom's side, my mom, and my father have had cancer. Just realized that...

      Anyway, god bless your girlfriend! When she does start to lose hair, tell her she's gorgeous everyday because she may lose self confidence, I've seen a lot of people go through that.

      -Catherine

  6. QUESTION:
    What kind of Cancers can chemotherapy cure and what are the success rates?
    Im doing a Biology Project on Chemotherapy.
    I just need to know what Cancers Chemotherapy helps and what are the success rates for them?

    • ANSWER:
      Every cancer can be treated with chemo, some are more effective then others.

      Blood cancers like Lymphoma and Leukemia are the most sensitive to chemo treatments. Colon cancer, breast cancer, testicular, and others also responds very well to forms of chemo.

      .

  7. QUESTION:
    How do chemotherapy drugs interact chemically with cancer cells to get rid of the cancerous cells?
    I have to give a chemistry project tomorrow in class and I need to have a basic understanding of what goes on chemically between chemotherapy drugs and the cancerous cells. Like what element interacts with what and how the chemo drugs stop the cancer cells from replicating. If anyone even has a most basic chemical explanation as to what occurs I would really appreciate it.

    • ANSWER:
      Chemotherapy works by destroying cancer cells; unfortunately, it cannot tell the difference between a cancer cell and some healthy cells. So chemotherapy eliminates not only the fast-growing cancer cells but also other fast-growing cells in your body, including, hair and blood cells.

      Some cancer cells grow slowly while others grow rapidly. As a result, different types of chemotherapy drugs target the growth patterns of specific types of cancer cells. Each drug has a different way of working and is effective at a specific time in the life cycle of the cell it targets.

      So, the chemicals are designed to go after specific cells that have a particular metabolic rate.

      Chemotherapy has NOT been very effective and the 5 year survival rate is very poor. It is expensive; a cancer patient is worth about 0,000 to the medical community.

      In 1972, according to the American Cancer Societies own figures, 33% of cancers had a five year survival rate. We should also point out that at that same time 33% of cancers went away on their own. Today, according to the ACS, the five year survival rate for cancer has risen to 40%. However, what they do not tell you is that:

      1.The statistics are invalid because they combine data of both local and metastasized cancers; and that the comparisons are not randomized [Ulrich Abel, Advanced Epithelial Cancer", 1990 (no longer in print) ]
      2.Cancers not factored into the original statistics are now factored in, such as skin cancers, many of which are not fatal and that the statistics are purposely inflated by including people with benign cancers.
      3.Technology has helped us to find cancers earlier, thus the survival time from diagnosis to eventual death has lengthened.
      4.They are now including in their stats non deadly skin cancers.

      By shrinking tumors, chemotherapy encourages stronger cancer cells to grow and multiply and become chemo resistant. Then there are the new cancers caused by chemotherapy, or secondary cancers. This quaint side effect is often overlooked in the lists of side effects in a drug's accompanying literature, though you can find this information quite easily at the National Cancer Institute. We pride ourselves in America for being technologically advanced and that our technology is rooted in a foundation of good science.

      Wrong.

      When it comes to medicine, little at all is based upon science. Again we shall point to the Office of Technological Assessment’s paper: Assessing the Efficacy and Safety of Medical Technologies in which we are told that fewer than 20% of all medical procedures have been tested, and that of those tested, half were tested badly.

      Medicine in America is not about healing.

      Most telling, according to Ralph Moss in his book Questioning Chemotherapy, is that in a good number of surveys, chemotherapists have responded that they would neither recommend chemotherapy for their families nor would they use it themselves. In an unpublished cohort study in which it was revealed that only 9% of oncologists took chemotherapy for their cancers.

      "Most cancer patients in this country die of chemotherapy.

      Chemotherapy does not eliminate breast, colon, or lung cancers. This fact has been documented for over a decade, yet doctors still use chemotherapy for these tumors,” Allen Levin, MD UCSF The Healing of Cancer.

      Additionally, Irwin Bross, a biostatistician for the National Cancer Institute, discovered that many cancers that are benign (though thought to be malignant) and will not metastasize until they are hit with chemotherapy. In other words, he's found that many people who've been diagnosed with metastatic cancer did not have metastatic cancer until they got their chemotherapy.

      For many cancers, chemotherapy just does not improve your survival rate. Some of these are colorectal, gastric, pancreatic, bladder, breast, ovarian, cervical and corpus uteri, head and neck. Knowing this, oncologists still recommend a regimen of chemotherapy, why?

      The answer you will get from oncologists that are honest is this: “We give it to patients so they won't give up hope and fall into the hands of quacks.” Quacks? Implicit in the definition of quackery is the sale of worthless or dangerous nostrums for profit. Who exactly are the quacks? Just because someone is wearing a white smock, has a title, and works in a nice air conditioned office, does NOT take away what he is. Con men don't look like crooks or they would never get anyone to buy into what they are selling. Looking credible does NOT mean they are.

      Dr Ulrich Abel, who poured over thousands and thousands of cancer studies, published his shocking report in 1990 stating quite succinctly that chemotherapy has done nothing for 80% of all cancers; that 80% of chemotherapy administered was absolutely worthless.

      To give a fair and accurate assessment of chemotherapy in your report, you should also tell people how it is NOT very effective and only a smal

  8. QUESTION:
    How do chemotherapy drugs affect the exocrine system?
    Hi I need to know how chemotherapy drugs affect the exocrine system. And the side affects caused by them on the exocrine system.

    • ANSWER:
      Same answer as you other question. This must be school work.
      As I wrote there are over 100 drugs that are called "chemotherapy."
      Each chemotherapy drug is different.
      Each has a different side effect profile.
      You would need to look up - do an internet search for - "Chemotherapy drugs"
      - and then look into each one individually.
      http://www.chemocare.com/BIO/

  9. QUESTION:
    What is the difference between radiation and chemotherapy?
    My aunt is having a small breast tumor positive with cancer cell and is having radiation instead of chemotherapy, why?

    • ANSWER:
      Chemo affects your entire body, radiation can target very specific areas.

      If they suspect the cancer has spread - they recommend chemo, otherwise they use surgery or radiation.

  10. QUESTION:
    Can anyone suggest a good site related to chemotherapy for cancer treatment?
    Please tell me what is Chemotherapy, how Chemotherapy is given, its side-effects and in what types of cancer Chemotherapy is given.

    • ANSWER:
      The American Cancer Society will be able to answer all of your Questions. They even have a way for you to connect with counselors to assist with the stress of going through Chemotherapy.
      This is how I coped with my chemotherapy, Went through it for 18 months for my Brain tumor.

  11. QUESTION:
    What is the chemotherapy drugs dose in in vitro?
    I know the dose for in vivo chemotherapy drugs. But how much is the dose difference between in vivo and in vitro? I need to know a dose for in vitro.
    Thank you !

    • ANSWER:
      Not sure I understand the purpose of the question. From a pharmacy standpoint, in vitro doses are pretty much irrelevant, as studies will have been conducted on human subjects (in vivo) in order to get FDA-approval. In vitro and in vivo dosing do not always correlate well, and depend on specific characteristic of the drug. In vitro testing is commonly used for proof-of-concept research with a new investigational agent, and if the theory is sound, can be advanced to in vivo testing. Additionally, human testing starts off with a small trial in some health volunteers to determine the safest doses of the drug that can be used. I'm not personally aware, however, of how or why you would want to get in vitro dosing for chemotherapy agents, but a PubMed search might be able to point you toward some primary literature on the subject. See the link below.

  12. QUESTION:
    How long does it take for your immunity to recover after chemotherapy?
    My dad recently had chemotherapy and finished it about 2 months ago, my mums got a cold and shes wondering if his immunity is going to be back to normal by now. Do we have to worry about him catching a cold or something more serious because of lack of immunity after chemotherapy or should he be back to normal immunity by now?

    • ANSWER:
      This varies from patient to patient and can vary depending on the type of cancer.

      I was on a 28 day cycle for my chemo and my blood levels always returned to rornal range between treatments.

      If he finished his chemo 2 months ago, then he should be at about the same risk level as anyone else.

      If concerned, check with his oncologist.

  13. QUESTION:
    How do you increase ones appetite while undergoing chemotherapy?
    My father is undergoing chemotherapy and has absolutely no appetite. Are there any ways that you can naturally increase appetite other than drugs? Any suggestions would help. I am concerned about his nutrition. Thanks everyone.....

    • ANSWER:

  14. QUESTION:
    What are preventive measures of Lymphoma cancer after undergoing chemotherapy ?
    My father in law has been under chemotherapy for Lymphoma and already taken six cycles.Tests have suggested that he almost got rid of it now. how recurrence can be prevented ?.. the diet to be avoided / to be taken ? please suggest .

    • ANSWER:
      ayurveda having a lot of antioxidant therapy....so consult nearest ayurvedic doctor.

  15. QUESTION:
    What are the best foods to eat while undergoing chemotherapy?
    I was recently diagnosed with stage 4 lymphoma and have already undergone my first aggressive chemotherapy treatment. It depletes my strength. I go in for round 2 tomorrow. They tell you not to eat undercooked foods and raw fruits and veggies. Is there anyone here who has gone through the same thing who might have any suggestions?

    • ANSWER:
      Bozema has some great suggestions. I eat small amounts and eat often. Liquids, protein and iron are important. Red meat iron is much easier to absorb than is plant iron. I have rediscovered popsicles (frozen Edy fruit bars) and seem to crave ginger snaps, and cinnamon and mint anything. I keep dry crackers by my bed for the first few days after chemo and they did come in handy one morning. I take my anti nausea pills on schedule for at least five days and have been fortunate not to have nausea be a big problem. For dry mouth the doctor suggested biotene tooth paste and mouth wash. Use the mouth wash several times a day. Sugarless cepacol lozenges help with a scratchy throat. The doctor said no vitamins for me except calcium, and that can't be taken within 3-4 hours of meds, so I have found other ways ... a 10 oz bottle of cranberry juice every day, bananas for potassium ... you get the idea.

      This is no time to try to stick to *healthy* eating. Eat whatever you want when ever you can. And if you want it, but cooking it smells gross, ask a friend or family member to cook it at their house.

      Email me if you have any questions you think I may be able to help with ... or just need to vent.

  16. QUESTION:
    Does chemotherapy work in helping to cure liver cancer?
    How effective is chemotherapy. I know someone who has primary liver cancer (so hasn't spread anywhere in the body) and is about to start chemotherapy in order to shrink the tuma/s on the liver to then remove them surgically.

    • ANSWER:
      If you study the figures, you'll find plenty of opinions on both sides. The ACS claims a 44% percent success rate in treating all cancers with chemotherapy, but their figures are based on five year survival rates.

      Ten year survival rates for cancer treated with chemotherapy are less than ten percent.
      That is a lower survival rate than untreated cancers.

      The sad fact of the matter is that cancer is a billion dollar industry, and there are many people with great influence, who have a vested interest in keeping cancer alive.

      The key to their profit has always been the patenting of pharmaceutical drugs and treatments of the symptoms, and not the cause. They claim not to understand the cause of cancer, and yet fervently deny any cure exists, and if you suggest otherwise, they claim you are a quack. For almost a hundred years, doctors have come forward with effective treatments for all kinds of cancer, and been suppressed; Because natural remedies cannot be patented, and hence reap no profit for the pharmaceutical industry.

      Cancer is caused by imbalance and toxicity in the system.
      It is brought on by elements in our air and water, but primarily our food. The majority of food in America today is toxic, and can cause a wide variety of diseases, from cancer, to diabetes, to heart problems and immune dysfunction.
      Chemotherapy does nothing to treat this cause. In fact, it introduces more toxins into they system and cripples the immune system.

      Don't take my word for it, do your research online. Google "chemotherapy survival rates"
      Then, if you're as unsatisfied with western treatments as I am, google these:
      Tai Chi
      QiGong
      Gerson
      Hoxsey

      Modern medicine will tell you this is all quackery...
      From atop the growing pile of chemotherapy treated and radiated corpses, 56 million annually.
      Ask yourself if you would trust the same men who push pills on you during the nightly news, between commercials for greasy fast food burgers and shiny American cars made in Mexico, or are they just in it for the money?

      The answer might save your friend's life.

  17. QUESTION:
    If on chemotherapy can you still have your cats?
    My grandmother is going to go thru chemotherapy and my aunt who is taking care of her has 3 cats. My other aunt and cousin are telling her she has to get rid of her cats because of chemotherapy. Is this true. I cant not find it anywhere. Any help is greatly appreciated. Thanks!

    • ANSWER:
      The reason that you can't find any information on that is because it is a fabrication. My good friend has been doing Chemo for about 8 months and has 2 cats.....all is well.

  18. QUESTION:
    What exactly is being injected in you when you receive chemotherapy?
    Is there some kind of chemical formula for chemotherapy drugs? Like what is in the drug itself?

    • ANSWER:
      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chemotherapy

      It is chemicals that are designed to attack and kill cells that are fast dividing. Most cancer cells are just that.

  19. QUESTION:
    How long could be the chemotherapy for a stage 2A node negative breast cancer?
    Hi,

    Our doctor mentioned that chemotherapy could last for 6 months for young women (under 35) even at a stage 2a node negative grade 3 breast cancer.

    I heard that some young people in similar situation get away with 2-3 months.

    6 months, Isn't it too long?

    • ANSWER:
      There are many different treatment protocols. Younger women tend to get more aggressive forms of breast cancer. Grade 3 is aggressive. You want to treat it aggressively.

      Chemo is rough, but recurrence and metastasis is a lot rougher.

      Hit the cancer hard, that's what I say. You may not get another good chance to beat it.

  20. QUESTION:
    When can one start seeing chemotherapy treatment work?
    Its been 2 cycles already and the lump in my dads leg grew in size, from an M&M shape, to a 2cmX3cm spherical shape growing deeper. Sometimes he cant feel it in the morning, then at night he feels it. Its more prominant when my dads blood sugar is high. I read that tumors feed off of blood sugar. Shouldnt the chemotherapy stop the growth already? His doc said it was just scar tissue. Isnt there a test to figure out if the chemos working?
    Its diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in the thigh, and the doc said theres an indolent type of lymphoma in the bone. She didnt say what the second was.
    Hes on R-CHOP right now, every 3 weeks.

    • ANSWER:
      The idea that cancer feeds off of sugar is based on a misconception of cancer biology and an incomplete understanding of how PET scans work.

      When you have a PET scan done you quit eating any sugar or carbs prior to the test because most tumors consume more glucose than normal body organs. Tumors have an increased blood supply and this increased vascular supply helps feed the glucose into the tumor. Having no excess glucose in the bloodstream makes the tumors light up much better on PET scans.

      All aspects of metabolism in the human body are dependent on glucose for fuel. You can not stop consuming enough glucose to make any difference in the growth of a tumor because the tumor always gets first dibs on any glucose that becomes available. In other words, you would starve to death before your reducing your glucose intake would have any affect on the growth of the tumor.

      Your father could have a PET scan and this would tell if the tumor is still active or not. If your dad has medicare for his insurance you should know that medicare does not like to pay for PET scans but if they are medically necessary and he has his Dr's support it is possible to get a PET scan approved by and paid for by medicare.

      all the best to you both

  21. QUESTION:
    What is the chemical reaction in chemotherapy?
    I'm doing a project for my chemistry class and my topic is the chemical reaction involved with chemotherapy. I chose this topic because I volunteer at a local hospital and enjoy helping the nurses and patients in this wing.

    • ANSWER:
      The reaction involved in chemo is called "apoptosis". There are many facets in this process so here is a link to the wikipedia article--which is very good on this topic. Hopefully this is what you are looking for. Good Luck.
      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apoptosis

  22. QUESTION:
    How soon after a lumpectomy does chemotherapy start?
    How soon after a lumpectomy should or does chemotherapy start?

    • ANSWER:
      Most clinical trials start chemotherapy within 42-60 days; some older studies went out as far as 84 days. The importance of using a clinical trial as a standard measure is that the experts are the ones coming up with these criteria.

      I typically start 3-4 weeks, depending on patient status and disease characteristics, but no problem waiting couple more weeks if needed. I personally don't like going beyond 6 weeks.

      God bless, best wishes

  23. QUESTION:
    What herbs or herbal remedies will offset the toxic effects of chemotherapy?
    My grandfather is getting ready to go through chemotherapy to kill off the tumor that is wrapping itself around his spinal column due to multiple myeloma. Can anyone help me? Time is short, and my family and I are desperate.

    • ANSWER:
      It's true that his onc is very likely to warn against taking supplements of any kind during chemo.

      Ginger in any form will help with nausea, but no herb is going to actually offset the toxicity of chemo.

      Someone has recommended laetrile; avoid this as not only is it ineffective against cancer, but it is dangerous as it contains cyanide - you really don't want to be throwing that into the mix during chemotherapy.

      My advice re diet during chemotherapy is that he should eat whatever he feels will make him feel better and whatever his nausea (if he has it) can cope with. I wanted bland carbohydrate, mashed potato especially, and I've found this is common among chemotherapy patients. In the first days of chemotherapy I forced myself to drink fresh juices because I assumed they would help me cope with chemotherapy. It made me very nauseous to force down something I didn't want (though usually I loved juice) and it was a couple of years before I could face juice without nausea again.

      My best wishes for your grandfather's treatment

  24. QUESTION:
    What are the environmental benefits of Chemotherapy?
    Does it do anything good to the environment?
    Does the environment present good resources to make the drugs in Chemotherapy?
    Are the drugs easy to dispose of and eco friendly?

    • ANSWER:
      ''Does the environment present good resources to make the drugs in Chemotherapy?''

      Yep. For example, the chemotherapy drug Taxol is derived from yew.

  25. QUESTION:
    What are the side effects of chemotherapy tablets?
    My Mother is starting a course of Chemotherapy(tablet form) on Friday I am just wondering if anyone could give me some info on what side effects she would face.

    • ANSWER:
      The side effects vary a bit by drug, so you'll need the name of the tablets to be sure.

      But common side effects are
      - nausea
      - vomiting
      - diarrohea
      - tiredness

      Not all patients will get all side-effects. And there are other drugs that can be taken to reduce side-effects. Make sure she tells the doctors about any side-effects...then they can make changes / add other drugs to help make the chemo tolerable.

      http://www.cancerbackup.org.uk/Treatments/Chemotherapy/Individualdrugs is a good source of information about the individual drugs and their effects. The American Cancer Society probably has a similar webpage.

      good luck to your mother!

  26. QUESTION:
    What is the survival rate using chemotherapy in children for lymphoma?
    In the US, chemotherapy for Children with Lymphoma (cancer of the lymphatic system) is ruled by a judge as mandatory. How many survive? What are the statistics?

    • ANSWER:
      Lymphoma is the general name, but there are many sub types of it. It can be Hodgkin's or Non-Hodgkin's (and there are a dozen or so different types of Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas). It therefore depends on the exact type of lymphoma you are referring to - and naturally it depends on how advanced the lymphoma is when it is detected.

      Survival rates for lymphoma are pretty high - normally around 80%

      However, most lymphomas have a high chance of recurrence.

      All the very best

  27. QUESTION:
    Can a person who is receiving chemotherapy still get cancer?
    My father is being treated for metastatic cancer of the bladder, that has spread to his lymph nodes. He is now receiving chemotherapy. Is it possible for the cancer to spread during chemo?

    • ANSWER:
      It is possible for the chemo to be ineffective, which amounts to the same thing. Best wishes to your father for a speedy recovery and remission.

  28. QUESTION:
    If someone is on chemotherapy and having sex with someone with herpes. What is the chance of them catching it?
    I know someone a male with genital herpes and chlamydia(well he claimed he got rid of the chlamydia). Anyways he is in a relationship with someone for over 3 months now and the female has brain cancer and is on chemotherapy. He says they use condoms but I know he doesn't when they have oral sex. I also heard that chemotherapy weakens your immune system so how likely will she contract it. He says he didn't tell her that he has it.

    • ANSWER:
      Because herpes is transmitted through skin contact, condoms aren't sufficient to protect against them. The condom covers a very small terrain, and if he has herpes outside of the covered area, he can transmit it to her.

      Him not telling her is a real piece of sh*t move, and perhaps you might want to consider letting her know that he's risking her already compromised health.

  29. QUESTION:
    What mathematical applications can be included in a paper on Chemotherapy?
    I am writing my thesis paper (high school level) on chemotherapy and I am required to include at least 2 mathematical applications. What can I include, it can be any thing mathematical, as long as it is related to cancer or chemotherapy in particular?

    Any ideas are greatly appreciated.
    (If you have any links that explain the mathematical application, please include them)

    • ANSWER:
      The dose is dependent on the weight of the patient. The survival rates with or without chemotherapy could also be discussed.

  30. QUESTION:
    What is the risk to cancer (oncology) nurses from working with dangerous chemotherapy drugs?
    What is the risk to nurses working in the cancer field (oncology) due to their proximity to cancer causing drugs and radiation and chemotherapy? I am hearing stories of many oncology nurses loosing their hair?

    • ANSWER:
      Yes, proper precautions are very important among the exposed health personnel as anti-neoplastic agents and radiation are known occupational hazards.

      The following health effects have been reported in hospital workers exposed to antineoplastic agents:
      diarrhea, abdominal pain, dizziness, nausea, skin rashes, hair loss, adverse reproductive effects such as disruption of menstrual cycle, fetal loss, and birth defects, etc.

  31. QUESTION:
    why does chemotherapy drugs designed to fight cancer often cause a person's hair to fall out?
    1 ) why do you think that chemotherapy drugs that are designed specially to fight cancer , often cause a person's hair to fall out?

    2) what is or are any potential advantage that would result from deletion of relatively large segment of chromosome? why?

    3) what is or are any potential advantage that would result from duplication of a region of chromosome ? why?

    • ANSWER:
      The drugs that are used in chemotherapy target rapidly-multiplying cells and causes them to stop working, because hair cells are rapid-multiplying this is what causes them to stop working.

      As for the other questions im not sure .. sorry :S

  32. QUESTION:
    How do chemotherapy drugs affect the nervous system?
    Hi I need to know how chemotherapy drugs affect the nervous system. And the side affects caused by them on the nervous system.

    • ANSWER:
      Chemotherapy adversely affects cognitive function both acutely and chronically, but little is known about the underlying mechanisms. A new study shows that short-term chemotherapy causes not only acute injury to progenitor cells, but also delayed damage to myelin.

      Some chemotherapy drugs can cause direct or indirect changes in the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord), the cranial nerves, or peripheral nerves. The cranial nerves are connected directly to the brain and are important for movement and touch sensation (feeling) of the head, face, and neck. Cranial nerves are also important for vision, hearing, taste, and smell. Peripheral nerves lead to and from the rest of the body and are important in movement, touch sensation, and regulating activities of some internal organs.

      A few chemotherapy drugs, for example cisplatin or vincristine, can permanently damage parts of the nervous system. Although it is not yet proven, these drugs may interfere with the nerves that control erection.-

  33. QUESTION:
    How could the hemogloblin count go up during chemotherapy?
    I got some results that show that as a patient was getting chemotherapy (Daunorubicin and Cytarabine), the amoutn of white blood cells and platelets went down, but the mass of hemogloblin per Liter went up. Anybody able to explain this?

    • ANSWER:
      Possible that the patient being treated with a red blood cell booster drug like Arnasep or Procrit? (i.e. EPO.)

      My hemoglobin was ridiculously low at diagnosis for advanced stage Hodgkin's Disease -- it was actually around 7.0. So I started getting Arnasep shots and it increased despite the chemo. Once it hit 11.0, the Arnasep was discontinued, but my hemoglobin still kept climbing despite the chemo. If the patient was like me and had a heavy disease burden, perhaps knocking back the cancer is allowing the body and bone marrow to function better.

      Would also consider dehydration -- makes the blood more concentrated which can make the hemoglobin level seem higher.

  34. QUESTION:
    How ill do you get with radiation and chemotherapy?
    Well i know this person who has cancer, and well im really worried about this person and i want to now how ill this person will get with chemotherapy and radiation.

    • ANSWER:
      Chemo can cause all sorts of side effects, the most obvious being severe nausea and vomiting. Diahrea, constipation, mouth sores, neuropathy, exhaustion, and hair loss. Before a patient starts chemo, the medical staff will give them some drugs/pills that help with the side effects but don't always prevent them.

      Radiation can cause skin burns like a very bad sunburn. It can alsu cause the patient to be very tired, sometimes cause nausea and vomiting. It depends on what part of the body is getting radiation treatment.

      I'm a 6 year cancer warrior,

  35. QUESTION:
    Can someone on chemotherapy get a handicap placard for their car?
    My mother is going through chemotherapy and has gotten very weak in the process. Is there any way that I can get a handicap placard or license plate for her? If yes, how do I go about it?

    • ANSWER:
      yes, all you do is go to the doc and ask. he just fills in a couple blanks on a form and you take it to the dmv. it is very easy, sometimes they make them for 6 months, other times longer. goodluck.

  36. QUESTION:
    what is considered a temperature for someone receiving chemotherapy?
    My mom is receiving chemotherapy and I know there is certain temperature that is considered a fever which could indicate infection - but I can't find the paper that has the temp. I'm afraid she may be sick and don't know whether to contact the doctor. I appreciate any help you can give me!

    • ANSWER:
      Some say 100 others say 100.5.

      I would like to make a couple comments the others did not however. First, call the oncologist before you take them to the ER. You should have an after hours number to call. Depending on the blood counts, it could be very unwise to go into the er.

      But, that 100 is based on the avg temp of 98.6. That is only the average normal temp. What I am getting ready to say only applies if the patient has a different normal temp. If for some reason your patient has a different normal temp, the point where you need to call is 2 degrees above the normal.

      I bring this up because my normal temp is 95-96. At 98.6, I am actually running a fever. I have ran into an issue there because the avg normal is the same temp that I am running a fever.

  37. QUESTION:
    Do Oncologist recommend chemotherapy for every stage 1 breast cancer patient?
    Also, are stage zero cancer the only cancer that oncologist don't recommend chemotherapy for?

    • ANSWER:
      They push the treatment because it equals billable dollars for them. They don't care about the result.

      Go on a heavy-duty anti-oxidant, and homeopathic nutritional program.... All in, seriously over-kill nutritional program.

  38. QUESTION:
    How do you feel about advocates against chemotherapy?
    Some advocates believe that chemotherapy is not a proven treatment for cancer. They may cite valid scientific studies to support their approach such as "The China Study" by T. Colin Campbell. (T. Colin Campbell does not advocate against traditional treatment, by the way. He is also a very reputable and qualified nutrition researcher.)

    Do you feel unqualified advocates should be able to speak out against chemotherapy?

    Should their free speech rights be protected on this topic?

    • ANSWER:
      I'm not quite sure what you mean by advocates. If you mean should people be able to express their views on chemotherapy, of course they should - and as far as I'm aware they are able to, whatever their views.

      It would be a sorry state of affairs if only qualified people could speak on this topic. What, after all, would be the 'qualifications' they needed?

      I was once a vocal advocate of alternative treatments myself. What changed my position was being diagnosed with an advanced aggressive cancer, and realising the percentage by which chemotherapy would increase my survival chances. I concluded that for me, in my specific situation, chemotherapy was the way to go. Had the percentage been small, I would have almost certainly refused chemotherapy, as several people I know who have been in that situation have done.

      As it turned out, after four of the recommended six sessions of chemotherapy I decided to stop, as the depression that was my main side effect was too much. My oncologist supported me, saying that the harm the depression could do might well outweigh the benefits of the chemotherapy.

      Never, either when I was first determined to refuse chemo or later when I decided to discontinue, did I come under any pressure; it was clear that the decision was mine.

      As it happens, as part of my decision-making, I asked every medical professional I encountered (including my GP, my surgeon, and oncologists) whether they would have chemotherapy should they develop cancer. Not one gave an unqualified 'yes'; all said they didn't know - some immediately, some after consideration.

      It was the oncologist I saw who said 'I don't know; but if I had YOUR cancer I would, and if my mother had your cancer I would encourage her to have it' who in the end made up my mind; the same oncologist, incidentally who supported my choice to discontinue.

      If you're talking specifically about the YA Cancer section, then people are free to offer their opinions. It concerns me very much when certain users answer questions from people diagnosed with cancer by saying ALL chemotherapy is a bad thing, is never effective, and kills all who take it, especially when they make an unequivocal claim that a certain course of action, such as a specific diet, WILL cure that cancer. I willl argue against that position, but they are free to hold those views. The only time I will report them is should they insult and libel other answerers, invariably people who have experience of cancer, by claiming that they are lying about having had cancer treatment and that their motive is money. One such user has even accused individuals of being 'drug pushers'.

      In the end, it's down to each person to make the decision they feel is right when it comes to their cancer treatment.

  39. QUESTION:
    How long after undergoing chemotherapy does a person regain their strength?
    Someone close to me has had ovarian cancer (a woman in her early 60's). She has undergone surgery for it as well as chemotherapy. Now, about two years later she barely has any energy and gets tired very quickly. I wonder why she isn't regaining her strength now that she's cancer-free. Will she ever gain her strength back? I've seen people beat cancer and get back to being their old selves, healthy as ever. Could her age be responsible for her slow recovery? Does this mean that she may not be getting better, but rather progressively worse?

    • ANSWER:
      I went in for minor surgery a year ago this past March, in which they found Ovarian Cancer.
      Eight hours of surgery, and they removed everything. I was totally unaware that I had cancer. I had no symptoms and was in excellent health. Lived a very healthy lifestyle, vegetarian, worked out 4 days a week and practiced Ayruveda....
      I was a stage 1C, with 16 weeks of Chemo every three weeks. Each treatment would last 8 hours.
      I really never had any side effects except the hair loss and a bit of numbness in my fingertips and on the bottom of my toes.
      I felt wonderful after my treatments as a matter of fact, and really never experienced any reprocusions.

      I believe that with your friend, it depends on the type of Chemo administered to her, and how long she endured the treatments.
      She definetly needs to inform her Oncologist of this, and ask him is this is a result of the treatment.
      If she is cancer free and not needing any further treatment that would interfere with her immune system, then she certainly should have recovered her strength back.
      Please insist that she gets a check up.

      I would also recommend that she takes Cayenne Pepper in capsul form. This will increase her energy levels for sure. She must take it with food and I would recommend milk also.
      I take about 20 different spices and herbs every day, and this is what attributed to no side effects from Chemo....
      Everything is natural and can be purchased at a Health Food Store in your area...
      If you would like more information as to what spices may help her, please feel free to contact me.

      My prayers and thoughts are with her....

  40. QUESTION:
    What kind of education do you need to become a chemotherapy infusion RN?
    I want to become a chemotherapy infusion RN and I'm wondering what kind of college or on the job training would be needed.

    • ANSWER:
      You need your BSN. That should take 4-6 years, at least.

  41. QUESTION:
    What would be the effects of psilocybin mushrooms while undergoing chemotherapy?
    I have no idea how you would figure something like this out, but a friend of mine has leukemia. We were wondering if taking psilocybin mushrooms would at all effect the chemotherapy she's currently undergoing.

    • ANSWER:
      I have no experience with shrooms. They are grown mushrooms, right? If that is the case, he probably should not take them during chemo. Chemo lowers the immune system, and the shroom itself is a fungi, and probably contains bacteria or maybe even chemicals from growing. That would be bad bad bad. (being a leukemia patient, chances are she knows what the term neutropenia means, and what a neutropenic diet is... the shrooms would be in the banned list of foods as part of the neutropenic diet)

      In the end.... She should consult her doctor. I know its odd to consult a doctor about taking drugs, but in this case... It is VERY important that she talk to her doctor about it, and that her doctor knows, if she does take them.

  42. QUESTION:
    What is the chance of an 83-year old surviving chemotherapy?
    My grandpa has a tumor in his stomach but there is a possibility that it may have spread to the lungs. If it did spread, then surgery cannot be done to solve the problem. Would he be able to handle chemotherapy? He has asthma and has well controlled diabetes.

    • ANSWER:
      "Chemotherapy" is a general term for many very different treatments. There are more than 75 chemotherapy drugs and hundreds of different combinations. If this is gastric carcinoma metastatic to lung, the regimens commonly used should pose no great risk of mortality, but gastric cancers that have spread beyond surgery are not likely to be cured.

      What happens so often is that people eventually die of their malignant diseases - while they are on chemotherapy regimens. People often misinterpret the death as caused by the chemotherapy rather than the fact that the cancer was progressing and caused death.

      It is difficult to stop chemotherapy for many patients in the U.S.
      People think we are giving up on them. Many hundreds of times I have tried to gently explain that treatment was not working or no longer working and we should stop. It takes a great deal of time to convince people that no treatment - after chemotherapy is no longer working - is the best way to go. Explaining things carefully for patients and their families is an important role for oncology specialists in my opinion.

      I will expect the thumbs down from people who think that "chemotherapy" killed their loved ones. Chemotherapy of all types weakens patients and should not be continued if the cancer is clearly growing despite treatment. Chemotherapy for placebo effect or just to be "doing something" is not a good idea in my opinion. It also increases the cost of health care without providing benefit.

      BUT - for an 83 year old in good shape with a metastatic gastric carcinoma (if you prove that he has malignancy in the lungs), it is usually worth a try with follow-up studies to asses if it is helping reduce the tumor burden - for awhile. You can always stop the treatments if the side effects are not tolerable or the tumor is not responsive. Every person is different. Every malignancy is different. The only way to know if treatment will help is to try - and then assess the effects. Patients do not have to agree to anything more than one cycle of treatment at a time.

  43. QUESTION:
    What type of cancer is chemotherapy least effective against?
    What type of cancer is chemotherapy most effective against and the least effective against?

    • ANSWER:
      Red Angel is correct. According to the study that was done by some Australian oncologists, when a person gets chemotherapy, they have a 2.1% chance of survival in 5 years for all of the cancer's included. The study was called "The Contribution of Cytotoxic Chemotherapy to 5-year Survival in Adult Malignancies. This study took every randomized controlled clinical trial performed in the U.S. from 1990 to 2004 and the results showed the above Cancer cure statistics. According to that study, chemo is most effective against Hodgkin's disease at 40.3% (ABSOLUTE numbers).

      In 1989, a German biostatistician, Ulrich Abel PhD, after publishing dozens of papers on cancer chemotherapy, wrote a monograph "Chemotherapy of Advanced Epithelial Cancer." It was later published in a shorter form in a peer-reviewed medical journal.70 Dr. Abel presented a comprehensive analysis of clinical trials and publications representing over 3,000 articles examining the value of cytotoxic chemotherapy on advanced epithelial cancer. Epithelial cancer is the type of cancer we are most familiar with. It arises from epithelium found in the lining of body organs such as breast, prostate, lung, stomach, or bowel.

      From these sites cancer usually infiltrates into adjacent tissue and spreads to bone, liver, lung, or the brain. With his exhaustive review Dr. Abel concludes that there is no direct evidence that chemotherapy prolongs survival in patients with advanced carcinoma. He said that in small-cell lung cancer and perhaps ovarian cancer the therapeutic benefit is only slight. Dr. Abel goes on to say, "Many oncologists take it for granted that response to therapy prolongs survival, an opinion which is based on a fallacy and which is not supported by clinical studies."

      Over a decade after Dr. Abel’s exhaustive review of chemotherapy, there seems no decrease in its use for advanced carcinoma. For example, when conventional chemotherapy and radiation has not worked to prevent metastases in breast cancer, high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) along with stem-cell transplant (SCT) is the treatment of choice. However, in March 2000, results from the largest multi-center randomized controlled trial conducted thus far showed that, compared to a prolonged course of monthly conventional-dose chemotherapy, HDC and SCT were of no benefit.71 There was even a slightly lower survival rate for the HDC/SCT group. And the authors noted that serious adverse effects occurred more often in the HDC group than the standard-dose group. There was one treatment-related death (within 100 days of therapy) in the HDC group, but none in the conventional chemotherapy group. The women in this trial were highly selected as having the best chance to respond.

      "April" You need to start using the ABSOLUTE NUMBERS and NOT the relative numbers often used by those that want to skew the results to encourage funding of chemo. You madam, are the laughable one here. Get your facts from credible sources.

      EDIT: "April" My you have been indoctrinated well. Because the medical profession in America has gained so much power and money, it is foreign countries that are doing the real research it seems. The drug company studies are the real jokes with all the "Ghost writers" and throwing out the information that does not meet with their agenda and having people like you supporting that insanity makes it difficult to extract the real truth. You simply will NOT find ANY studies done in America that attack the medical industry's use of chemotherapy, it's just too lucrative and way to big of a cash cow.

      You still have the brain tumor? How has our modern medicine helped you? Look at Genetic Engineering fiasco; same issue. Only in America do they NOT label GMO foods, but everywhere else in the world they do and the rest of the world has seen the tests and know how bad it is for you, but NOT in America! Same problem.

      QRA testing is a very accepted method of testing people for many problems that even doctors have not been able to help. So you know, there is a machine that has been developed that gives data in place of the "O" ring testing you mentioned. It is very sophisticated and not only proves the validity of the "O" ring testing, but is very accurate. You need to update your data bank dear.

      Can you name just ONE disease that ANY drug company has "CURED" in the last 100 years? Just one. And don't embarrass yourself by naming vaccines because there is way too much credible data showing how bad vaccines are and how ineffective they are in so many cases.

      good luck

  44. QUESTION:
    What are the most common side affects of Chemotherapy?
    My Sister is 11, she's starting Chemotherapy on Monday, its a really scary time for us all and I was wondering if someone could clear it up a little?
    I know how Chemotherapy works, but what are the short term and long term side affects from this treatment? It will take 3 months to complete.
    Thank you.

    • ANSWER:
      im sorry darling, my mum was diagnosed and they said it wasnt worth chemo , so the fact they are doing that is fantastic news, i understands your worry, noone can play god, be there for her and im sure with your support she will make a speedy recovery, i wish you guys well ,, good luck both my darlings xx

  45. QUESTION:
    What is the name of the chemotherapy that is for numerous tumors I belive this is a general kind of chemo?
    The doctor said that we could try this chemotherapy to stop the tuomrs from growing. It wasn't high powered.

    • ANSWER:
      Be more specific . .there are hundreds of different types of chemotherapy.

      Chemocare
      http://www.chemocare.com/bio/

  46. QUESTION:
    What type of cells tend to be damaged the most during chemotherapy and radiation treatments?
    What type of cells tend to be damaged the most during chemotherapy and radiation treatments? Epithelial cells? Nerve tissue? Skeletal muscle cells ? Collagen and fibrous tissue ?

    • ANSWER:
      Cancer cells and any other cells that divide rapidly.

      TV

  47. QUESTION:
    What were your favorite foods during chemotherapy?
    My 3 year old son Conrad is fighting brain cancer. I'm trying to get a few more ideas on foods he might like to try.

    What were your favorite foods/drinks/candies while on chemotherapy/radiation?

    • ANSWER:
      Taste is adversely affected by chemo.
      Things I could Almost Always eat:
      flavored oatmeal
      mac and cheese [ Kraft only - others were too rich or greasy ]
      corn, green beans, peas, spinach, carrots, mushrooms, tiny bits of asparagus and brocolli
      field greens, Romaine lettuce, small amount of raw carrots, tiny amount raw cabbage, avocado
      rice
      baked potato
      chicken
      shrimp
      cut up melon, berries
      Try fruit smoothies, thick soups, shakes, anything he'll eat!
      Pay attention to what he doesn't keep down - avoid or give small amount.

  48. QUESTION:
    What are my chances of getting pregnant even though I recieved chemotherapy at 3-7 years old?
    I am a 24 year old female and was diagnosed with ALL cancer when I was 3 and was in treatment till 7 years old. I need to know if the chemotherapy will greatly affect my ability to get pregnant even though it has been years later. Please help...
    ~Rebecca K.

    • ANSWER:

  49. QUESTION:
    How were cancer patients treated before Chemotherapy was invented?
    I read that Chemotherapy was first used on patients in the 50's, so how were patients treated before that time?

    • ANSWER:
      Very good question

      With respect to Panda, we were doing fairly well with Hogkin's disease using MOPP chemotherapy before the "War on Cancer" instigated by president Nixon. I remember those times well. We already had Cytoxan and Adriamycin in the early 1970's. Both are still used extensively today.

      The first chemo drug was nitrogen mustard - an offshoot of mustard gas used as a weapon in WWI. Nitrogen mustard is in the MOPP regimen for Hodgkin's disease.

      Before the late 1950's and 1960's, the best chance was surgery. Breast cancer was treated incorrectly with radical mastectomies and had been since the time of Halsted in the 1880's. We had a heck of a time in the 1980's getting surgeons to stop doing these radical procedures once it was clear that breast cancer is most often a systemic disease rather than just a locally invasive malignancy.

      There were early efforts with radiation - x-ray - therapy prior to chemotherapy. Even today early surgery is still the best treatment for most of the many types of cancer. Chemotherapy is a term that covers over 100 drugs now. All of these new drugs are very expensive. The rise in health care costs for malignant diseases has been exponential in the past 10 years especially. We are actually prolonging life more often than curing malignant diseases, but if you think about it - all that doctors can ever do is prolong life. None of us will ever be immortal.

      The short answer is that people were treated with comfort measures in the days before chemotherapy. Most patients died in hospitals. That was before hospice. Prior to the 1950's, being admitted to the hospital with an inoperable cancer was often equated with a death sentence.

      Also with respect to the site listed by Panda, malignancies have become far more common in the past 100 years than they had ever been in the past. Why? One reason is the direct correlation with the growth of cigarette smoking since the invention of automated cigarette making machines. Over 31% of all cancer deaths today are due to smoking. Even more importantly, we are living longer. The majority of my patients were over 65 years of age and 90% were over age 50.
      The average life expectancy in the USA 100 years ago was 47 years.
      People did not live long enough to develop cancers prior to advances in antibiotic therapy to treat infectious disease which were the number one killers - tuberculosis especially. Note that lung cancer was a reportable disease in the latter 1800's - it was so rare. Now with aging and decades of cigarette smoking we see that lung cancer is the number one cause of death for men and women.

      We have the means to avoid at least one third of cancer deaths, and yet 21-24% of people in the U.S. still smoke cigarettes. It is far better to prevent tobacco related cancer than try to treat them with chemotherapy. Of note is that tobacco related cancers are usually the most resistant malignancies to even our new and expensive chemotherapy treatments.

  50. QUESTION:
    What are the benefits of palliative chemotherapy?
    This is a question asked out of general interest, because chemotherapy in its aggressive form has many side-effects and makes the patient feel generally unwell. When the patient has been given a terminal diagnosis, what benefit is there to making their last days likely very uncomfortable until the inevitable happens?

    • ANSWER:
      please ignore the ignorant comments of brandedcentaur and man darin....

      Palliative chemotherapy only means the treatment is not curative. It does not imply desperation, though it can be given for that too. I have many patients on "palliative" chemotherapy, some for years (pills usually, occasionally IV drugs though) who do very well. Some even work.

      It is not for everyone and requires an assessment of the benefits/expectations and toxicities. This is best determined by evaluation and discussion between patient and oncologist. There can be definite trade-offs, which for some are not worth it, like:
      increased costs for longer life;
      reduced quality of life for longer life; alternatively treatment can be tailored to not maximize life length but rather quality of life and to lengthen life also but not to the greatest extent (which might create more toxicities);
      more office visits
      more medications

      Decision-making here is very personal. I have patients who come to me stating they want to live as long as possible; others want to make it through the birth of a child, or a graduation, or similar requests.

      Know that chemotherapy is not one thing- it is many many drugs with varying side effects. Some oral, some IV, some toxic, some not.

      Blessings


Chemotherapie

Medizinische Marihuana und Magic Mushrooms sind absolut therapeutischen, bis dahin noch rechtlich in vielen Lndern seit Jahrzehnten verboten. Doch in letzter Zeit unzhlige Anzahl von Nationen damit begonnen, seine Kreditwrdigkeit in der Gesundheitsversorgung Arena zu realisieren. Daher akzeptieren sie die Headshop, Smartshop und growshop, dass diese Produkte und Samen dieser Pflanzen wachsen, zum Verkauf zu verkaufen. Legalisierung dieser Pflanze ist Ergreifen in allen Teilen der Welt einschlielich der USA, dass diese Headshop, Smartshop und growshop Forschung Chemikalien enthalten, um das Wachstum dieser Kruter frdern.

Marihuana wird aus der Pflanze extrahiert von Cannabis und es kann in braun oder grn sein. Die Pflanze enthlt Stngel, Bltter und Samen, anders als die "Magic Mushrooms", die auf zerfllt wachsen. In den letzten Jahrzehnten wurde die Nutzung und den Anbau von Marihuana gilt als absolut illegal und seine therapeutische Werte bersehen worden seien. Allerdings ist jetzt der Name des Erholungs-Medikament allmhlich verschwinden, dass es allgemein in Headshop, Smartshop und growshop zusammen mit Forschungs-Chemikalien.

Obwohl Marihuana wuchs in warmen Temperatur Regionen Amerika, Asien, Indien und Afrika, heute mit Hilfe von Wissenschaft und Technik fruchtbar, kann es in jedem Land durch die Verfolgung der Anleitung und mit Hilfe der Forschung Chemikalien geerntet werden. Der Online Headshop, Smartshop und growshop gehren Samen und Readymade Marihuana zum sofortigen Konsum. Normalerweise sind die Stngel, Bltter, Samen, Blten und Sekrete auf der Anlage sind die fleiigen Elemente bei der Heilung von Krankheiten. In der Tat hat das Verbot fr das Kraut langsam entmannt nach der Naturheilkunde Experten in den USA angenommen und begonnen, sie in mehrere natrliche Medikamente bernehmen.

Doch nicht alle Staaten von Amerika akzeptiert und legalisiert Marihuana. Die Leute, die fasziniert und interessiert sind, Verwendung von Marihuana kann die Nutzung der Online Headshop, Growshop und smart shop in Anspruch zu nehmen Sie sie online machen, zusammen mit dem Forschungs-Chemikalien. In der Tat ist der Schlsselfaktor fr den Kauf von Marihuana fr seine Euphorie Natur, sondern die falsche Anteil kann die Herzfrequenz und den Blutdruck zu beschleunigen. Daraus ergibt sich die Menschen, die Marihuana konsumieren sollten nur die authentische Produkte mit der richtigen Verhltnis. Wenn Sie bereits leiden, sind von diesen krperlichen Beschwerden, erhalten Beratung durch Ihren Arzt vor der es zu benutzen.

Im Gegensatz zu Nikotin und andere Suchtmittel Elemente, ist Marihuana nicht auf Gewohnheit fhren. Allerdings verursacht sie psychische Abhngigkeit, so muss es unter Aufsicht von Fachleuten konsumiert werden. Gerade wegen dieser einfachen Ursache kann man nicht aufgeben die Nutzung dieses Heilkraut, da es positive Auswirkungen hat auf die Verringerung der belkeit, Erbrechen, bei der Frderung der Hunger bei den Patienten von AIDS und Chemotherapie, zu zerstreuen Glaukom, und bei der Behandlung von Magen-Darm-Probleme. So eine wunderbare Medizin kann von Headshop, Growshop Smartshop und online, einschlielich Forschung Chemikalien wachsen die Pflanzen Indoor zugegriffen werden.

Der Headshop, Smartshop und growshop online zhlen Marihuana in verschiedenen Formen und kann entweder durch Rauchen oder Verdampfen getrockneten Knospen, Essen oder Trinken die Extrakte konsumiert werden, oder durch die Einnahme von Kapseln gute Qualitt Marihuana gemacht. Obwohl medizinische Marihuana bleibt als eine unter den weit umstritten in der ganzen Welt kann niemand die Tatsache ignorieren, dass es Menschen gibt, die natrliche Heilung bekommen von Marihuana.

Frequently Asked Questions

  1. QUESTION:

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Chemotaxis

Up above, the crashing of the wave tosses wild currents around the coral. A small damselfish swimming through the reef is tossed against the reef and nicks itself on the sharp coral. Three shiny scales scrape away and drift motionless, until the current starts to spin them about. A tiny drop of blood slowly seeps out into the ocean. Startled, the little damsel scurries away, out into the open ocean.

A mile away, a languishing bluetip reef shark senses an odor. The tiny droplet of blood, spread thin in the ocean, awakens the sharks hunger. He can smell the blood as he winds his way along the current, continually heading toward the source of the scent. The little damselfish, still barely bleeding, but leaving a trail to follow, is the end of the path for the shark. With his mouth wide open, sharp teeth gleaming, the little damselfish doesn't stand a chance.

The story of the shark in the damsel provides a perfect analogy for the way your body fights bacteria when you develop a diabetic foot infection. The bacteria is much like the little damselfish. As it moves through the tissue in your foot, it leaves chemical markers that signal its presence.

The sharks are much like the white blood cells (known as macrophages) that track down the bacteria through a process known as chemotaxis. Once the macrophages locate the bacteria, thee actually surround the bacteria with the cell wall, effectively eating them. The way that they eat the bacteria in this way is known as phagocytosis. Unfortunately diabetes and the high levels of blood sugar that are associated with diabetes, can have a profound effect on both chemotaxis and phagocytosis.

When the serum blood glucose is high, the macrophages are not able to follow the scent that leads to the bacteria. In a way, the white blood cells are then much like a hungry blind shark, who cannot see or smell, drifting through the vast open ocean just hoping to bump into a damselfish.

To complicate matters further, the process of phagocytosis is also disabled when the blood sugar is elevated. So even if the blind, senseless shark does bump into a damselfish, is almost as if his mouth is wired shut. Even when the shark can find a damselfish, it still cannot eat it.

This is the reason that a diabetic foot infection is an emergency that quickly becomes limb or life-threatening. In less than 24 hours, a minor infection can kill a diabetic. In almost every amputation that is performed on diabetics, it is likely that earlier intervention could have prevented the extent of limb loss.

For this reason it is critical for a diabetic to check the feet every day. Otherwise, a minor blister, open sore or ingrown toenail can start with a small infection and quickly get much worse. As the bacteria divide, the sharks can do nothing to stop them.

In a normal healthy adult, an ingrown toenail can remain infected for days before the infection worsens. In a diabetic, this is simply not true. A diabetic with elevated blood sugar has an impaired immune system. The disabled immune system is incapable of controlling the growth of the bacteria and serious complications develop.

Every 30 seconds a limb, somewhere is amputated because of diabetes. Diabetes also accounts for more than half of all of the amputations that are performed. This problem is actually getting worse and not better. The rate of diagnosis of diabetes is continuing to skyrocket. It is also predicted that the prevalence of diabetes will continue to climb as the baby boomers age.

Given the current circumstances of Medicare and other insurance carriers not providing insurance coverage for preventative care such as aggressive monitoring and education of diabetic foot problems, the number of amputations will also continue to rise. Unfortunately this is all preventable, but it is not being usually prevented.

It has been well documented that performing daily foot checks, seeking early treatment for a diabetic foot problem, and maintaing low blood sugar can all help to avert the problems in diabetes that culminate in amputation. However the current trend is that insurance companies will only pay for care associated with the complications such as the diabetic foot infections, hospitalizations and diabetic amputations.

Because of the way these episodes unfold, this leaves many patients with no leg to left to stand on.

You must have a diabetic foot check every year. If you also have neuropathy or diabetic nerve damage, it is important to be seen more often. You must check your feet every day. You should also wear white diabetic socks so that you can detect any drainage in the event that you do get a sore on your feet, you cannot see. All of these minor interventions have shown to significantly reduce the rates of complications to the feet from diabetes.

Frequently Asked Questions

  1. QUESTION:
    why chemotaxis is important in human development?
    generally for example why we study slime mold in development. how we can extrapolate the study of slime mold to human?

    • ANSWER:
      Chemotaxis is important in the migration, positioning, and adherence of cells all of which are critical processes in germ layer formation and morphogenesis:

      The process of chemokine signal transduction (e.g G-protein signalling) is similar across eukaryotes and therefore Dictyostelium (slime mold) can be used as a simplified model in which to dissect pathways.

  2. QUESTION:
    what is the difference between chemotaxis and other kinds of cell movement?
    list another kind of cell movement, describe it breifly.

    • ANSWER:
      Cell movement can be used to describe any kind of movement.
      Chemotaxis is also a movement but it's direction and nature of it depents on a chemical agent .
      positive chemotaxis is the movement towards that agent or substance ...like when the bacteria move towards the higher glucose concentration in the media.
      negative chemotaxis is quite the opposite : it's the movement away from the substance

  3. QUESTION:
    Why impaired chemotaxis reduces the number of Vibrio cholerae cells required for a successfull infection?
    There was an article about Vibrio cholerae, which cause cholerae, are unable to direct their swimming towards nutritional cues (chemotaxis). They linked this to reduced expression of cheW-1. It said it is remained unclear, however, why impaired chemotaxis reduces the number of V.cholerae cells required for a successful infection.
    What do you guys think?

    • ANSWER:
      I cannot find a reference as to the required load of any Vibrio to cause an infection. Also I understand chemotaxis as being the ability to direct movement in their environment either to nutrition or away from harm.

      Vibrio cholerae require sodium chloride for growth which is readily available in the body, so nutrition isn't a problem. So if there was impaired chemotaxis that could mean that a smaller number of organisms would survive entry into the body but the ones that do survive and reproduce would be pretty hardy and hard to kill.

      That is my best thoughts. Perhaps it is like natural selection, adaptation to their environment where it is survival of fittest which make them hardier.

  4. QUESTION:
    How do i make my Ecoli move faster by chemotaxis?

    • ANSWER:
      Expose them to something they like (or don't like) and make sure you give them something they can move through to get to it or away from it. Here is an example of an experiment that measured movement rates and the effect of capillary tube size on rate of movement:

      http://www.biophysj.org/cgi/content/abstract/58/4/919

  5. QUESTION:
    I am doing an experiment on chemotaxis of e.coli. ?
    I need some ideas of what would be good attractants or repellants.

    • ANSWER:
      Attractants:

      Glucose solution ( very low concentration say 10-5 M)

      Aminoacid solution (1mM concentration)

      eg: L- Aspartate solution,
      L- Serine solution

      Salt solutions:

      eg: Sodium chloride
      Potassium chloride
      Ammonium chloride
      Lithium chloride
      ( salt solution at 100mM concentration)

      Repellents:

      Phenol

      Antibiotic discs (Ciprofloxacin, Amoxycillin, Cephalosporin)

  6. QUESTION:
    How does chemotaxis function?

    • ANSWER:
      Bodily cells, bacteria, and other single-cell or multicellular organisms direct their movements according to certain chemicals in their environment. This is important for bacteria to find food (for example, glucose) by swimming towards the highest concentration of food molecules, or to flee from poisons (for example, phenol). In multicellular organisms, chemotaxis is critical to development as well as normal function. In addition, it has been recognized that mechanisms that allow chemotaxis in animals can be subverted during cancer metastasis.
      Chemotaxis is called positive if movement is in the direction of a higher concentration of the chemical in question, and negative if the direction is opposite.

  7. QUESTION:
    what is the difference between chemokines,chemotaxis,chemotactic???

    • ANSWER:
      chemokines: protein that activates white blood cells and causes them to move towards its origin and is involved in an inflammatory response

      chemotaxis: movement of cells or organisms in response to chemical stimulation

  8. QUESTION:
    true or false..the directional movement of cells in response to chemicals is called chemotaxis?

    • ANSWER:
      True.

  9. QUESTION:
    in chemotaxis, what's the difference between a nutrient and an attractant ?

    • ANSWER:
      A nutrient may be a chemoattractant, but not all chemoattractants are nutrients.

  10. QUESTION:
    why is chemotaxis seen only in motile bacteria?

    • ANSWER:
      Chemotaxis is directed motion along a concentration radiant. Non-motile bacteria simply can't move on their own.

  11. QUESTION:
    What is Chemotaxis? Help!
    I know it is involved with the immune reaction, but I'm not clear on it. If you also know about a.) a simple explanation of complement protein action, and b.) the difference between Phagocytosis and Antibody Mediated immunity (AMI), that would be fabulous.
    If not, I'd LOVE to hear about Chemotaxis. Thanks.

    • ANSWER:
      chemotaxis, in the context of immunology, is used to describe the movement of neutrophils (a type of white blood cell) toward inflammation (from tissue injury) as a direct result of chemicals released by the tissue to attract the neutrophils towards it (the chemicals would be called "chemoattractants" because they chemically attract the neutrophils toward them)

      Neutrophils have the ability to phagocytose any microorganism that may be hanging around the tissue injury. This means that it can "eat" up the microbe and basically get rid of it.

      Phagocytosis isn't specific to different microbes- for example, bacteria X and bacteria Y can both be eaten by the same neutrophil. there's no differentiation of "oh, this particular neutrophil can only eat X type bacteria and this can only eat Y". As opposed to this, antibody-mediated immunity involves having a specific antibody for a specific microbe. So an antibody for bacteria X is not the same as an antibody for bacteria Y. Also, an antibody does not phagocytose a microbe itself, rather it is involved in a complex process at the end of which a phagocyte is directed to eat up the microbe.

      Besides specificity, another difference between regular old phagocytosis and antibody-mediated immunity is that in the latter, the system has the ability to create memories. So for example, if you were infected with chickenpox in your childhood, your antibody mediated immunity created antibodies specifically tailored for chickenpox. In the future if you are exposed to chickenpox again, your immune system will be able to whip up the antibodies against it superfast because it has saved that memory.

      The complement system is another non-specific immune defense (which means that like the neutrophil, it will destroy a microbe regardless of what the microbe is) Basically, a complement protein recognizes an antigen-antibody complex (an antigen is basically a protein of the microbe) and goes through a cascade of events which ends with the phagocytosis of the antigen-antibody complex.

      I hope this makes sense. Immunology is a pretty complex subject and it certainly isn't easy to explain! I know that some of my explanations aren't exactly in scientific lingo but this is how it all makes sense to me!

  12. QUESTION:
    What enzymes are involved in flagellar rotation in pathogenic bacteria?
    What enzymes are involved? I am looking for enzymes so I can look up drugs that may inhibit these. Alternatively, an enzyme involved in chemotaxis.

    • ANSWER:
      ATPase

  13. QUESTION:
    what is Chemotaxis,what organisms have it?

    • ANSWER:
      Chemotaxis is the detection of a diffusing chemical gradient and then moving relative to the direction of the concentration gradient. Bacteria will detect a food source and move towards the greater concentration or they will move away from harmful concentrations of wastes.

      We retain this ability in our immune system's phagocytes that respond to chemical signals (chemotaxins) released from invaders. This is also the same method protozoa like cilliates or amoebas use hunting for their food sources, they move in response to detecting a chemical then travel relative to the concentration gradient. Moths use their sense of smell to direct their search to find mates or find fragrant night blooming flowers that offer nectar.

  14. QUESTION:
    Which of the following statements concerning neutrophils and macrophages is false?
    (a) they both exhibit chemotaxis
    (b) they both move by ameboid motion
    (c) both are capable of phagocytosis
    (d) both release histamine when activated
    (e) both can squeeze between cells????

    Help with this question please??

    • ANSWER:
      d) both release histamine when activated.

      Histamine released by mast cells and basophils.

  15. QUESTION:
    Would highly motile bacteria be able to outrun white blood cells better than nonmotil bacteria?
    Would this characteristic be a virulence factor? Explain. This is a question from my microbiology class that I'm having some trouble with. I was thinking yes because of chemotaxis? Not sure though. Any help would be greatly appreciated!!

    • ANSWER:
      In theory a motile cell might stand a better chance of "out-running" a phagocyte for a little longer in comparison to a non-motile cell, but in reality the rate of motility for most flagellated bacteria isn't that great when compared to phagocytic cell motility. Keep in mind that the typical phagocyte is much larger than the bacterial cell and can cover a greater distance even if it's moving slowely. Check out this very cool video of a neutrophil (phagocyte) chasing down bacteria: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MgVPLNu_S-w . What helps most pathogens to escape phagocytosis are a collection of virulence factors that work in concert. This could mean that your favorite pathogenic bacterium has flagella, but it also has exotoxins and other biochemical properties that decrease it's likelihood of being phagocytosed or digested even if it is engulfed. These combination of virulence factors usually are found in flagellated and non-flagellated bacterial pathogens.

      Good luck!

      Sherrie Bain
      www.webstarts.com/badabain

  16. QUESTION:
    When a person develops a sore throat, white blood cells are drawn to the area of infection by a process called?
    a.chemotaxis.
    b.diapedesis.
    c.margination.
    d.ameboid movement.
    e.attraction.

    please help, i cant seem to find this anywhere.
    thanks

    • ANSWER:
      I know. It's a closely held secret of the medical community. "chemotaxis" (OMG, now they'll hunt me down like a dog!)
      m

  17. QUESTION:
    does the varying levels of chemosensitvity mainly come from numbers of receptors? the nature of receptors? or?
    in chemotaxis bacteria can respond to very low levels of attractants but only they can sense repellents at high conc.? why are they more sensitive for attractants?

    • ANSWER:
      numbers of receptors. It's just common bio knowledge.

  18. QUESTION:
    which of the following is NOT used by phagocytes to adhere a microorganism?
    A. Trapping a bacterium against a rough surface.
    B. Opsonization
    C. chemotaxis
    D. lysozyme
    E. Complement

    • ANSWER:
      A,

  19. QUESTION:
    The effects of activating the complement system include all the following except?
    A. destruction of target cell membranes.
    B. stimulation of inflammation.
    C. deactivation of the immune response.
    D. opsonization..
    E. chemotaxis.

    • ANSWER:
      C.

  20. QUESTION:
    Which event does NOT occur in the inflammatory response?
    a. Tissue swells because of outflow from capillary beds.

    b. Blocking antibodies inactivate the resident mast cells.

    c. White blood cells are attracted to the area by chemotaxis.

    d. Complement proteins help identify invading material.

    e. The foreign invaders are engulfed and destroyed by phagocytosis.

    • ANSWER:
      The inflammatory response is the non-specific response to bacteria invading the skin.

      The answer is B. I would go into the answer if you cared to know, but I see your posts all the time.....

  21. QUESTION:
    Which of the following steps is the first step in an inflammatory response?
    A. release of leukocytosis inducing factor
    B. adhesion of the neutrophils cell adhesion molecules to antigen
    C. positive chemotaxis
    D. diapedesis

    • ANSWER:

  22. QUESTION:
    adherence of phagocytes may be accomplished by all of the following except?
    trapping , opsonization, chemotaxis, lysozyme, or complement

    • ANSWER:
      > chemotaxis

  23. QUESTION:
    Complement proteins and antibodies coat a microorganism and provide binding sites, enabling macrophages and ..?
    neutrophils to phagocytize the organism. This phenomenon is termed ________.

    A. diapedesis
    B. agglutination
    C. opsonization
    D. chemotaxis

    • ANSWER:
      C

  24. QUESTION:
    Major actions of the complement cascade include:?
    a) enhancing vascular permeability and vasodilation, as well as chemotaxis, opsonization and destruction of target cells
    b) mast cell degranulation, T cell activation, immunogloubin formation initiation, and enhancement of neovascularization
    c) phagocytosis, coagulation, vasodilation and activation of macrophages

    • ANSWER:
      I'd choose (a). The ref. below gives the actions and pathways.

  25. QUESTION:
    bacterium coneceptual questions need heed help? ASAP?
    Dear, Please help me answer and explain these questions. I really appreicate it and I will give good rating for answering. thank you
    What is a peptidoglycan?

    What is the primary advantage of forming endospores to a bacterium?

    What are the functions of the outer membrane in bacteria?

    How do flagella get energy for movement?

    Describe the mechanism(s) used by Prokaryotes during chemotaxis.

    What types of cytoplasmic inclusions are made by Prokaryotes? What are gas vesicles?

    • ANSWER:
      What is a peptidoglycan; it is part of the bacterial cell wall

      endospores to a bacterium: allows the bacteria to survive unfavorable conditions. incidentally is is the most enduring form of life

      flagella get energy for movement: the energy comes from ATP

      mechanism(s) used by Prokaryotes during chemotaxis: the organism moves along a chemical gradient moving toward the greatest concentration of the chemical. many of them have flagella to help them move

      types of cytoplasmic inclusions are made by Prokaryotes: food vacuoles, toxins to kill off their competitors, plasmids

      What are gas vesicles?contain gases especially in the Clostridium genus

  26. QUESTION:
    What is this process called?
    The following process involves chemotaxis and inflammation. Injured cells release chemoattractants that mediate adhesion molecules to allow the binding of neutrophils on the endothelial cells. What is this process called? All help is appreciated.

    • ANSWER:
      If i'm reading your description correctly the process you are referring to is called extravasation. It is the initial phase of the inflammatory response.

  27. QUESTION:
    Which of the following antibody actions does NOT require the activation of complement:?
    agglutination
    inflammation
    neutralization
    opsonization
    chemotaxis

    • ANSWER:
      neutralisation. the antibody binds to the active site of the pathogen/toxin and thus the pathogen cannot bind to cells/receptors. the molecule is inactivated. (although complement will then be needed to assist in removal of this ab-ag complex)

  28. QUESTION:
    Anatomy and Physiology Question 2?
    Milly has just received a kidney transplant and is taking cyclosporin A. What does this medication do?

    A. suppresses cytotoxic T cells, thus preventing rejection.
    B. depresses hematopoiesis
    C. decreases chemotaxis of macrophages to the transplanted kidney
    D. weakens antibodies in the blood
    E. prevents inflammation from destroying the transplanted kidney

    10 points to whoever gets this correct!

    • ANSWER:
      i'm going with A but you really do need to do your own homework. why don't you just
      google cyclosporin or go to www.rxlist.com

  29. QUESTION:
    BIOLOGY HELP a.s.a.p>>>10 point to first answer?
    1. Describe 2 symbiotic relationships between a protist and another organism.?

    Why do scientists study chemotaxis in cellular slime molds?

    • ANSWER:
      symbiotic relationship between the protist Plasmodium that causes malaria and humans is These are parasites that kill off people in countries that are not very rich.

      ANSWER FOR THE SECOND QUESTION
      Studies of slime molds intriguing organisms over the years focused at first on their development, that extraordinary production of fruiting bodies by starving cells. Some of the mechanisms required for that—chemotaxis, cell motility and the great complexity of the cytoskeleton—have made Dictyostelium a supreme contributor to our knowledge in those areas.

  30. QUESTION:
    Leukocytes and Hemoglobin?
    Are each of these true or false. If false, please explain why, thanks.

    1. Hemoglobin is made up of the protein heme and the red pigment globin.

    2. Myelocytic leukemia involves a cancerous condition of lymphocytes.

    3. Leukocytes move through the circulatory system by amoeboid motion.

    4. Positive chemotaxis is a feedback system that signals leukocyte migration into damaged areas.

    • ANSWER:
      1. False. Hemoglobin is an iron-based protein that consists of four hemes.
      2. False. Myeloticytic leukemia involves a cancerous condition in the pluripotent cells (stem cells) that compose bone marrow.
      3. False. They move via the pumping of the heart which induces the movement of plasma, which contains leukocytes, thrombocytes, erythrocytes, and other common cells found in blood.
      4. True.

  31. QUESTION:
    I have three biology questions? Please help. Best answer 10 pts.?
    Which phylum is NOT part of the kingdom Protista?
    -Zygomycota
    -Acrasionmycota
    -Myxomycota
    -Oomycota

    Which substance is responsible for the red color in red algae?
    -carotenoids
    -chlorophyll
    -fucoaxanthin
    -phycoerythin

    Q3
    Through the process of , an amoeba creates a food vacuole when digestion continues.
    -fermination
    -budding
    -phagocytes
    -chemotaxis

    • ANSWER:
      Acra, myxo, and oomy are slime molds.
      Zygomycota is fungi of the Kingdom Eumycota.

      --------------------------------
      Phycoerythin is the red protein in red algae

      ----------------------------------------------------------

      phagocytes
      http://www.copewithcytokines.org/cope.cgi?key=phagocytes

  32. QUESTION:
    Human Anatomy & Phisiology question?
    The process whereby neutrophils and other white blood cells are attracted to an inflammatory site is called ______.

    A) margination
    B) phagocytosis
    C) diapedesis
    D) chemotaxis

    • ANSWER:
      D) chemotaxis

  33. QUESTION:
    CD4 cells are______cells and Cd8 cells are____cells?
    6. cd4 cells are_______cells and CD8 cells are_____cells

    a. killer, suppressor
    b. helper, cytotoxic
    c. cytotoxic, helper
    d. B, T

    1. Which of these charactertistics is not a major factor in adaptive or acquired immunity?
    a. specificity
    b. chemotaxis
    c. recognition
    d. memory

    • ANSWER:
      cd4 is the helper and cd8 is the cytotoxic killer cell
      they stand for surface receptor proteins which react with cells presenting the MHC II complexs

      and memory

  34. QUESTION:
    Biology Question # 10?
    What is chemotaxis?

    1st to answer correctly gets 10 pts!

    • ANSWER:
      chemotaxis is where single single-cell or multicellular organisms direct their movements according to certain chemicals in their environment.

  35. QUESTION:
    MicroBiology Question?
    Runs and tumbles are associated with chemotaxis or protozoans?? Im kind of confused here...

    • ANSWER:
      Runs and tumbles are associated with Chemotaxis.
      Whenever bacteria recognize an attractant or repellant in the environment it reacts by tumbling or running closer/away.
      Flagella plays a role in these movements

      You also say that Protozoa exhibits tumbling swimming style done by its beating cilia

      Though it is applicable in both aspects, it is commonly used term in Chemotaxis

  36. QUESTION:
    wat is "FL4-H"?
    i need to do a review on this journal for my final year report. [Curcumin (1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,
    6-heptadiene-3,5-dione) Blocks the Chemotaxis of
    Neutrophils by Inhibiting Signal Transduction
    through IL-8 Receptors]
    but i donno wat's FL4-H that shown in the figure..
    n i unable to find any definition for FL4-H in the internet...
    so..pls help...

    • ANSWER:
      Like novangel said, FL4 is a channel on a flow cytometer. A flow cytometer sorts cells by hitting each cell with a laser and detecting the fluorescence of various markers that the operator has labeled onto the cell.

      The detectors that sense the fluorescence are named FL1, FL2, FL3...and so on, each detecting a particular color of the light spectrum. So an FL4-positive cell means that it carries the marker that gives off the color detected by FL4. What that signifies depends on what the operator has labeled...

  37. QUESTION:
    neonate meningitis, group B strep?
    A neonate develops meningitis. Streptococcus is isolated from the mother's vagina. Organism agglutinates with antiserum directed against type B surface carbohydrate. The virulence of this organism is related to a bacterial constituent that interferes with which of the following host phagocyte function?
    A. Aggregation
    B. Chemotaxis
    C. Ingestion
    D. intracellular killing
    E. Pseudopod formation.

    What do you think is the answer? I know they're talking about group B Strep (S. agalactiae) but what virulence are they talking about that disables host phagocyte function? I checked my micro book, they don't really say a lot about agalactiae virulence.
    Please don't just pick an answer, I need to know the virulence. Thanks for your help ahead of time.

    • ANSWER:
      Sia is the abbreviation for sialic acid and it's a trypsin-sensitive protein. The Sia-recognizing Ig superfamily lectins (Siglecs) are a type-I transmembrane protein family. GBS decorates its own surface with Sia, creating a nonactivating environment restricting alternative complement deposition. GBS uses Siglec-5, 6, 7, 9 and 11 on the surface of cells, including neutrophils which are phagocytic, in a Sia- and Siglec-specific manner to down-regulate their immune responsiveness. In other words, GBS is able to limit the activation of an effective innate immune response and suppresses phagocyte function by using a protein-mediated engagement of Siglecs. Sia is the bacterial constituent.

      The answer is C. Ingestion. This is what phagocytes do, ingest...eat. This is their function. The answer, C., should really read C. Phagocytosis. The question isn't stating that "virulence disables phagocyte function", as you wrote. It's states that the virulence is RELATED to the bacterial constituent. A constituent is a component, an essential part. Virulence means the ability to infect or produce disease. This line states: "The ability to infect & cause disease (virulence) of GBS (this organism) is related to it's ability to coat itself with sia (this ability is the bacterial constituent) and this interferes with phagocytosis (function)."

      This is a novel evasion mechanism. Actually quite elegant. Advice for the future, Noble -- check the definitions of key words. In this case, virulence and constituent. Then remind yourself what the function of a phagocyte is. Make sure you truly understand what a question is asking and you'll have no problem finding the answer.

  38. QUESTION:
    what is the advantage of this?
    New Theory Explains How Cellular Compasses Work

    Scientists from the Politecnico di Torino in Italy and the Landau Institute of Theoretical Physics in Russia have derived a theory to describe how eukaryotic cells (such as those found in all higher organisms) respond to chemical signals in their environments. Considering that coordinated sensing of and movement toward chemical signals is a vital processes in embryology (how cells know where to go in fashioning the organism), inflammation, and immune response, directional maneuvering at the cellular level is quite important. Here's what happens.

    First, receptors in the membranes of the cells become activated by the presence of trace amounts of chemicals---even down to the nano-molar level or about one molecule in a cubic micron---in the cells' vicinity. Not only do the receptors sense the presence of the attractants but, through the differential activation of 10,000 or more receptors distributed along the body of the cell, the direction of the source of the attractant can be located to within a few degrees. Ability to train upon a 5% chemical gradient allows the cell to know where it should be going, whether to find food, antigens, or to take up its place in a larger multi-cellular structure.

    Second, a cascade of polymerization steps now ensues within a few minutes. Consequently the cell develops head and tail structures, the better to make possible travel along the chemical gradient (chemotaxis). In nature, cells have also been known to plan their travel by exploiting thermal gradients (thermotaxis) and electrical gradients (galvanotaxis).

    According to Andrea Gamba (andrea.gamba@polito.it) and coauthors the new results consist of being able now to demonstrate in a mechanistic way how the cell's directional sensing and response comes about through a kind of self-organized phase transition; when the chemical gradient exceeds a certain threshold level the dynamic of growth of clusters of signaling molecules on the cell surface fine-tunes to sense the slight unbalance in activated receptors and provides a fast polarization in the direction of the gradient, thus providing a compass bearing which is able to initiate the modification in the cellular structure.

    The scientists argue that the physical amount of space along the body of large eukaryotic cells needed for making such an astute directional assessment might explain why bacteria (with much smaller bodies) do not have a spatial system of directional sensing. (Gamba et al., Physical Review Letters, 12 October 2007

    • ANSWER:
      Being able to tell what direction a chemical concentration is higher, then (and this is that polymer cascade bit) form a shape better suited to moving towards it (or away from it, for poisons) is an adaptive advantage. It means the critter doesn't just randomly move around and hope to find food and avoid danger, it can tell which side is closer to the source of something and move accordingly.

      It works kinda like our hearing. By comparing the loudness received by our two ears, we can get an idea whether a sound comes from the right or left. The little critters in question "hear" chemicals with their entire bodies, and can tell when there's more on one side of the body than the other.

  39. QUESTION:
    Multiple Choice Biology Questions?
    I don't care if you only answer one. Any answers are appreciated.

    1.) The reduction of a previously displayed response when NO reward or punishment follows is
    sensitization
    habituation
    imprinting
    training
    conditioned response

    2.) If when an animal eats its favorite food it always receives an electric shock it soon stops eating the food. This is an example of what kind of response?
    sensitization
    habituation
    imprinting
    training
    conditioned response

    3.) It is known that male mice become acquainted with the odor of littermates during the first 3 weeks of life. Due to this fact they avoid mating with close relatives at maturity. This is an example of what behavioral response?
    sensitization
    habituation
    imprinting
    training
    conditioned response

    4.) Which of the following is NOT true about animal behavior?
    Behavior can be the result of external stimulus.
    Behavior can result from an internal stimulus
    Innate behavior is determined by the experience of the organism.
    Sensitization is learned behavior
    Taxes are an example of innate behavior.

    5.) When animals are attracted to the light or move to the light this is called
    phototaxis
    habituation
    imprinting
    training
    a conditioned response

    6.) The migrating behavior of geese is the result of
    phototaxis
    habituation
    instinct
    training
    a conditioned response

    7.) The angler fish displays a lure resembling a small fish in order to invite prey for supper. This is an example of
    mimicry
    habituation
    sensitization
    training
    a conditioned response

    8.) The honey bee uses which of the following behaviors to communicate?
    touch each other proboscis
    flap the wings a given number of times
    stand on its hind legs
    move in and out of the honey comb
    dances

    9.) Which one of the following is used by migrating birds to navigate?
    solar positioning
    star patterns as a compass
    compass-and-timer strategy
    sense of direction
    all of the above

    10.) Salmon will return to the same stream in which they were hatched. It has been determined that they are able to follow a chemical scent peculiar to the stream of their birth. This behavior is an example of
    chemotaxis
    habituation
    imprinting
    training
    a conditioned response

    11.) Which of the following show the recommended process for writing a good essay?
    Write an outline starting with a thesis statement answering the question, followed by 3 examples, applications or properties and finally a clear summary supporting your thesis statement.
    Summarize the concept, followed by 3 examples and conclude with a thesis statement
    Start writing the essay by stating the thesis answering the question, give as many examples and applications as possible, follow up with a clear summary supporting the thesis statement.
    Identify the concept asked for and start writing. Restate the concept several times giving examples
    any of the above

    12.) Which statement is false regarding chemical elements?
    All matter is composed of a few basic elements which are listed on the Periodic Table.
    All elements are made up of particles called molecules.
    All matter is made up of various types of atoms and molecules.
    Only 92 different kinds of atoms occur in nature.
    There are 6 kinds of atoms that make up the macromolecules upon which life and living things depend.

    13.) According to the Laws of Thermodynamics which statement is NOT true?
    Our bodies are continually creating and destroying energy
    · Light energy captured by grass and then used by cows for production of milk is seldom much more than 50% efficient.
    Survival of any organism requires a continual input of energy from outside itself.
    The energy from breaking chemical bonds produces exergonic reactions.
    all of the above

    14.) If a sugar molecule donates or loses an OH- ion, it is acting as ….
    an acid
    a base
    a solvent
    an enzyme
    hormone

    15.) There are many ways in which the body maintains a consistent internal environment. Which one of the following is not a means of maintaining a consistent internal environment?
    buffers
    enzymes
    water
    pH scale
    catalysts
    Lol. That's why I need someone to answer them for me. These questions are on part 1 of my final review. Part 1 of my final review has like 50 questions and i've answered them all besides these 15. It's ok if you don't know them. I'll just wait for someone else to answer them.

    • ANSWER:
      Oi! Talk about tough questions!! But I'll do my best...

      1) habituation

      2) conditioned response

      3) sensitization

      4) Innate behavior is determined by the experience of the organism.

      5) phototaxis

      6) phototaxis

      7) mimicry

      8) dances

      9) solar positioning

      10) chemotaxis

      11) Write an outline starting with a thesis statement answering the question, followed by 3 examples, applications or properties and finally a clear summary supporting your thesis statement.

      12) All matter is composed of a few basic elements which are listed on the Periodic Table.

      13) Our bodies are continually creating and destroying energy

      14) a base

      15) water

      Let me know what I got right or wrong. :) Besides, many of these questions bring back a lot of memories of the kind of questions I had to answer in high school and the first two years of University.

  40. QUESTION:
     What is the basis of grouping species into a single clade?
    What is the basis of grouping species into a single clade?
    a. similar noticable characteristics

    b. similar names

    c. a logical common ancestry

    d. similar colors

    An organism that uses H2S to reduce CO2 to carbohydrate is a:
    a. chemoautotroph

    b. chemoheterotroph

    c. photoautotroph

    d. photoheterotroph

    The genetic material of prokaryotes:
    a. can be either DNA or RNA

    b. is circular and attached to the plasma membrane

    c. is found in a distinct nucleus

    d. a and b

    e. a and c

    Which of the following statements about Archaea is FALSE?:

    a. Archaea have a peptidoglycan cell wall and a plasma membrane containing branched lipids.
    b. Archaea resemble eukaryotes with respect to RNA polymerase and introns.
    c. Archaea resemble (eu)bacteria with respect to the absence of a nuclear envelope and the absence of membrane enclosed organelles.
    d. Archaea tend to be found in extreme habitats, including miles deep below the earth's surface.
    e. Archaea was first recognized as a distinct group of bacteria by Woese

    Which of the following is TRUE regarding prokaryotes?:
    a. Bacilli are spherical shaped bacteria.
    b. Plasmids may confer drug resistance to the host cell.
    c. Pili are surface structures responsible for chemotaxis.
    d. The flagellum spins and is composed of microtubules.
    e. They reproduce by mitosis
    The bacterial cell wall typically consists of:
    a. cellulose

    b. chitin

    c. peptidoglycan

    d. protein

    e. polysaccharide

    Which of the following distinguishes Archaea from Bacteria and Eukarya?
    a. Archaea use formyl methionine as the initiator amino acid whereas the other two do not.

    b. Archaea and Bacteria possess nuclear membrane whereas Eukarya does not.

    c. Bacteria and Eukarya have multiple RNA polymerases whereas Archaea have only one.

    d. Bacteria and Eukarya have unbranched membrane lipids whereas Archaea have branched
    membrane lipids.

    e. None of the above.

    Which of the following is TRUE regarding viruses?

    a. The capsid consists of host cell encoded protein and encloses either RNA or DNA as
    hereditary material.

    b. Viruses are living entities.

    c. Viruses only infect animal hosts.

    d. Viruses can transfer genes between organisms.

    Which of the following is NOT a viral disease of humans?
    a. anthrax

    b. smallpox

    c. Ebola

    d. measles

    e. rabies

    Which of the following is TRUE about the progression of HIV infection?
    a. T-cells are infected first through association between the particle and the CD4 receptor.

    b. T-cells are infected first through the association between the particle, the CD4 receptor and the CXCR4 receptor.

    c. T-cells are infected, after macrophages are infected, through the association between the particle and both the CD4 receptor and the CXCR4 receptor.

    d. T-cells are infected, after macrophages are infected, through the association between the particle and both the CD4 receptor and the CCR5 receptor.

    e. Only macrophages are infected, though the association of the particle with the CD4 receptor and the CCR5 receptor.

    Which of the following does not describe a prion?

    a. is capable of directing the refolding of other prion proteins that were previously doing their normal jobs

    b. is highly transmissable, even thorough the stomach

    c. contains nucleic acid surrounded by a protein coat

    d. cause spongiform encephalies in many different species of animal

    e. may be involved in long term memory storage

    Which of the following is NOT a way that a bacteria is likely to evade the immune system of its host? Note: a macrophage is a giant white blood cell that can "eat" bacteria
    a. preventing the macrophages from ingesting it

    b. preventing the macrophages from digesting it after ingesting it

    c. preventing the macrophages from noticing it by hiding in an intestinal cell

    d. inserting its genome into a host cell to await more appropriate conditions

    e. changing the proteins expressed on the outside of the cell, through subsequent generations, to avoid an immune response

    Which of the following is now known to be a large contributing factor in the development of ulcers (a breakdown in the mucus coating the human stomach, resulting in acid erosion of the stomach wall)?

    1. A fungus called S. pombe

    2. A bacteria called H. pylori

    3. Adenovirus

    4. An excess production of acid

    5. Stress

    Which of the following diseases would NOT logically be treated with an antibiotic?
    a. Cholera

    b. Influenza

    c. Syphillis

    d. Gonherrea

    e. Chlamydia

    Which of the following is not a known function of prokaryotes?

    a. Nitrogen fixation

    b. Decompositon of organic material

    c. Symbiosis with animal hosts

    d. Oxygen production

    e. all of these are known functions of prokaryotes

    Which of the following is a general rule applying to the protists?
    1. They are all unicellula

    • ANSWER:
      What is the basis of grouping species into a single clade?
      c. a logical common ancestry

       An organism that uses H2S to reduce CO2 to carbohydrate is a:
      a. chemoautotroph

       The genetic material of prokaryotes:
      d. a and b

       Which of the following statements about Archaea is FALSE?:
      a. Archaea have a peptidoglycan cell wall and a plasma membrane containing branched lipids.

       Which of the following is TRUE regarding prokaryotes?:

       The bacterial cell wall typically consists of:
      c. peptidoglycan

       Which of the following distinguishes Archaea from Bacteria and Eukarya?
      e. None of the above.

       Which of the following is TRUE regarding viruses?
      d. Viruses can transfer genes between organisms.

       Which of the following is NOT a viral disease of humans?
      a. anthrax

       Which of the following does not describe a prion?
      c. contains nucleic acid surrounded by a protein coat

       Which of the following is now known to be a large contributing factor in the development of ulcers (a breakdown in the mucus coating the human stomach, resulting in acid erosion of the stomach wall)?
      2. A bacteria called H. pylori

       Which of the following diseases would NOT logically be treated with an antibiotic?
      b. Influenza

       Which of the following is not a known function of prokaryotes?
      e. all of these are known functions of prokaryotes

  41. QUESTION:
    need help with anatomy please?
    1) which is not true of of vaccines
    A) they are made from dead or weakened pathogens
    B) they are derived from immune serum or gamma globulin
    C) they prevent most signs and symptoms of the disease that they are given for
    D) they promote immunological memory
    E) boosters are sometimes available to intensify a later immune response

    2) Which is not true of basic antibody structure
    A) they consist of four amino acid chains
    B) they are linked together by disulfide bonds
    C) the heavy chains are identical
    D) the heavy chains are about 400 amino acids long
    E) the light chains are often of differing lenghts

    3) the process by which antibodies bind to specific sites on bacterial exotoxins to block their harmful effects is called
    A) aggulutination
    B) chemotaxis
    C) complement fixation
    D) neutralization
    E) precipitation

    • ANSWER:
      1. B
      Vaccines are bits of foreign material given to stimulate the humoral (antibody-producing) or cell-mediated immune system. Immune serum is the end-result of vaccination.

      2. D
      Heavy chains are 450 or 550 amino acids in length.

      3. D

  42. QUESTION:
    human anat homework help. ,lymphatic system?
    Questions:

    1.accounts for redness and heat in an inflamed area
    2.promote relase of WBC from the bone marrow
    3.offspring of monocytes
    4.Leukocyes pass trhough the wall of a capillary
    5.first phagocytes to migrate into the injured area
    6.walls fo the area injury

    Word Bank
    A.chemotaxis
    Bdiapedesis
    C.Edema
    D.Fribrin Mesh
    EHistamine
    f.increased blood flow
    G. inflammatory chemcials(including E)
    H.macrophages
    I. neutrophils

    THANKKK YOU!

    • ANSWER:
      1. F with the help of E
      2. g
      3. h
      4. b
      5. I
      6. d

  43. QUESTION:
    The lymphatic system plays a role in maintaining fluid balance within the body by?
    (a) adding lymph to GI tract secretions
    (b) returning interstitial fluid to the plasma
    (c) transporting lymph from tissues to the liver
    (d) carrying excess fluid to the kidneys to be excreted
    (e) actively absorbing fluid from the blood????

    question #2 Which of the following statements concerning neutrophils
    and macrophages is false?
    (a) they both exhibit chemotaxis (b) they both move by ameboid motion (c) both are capable of phagocytosis (d) both release histamine when activated (e) both can squeeze between cells????

    Help with these questions please??! Thanx!!

    • ANSWER:
      1. (b) returning interstitial fluid to the plasma
      2. (d) both release histamine when activated. Histamine is released by basophils and mast cells.

  44. QUESTION:
    can you please help answer these questions?
    Blood cell formation in adults occurs in all of the following EXCEPT the:

    A) flat bones of the skull
    B) flat bones of the pelvis
    C) shaft of the femur
    D) sternum

    Which one of the following does NOT describe blood plasma:

    A) it contains metal ions (salts)
    B) it is the color of red wine
    C) its pH is 7.35 to 7.45
    D) it contains plasma proteins

    Which one of the following is NOT true of WBCs:

    A) they initiate the clotting process
    B) they locate areas of tissue damage through chemotaxis
    C) they account for less than 1 percent of total blood volume
    D) they use diapedesis to move in and out of blood vessels

    I will choose best answer
    you had the first one wrong but thanks anyway

    • ANSWER:
      1. A. Skull bones. The others have germinal centres in their bone marrow.
      2. B. Plasma is normally pale yellow/straw coloured. It canbe red, if haemolysis has occurred, such as in some diseases like Haemolytic Uraemic syndrome, incompatible blood transfusion and other conditions.
      3. A. They do not initiate blood clotting. Platelets are activated as a response to tissue damage and activate the clotting process.

  45. QUESTION:
    1. The inflammatory process begins with the release of chemicals, which do all of the following EXCEPT?
    a. attract phagocytes to the area
    b. dilate blood vessels
    c. cause capillaries to become leaky
    d. active pain receptors
    e. stimulate release of lysozyme

    2.The process by which antibodies bind to specific sites on bacterial exotoxins (toxic chemicals secreted by bacteria) to block their harmful effects is called:
    a.chemotaxis
    b.precipitation
    c. neutrilization
    d. compliment fixation
    e. agglutination

    3. Fever has the effect of doing all of the following EXCEPT:
    a. denaturing proteins
    b. stimulating the liver and spleen to gather up iron and zin
    c. increasing metabolic rate of tissue cells
    d. stimulating complement fixation
    e. speeding up repair processes

    4. Vaccines are NOT for:
    a. pneumonia
    b. polio
    c. snake bites
    d. measles
    e. tetanus

    5. Antigen presentation is essential for the activation and clonal selection of:
    a. B cells
    b. antigen- presenting cells
    c. plasma cell
    d. antibodies
    e. T cells

    • ANSWER:
      1. e.
      2. c.
      3. d.
      4. c.
      5. b.

  46. QUESTION:
    Immune Response Questions! Need help ASAP!!?
    options for all questions. A. anaphylatic shock B. Antibodies C. chemotaxis factors D. complement E. inflammation F.interferon G. lymphokine H. monokines

    1. A protein released by macrophages and activated T cells that help to protect other body cells from viral multiplication

    2. Any types of molecules that attract neutrophils and other protective cells into a region when an immune response is ongoing

    3. Proteins released by plasma cells that mark antigens for destruction by phagocytes or complement

    4. A consequence of the release of histamine and of complement activation

    5. C and F are examples of this class of molecules

    6. A group of plasma proteins that amplifies the immune response by causing lysis of cellular pathogens once it has been "fixed" to their surface

    7. Class of chemicals released by macrophages

    I hope you can help! I really need to figure this out soon! Very important!

    • ANSWER:
      I'm sure if you go back among the notes you've taken or the book you were studying out of these answers will be there. It's very obvious why you need the answers and also why you need to do this research for yourself too. During medical school the people that came out having the best knowledge overall was not only because of what they learned, but where the answers were if they didn't know first off. Please do this for yourself and the people you will be working for and with after school and rotation is over with. I, for one, had to do this for myself, and therefore can't r won't do it for anyone else. It does no good for me to do this work for you. Good luck and God Bless

  47. QUESTION:
    Receptor sensitivity?
    I have to explain a research paper to my teacher but I don't really understand the concept of what they are saying or maybe I just don't understand the idea of receptor sensitivity. Here's the passage I'm having trouble with:
    " The ligand concentration required for a half-maximal response to step changes in attractant concentrations, EC50, increases monotonically with receptor modification meaning that higher modified receptors are more active and less sensitive to ligands."
    Why does it mean that it is less sensitive to ligands? Does that just mean that the receptors have reached their saturation point?

    The paper is called "Thermal Robustness of Signaling in Bacterial Chemotaxis" by Oleksiuk...
    Oh, they are talking about the MCP receptor which is used in the Chemotaxis signaling cascade, don't know why I didn't mention that....

    • ANSWER:
      Think of a receptor as being like a door or a window to a cell. There a lot of different variations for different types of cells. But they are a protein molecule (window) that is embedded in the plasma membrane (wall). A molecule which binds (attaches) to a receptor is called a ligand, and may be a peptide (short protein) or other small molecule, such as a neurotransmitter, a hormone, a pharmaceutical drug, or a toxin.

      Foods are broken down to their molecular components by digestive enzymes before they even get into the bloodstream to be transported to the cells.

      Each kind of receptor can bind only certain ligand shapes. Each cell typically has many receptors, of many different kinds. Simply put, a receptor functions as a keyhole that opens a neural path when the proper ligand is inserted.

      i.e. although it was once believed that schizophrenia was caused by excesses of dopamine, it is now believed that receptors are over sensitive to dopamine

  48. QUESTION:
    Help with some anatomy questions?
    These are all true or false questions. If you aren't 100% sure please don't guess because its what I have to study off of for a final.

    Thanks!

    1. The hematocrit is the term used in stating the percentage of formed elements during clinical blood studies.
    2. The cardiac skeleton separates the atrium from the ventricles.
    3. During coronary circulation, the coronary sinus will transport oxygen rich blood into the right atrium.
    4. The auditory tube connects the tympanic cavity interiorly with the oropharynx.
    5. Chemotaxis is the term used when leukocytes are attracted to an infection site.

    • ANSWER:
      1 T
      2 T
      3 F oxygen DEPLETED
      4 T also called eustation tube
      5 T

  49. QUESTION:
    Explain to me #7 as it relates to homosexuality and heterosexuality?
    Explain to me how it coorelates to homosexuality and heterosexuality both being normal and natural?

    1. Homeostasis: Regulation of the internal environment to maintain a constant state; for example, electrolyte concentration or sweating to reduce temperature.
    2. Organization: Being structurally composed of one or more cells, which are the basic units of life.
    3. Metabolism: Transformation of energy by converting chemicals and energy into cellular components (anabolism) and decomposing organic matter (catabolism). Living things require energy to maintain internal organization (homeostasis) and to produce the other phenomena associated with life.
    4. Growth: Maintenance of a higher rate of anabolism than catabolism. A growing organism increases in size in all of its parts, rather than simply accumulating matter.
    5. Adaptation: The ability to change over a period of time in response to the environment. This ability is fundamental to the process of evolution and is determined by the organism's heredity as well as the composition of metabolized substances, and external factors present.
    6. Response to stimuli: A response can take many forms, from the contraction of a unicellular organism to external chemicals, to complex reactions involving all the senses of multicellular organisms. A response is often expressed by motion, for example, the leaves of a plant turning toward the sun (phototropism) and by chemotaxis.

    7. Reproduction: The ability to produce new individual organisms, either asexually from a single parent organism, or sexually from two parent organisms.
    _________
    Ryan:
    you know your answer is only supported if you believe homosexuality is a choice?

    • ANSWER:
      Ryan, sex with the opposite gender, no matter the intent, is still heterosexual sex. The alleged gay who chooses this route is just a closet heterosexual. The desire to procreate is purely a heterosexual characteristic. Even using labs is still an egg (female) and a sperm (male). Out of the mouth of confused gays, their mental illness is realized.

  50. QUESTION:
    why is chemotaxis seen only in motile bacteria?

    • ANSWER:
      The characteristic movement or orientation of an organism or cell along a chemical concentration gradient either toward or away from the chemical stimulus.

      So movement of the whole organism is needed - therefore the bacterium must be motile.


Chemosynthesis

The polar oceans are very different from other oceanic habitats in many ways, though existence of ice in these polar oceans imposes major habitat distinction. Sea ice affects the polar microorganisms by limiting on the penetration of light into the upper ocean and by providing inimitable ocean surface environment The sea ice provides a support medium for a variety and dynamic assemblage of microorganisms like prokaryotes and phytoplankton, which are frequently referred to as sea ice microorganism community (SIMCO).

The physical environment
The brine exclusion throughout the process of sea ice formation, together with melting in the summer season, contributes to persistent and major stratification of the water column (Hodges et al., 2005). This particularly the situation with Arctic Ocean where the undying sea ice cover confined wind mixing, while the geographical nature of the basins (land locked) constrains exchange with lower latitudes waters (Hodges et al., 1996) Other features of polar oceans, such as extreme seasonal variation in primary production and carbon fluctuation and low temperature, are frequently more intense compared to other oceanic environment. The unique and major differences between the existing polar oceans are due to the fact that, Arctic Ocean has a land locked geographical basin which receives approximately 10% of the total global run off of fresh water(Junge et al.,2002). While the other polar ocean called Southern Ocean surrounds a land mass enclosed by sea ice and alienated from lower latitudes waters by a definite circumpolar frontage. The rivers supplying water to the Arctic Ocean exhaust lower latitude terrestrial habitats, including boreal forests and tundra. These rivers are therefore extensive significant sources of the Arctic Ocean organic carbon. The southern Ocean gets no such terrestrial subsidy of carbon (Massana et al., 1998).
Limited areas of indefatigably open water offer environments that differ from those areas that are under sea ice cover throughout the major part of the year. These open water regions as referred to as polynyas, which occur as a result of a diversity of physical processes. A number of studies carried out have shown that microorganisms within the polynya are livelier, active, and vigorous compared to their counterparts underneath the adjacent ice cover habitat. However, there is no or little overlap existing between the phytoplankton species found in the polynyas and adjacent sea-ice and the distinct phytoplankton communities linked to different water masse(Lovejoy et al.,2002b). Other studies have shown that archaeal communities and microbes found in polynya are more alike to other polynya microorganisms than those in the specialized sea ice communities.

The producers and Consumers
In deep polar oceans, such as the Arctic's Basin of Canada, the frosty temperatures are multifaceted by high hydrostatic pressures, which sometimes reaching heights of 400 atmospheres or even higher, correlating to water depth. Microorganisms or organisms living under these extreme circumstances ought to adroit at getting food or undergoing long periods with no food, because below 10% of foods available in polar oceans are produced by the photosynthesis process at polynyas habitats, including phytoplankton a float in the water or algae occupying the ice cover (LApez-Garcia et al., 2001a). Some foods however, leak from the upper part of the ocean to fuel the microorganism at deepest part of the ocean, however the food are still inadequate to sustain the life in polar oceans. The food web of polar oceans begins with algae, as it is in the marine life, including proportional formed diatoms with rigid silicate shells. Algae are consumed by smaller invertebrate organism, together with shrimp, such as krill. In the ocean near Arctartic, krill are an imperative food source, consumed by a variety of marine organisms as well as, baleen, fish, adelie penguins, and whales (Kottmeier and Sullivan, 1987). The penguins are sequentially preyed on by leopard seals. The zenith consumer in the Antarctic is none other than the great whale, which preys on seals and penguins. Thus over fishing of krill in polar oceans may endanger not krill, but seals, penguins, and whales as well.
Kelp forests form yet another inimitable ecosystem. These are brown algae which can grow to height of sixty centimeters in a day, in due course reaching a height of about eighty meters (Grzymski et al., 2006). Tiny crustaceans of copepods type are among the animal planktons which prey on the floating algae and detritus in the bigger invertebrates, like abalone and sea urchins, forage on kelp and are sequentially preyed on by sea otters. The decreases in the quality water and over harvesting of kelp have damaged the efficiency, productivity, and output of polar ecosystems. A discharge resulting from nuclear power plants increases the water temperatures just sufficient for abalone and urchins' survival and growth, preying on kelp and thereby thinning the size of kelp beds.

Frequently Asked Questions

  1. QUESTION:
    chemosynthesis?
    what is the formula for chemosynthesis,
    what organelle does it occur in,
    what is the function,
    when or where would it occur

    • ANSWER:
      CO2+O2+4(H2S)→CH2O+4(S)+3(H2O)

      i feel like im doing your homework, so its best to explain. chemosynthesis is done by organisms that do not have access to sunlight. in this case it would be organisms like those that live in deep volcanic vents underwater. since they do not have sunlight, to undergo photosynthesis, they use the oxygen and the nearby H2S released as gases from volcanoes. these compounds will transfer electrons and hydrogen to CO2 to make simpler organic molecules. in this case they will make sugars (CH2O), which will then be used by the cell to drive synthetic processes as well as to produce energy.
      bacteria do not have organelles, therefore this process does not take place in an organelle, it most likely takes place in the plasma membrane (also note that photosynthesis in bacteria takes place by pigments such as chlorophyl that are lodged in the PM, since bacteria dont have chloroplasts). however, there is a symbiotic relationship between tubeworms living in hydrothermal vents and their interaction with specific bacteria.

  2. QUESTION:
    Chemosynthesis?
    I need to know the location, the producers of it, and the energy source. ^^" But right now, I'm just concerned about location...I need the answer by Saturday so I can type it up.

    • ANSWER:
      Chemosynthesis is usually performed by plants and algae at the bottom of the ocean that have no access to sunlight. Those in deep caves or lava tubes use it also.

  3. QUESTION:
    what is the energy source for chemosynthesis?
    I barely remember about talking about chemosynthesis during class, and I have a test about it coming up. and I have to know what the energy source for chemosynthesis is. so if you know what the energy source is, please tell me. also, if you can, please tell me about chemosynthesis. ty!

    • ANSWER:
      Chemically energetic molecules such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S), methane (CH4) or ammonia (NH3). When these molecules are oxidized, a chemical process that doesn't necessarily use oxygen, energy is released. There's also a reaction between CO2 and H2 to produce methane that some organisms use. In general, two molecules react in such a way that you get energy that the organism can harvest. All of these processes are very similar to animal metabolism, where an energetic sugar molecule is oxidized, with oxygen this time, to produce free energy.

  4. QUESTION:
    How are photosynthesis and chemosynthesis alike and different?
    Same as above... Stupid Biology!
    Please help me!

    • ANSWER:
      What is Photosynthesis?

      Photosynthesis is the process by which plants, some bacteria, and some protistans use the energy from sunlight to produce sugar, which cellular respiration converts into ATP, the "fuel" used by all living things. The conversion of unusable sunlight energy into usable chemical energy, is associated with the actions of the green pigment chlorophyll. Most of the time, the photosynthetic process uses water and releases the oxygen that we absolutely must have to stay alive. Oh yes, we need the food as well!

      We can write the overall reaction of this process as:
      6H2O + 6CO2 ----------> C6H12O6+ 6O2

      Most of us don't speak chemicalese, so the above chemical equation translates as:

      six molecules of water plus six molecules of carbon dioxide produce one molecule of sugar plus six molecules of oxygen.

      What is Chemosynthesis?

      Chemosynthesis is a process certain organisms use to produce energy, akin to photosynthesis, but without the utilization of sunlight. The energy comes from the oxidization (burning) of chemicals which seep up from the Earth's crust. The organisms that use chemosynthesis, all bacteria, manufacture carbohydrates and other organic molecules from the oxidization of sulfates or ammonia. The hydrogen they use comes from hydrogen sulfite, whereas the nitrogen comes from ammonia or nitrates. The organisms that use chemosynthesis are found around hydrothermal vents on the ocean floor. They are adapted to circumstances which would have been commonplace billion of years ago, leading some to call them descendants of the earliest life on Earth.

      Organisms that use chemosynthesis are extremophiles, living in harsh conditions such as the absence of sunlight and a wide range of water temperatures, some approaching the boiling point. These organisms are known for living inside one another, engaging in symbiotic and parasitic relationships to maximize their chances of survival. Chemosynthetic microbes provide the foundation for larger communities of organisms which consume the microbes to survive. One interesting example is the tubeworm, filled with billions of chemosynthetic bacteria. The tubeworm starts life with a mouth and gut, which it uses to intake many bacteria. Its mouth then closes and it continues to survive by consuming food produced by its internal bacteria.

      Chemosynthetic species are autotrophs, organisms capable of manufacturing organic matter directly from inorganic feedstock. Autotrophs of different types can produce energy either through photosynthesis or chemosynthesis. The gases that autotrophs use to create energy would be poisonous to most organisms. They use unusual enzymes capable of resisting high temperatures and pressures. Since these organisms live on the bottom of the ocean floor, they are subject to much pressure from the water above. Ecologies surrounding deep sea vents are extremely prosperous relative to those located further away from such chemical sources, which must survive solely on dead organic matter slowly descending from the waters above.

      Chemosynthetic organisms have been viewed by the biotech industry as a means of converting toxic chemicals into harmless organic variants. If life exists on other planets or moons such as Mars or Titan, it has been postulated that they may use chemosynthesis.

  5. QUESTION:
    Is chemosynthesis widely supported as a theory for the origin of life?
    What is the current evidence in favor of such a theory? What are the current holes in this theory?

    • ANSWER:
      It is accepted quite widely in certain circles yes, since life did appear to start at the bottom of the sea , where light wasn't so plentiful and thus photosynthesis was impossible.

  6. QUESTION:
    Can You Describe in Detail the Process of the Chemosynthesis of Nucleoside Deoxyribosyltransferase?
    I am interested in any thoughts you have on the Chemosynthetic Origins of Nucleoside Deoxyribosyltransferase (NDRT), you can take the usual copout and just say Allah, Jehovah, Zeus, or Zoroaster did it, but - Congress Shall Make No Law Respecting an Establishment of 1.Religion, or Prohibiting the Free Exercise thereof, or abridging the freedom of 2.Speech, or of the 3.Press, or the right of the people peaceably to 4.Assemble, and to 5.Petition the government for a redress of grievances.
    Not only am I protected under the very first amendment to the U.S. Constitution, but have a gander at the Illinois State Constitution, Article One, Section Three. Religious Freedom. I do not expect you to have all the answers, just point me in the right direction to locate the answers I seek. -beckerm3@yahoo.com

    • ANSWER:
      It's hardly arguable that there is a chemical origin and causation to the DNA transfer process. That's basic biology. Nor is there any argument regarding the fact that DNA can be altered over time. Centuries of breeding programs and racial integration have proven that. Nor is there any real doubt that the process continues absent external prompting, through natural breeding.

      The ultimate question of whether the chemosynthesis was an accidental by-product of environmental and electro-chemical conditions, or whether it was part of a divine science experiment, can only be resolved if there is objective measurement or observation of that original process instantiation. And absent sufficient witnesses, there is no way to accurately determine that. So, we're left with presumptions.

      Those presumptions vary by faith. And as you pointed out, both the US Constitution and the constitutions of many states forbid government mandates regarding faith.

      Which is why science usually teaches the how of the current process, and (ideally) doesn't make absolute assertions regarding how the process was originally started.

  7. QUESTION:
    How can the water cycle affect the rate of photosynthesis and chemosynthesis?

    • ANSWER:
      I don't know what you mean exactly, but regions not involved in the global water cycle (deserts) regularly have pretty low level of photosynthetic and chemosynthetic production.

  8. QUESTION:
    The main difference between chemosynthesis autotrophs and photosynthetic autotrophs is that only?
    A-photosynthetic autotrophs use Co2 as a carbon source.
    B-chemosynthetic autotrophs use Co2 as a carbon source.
    C-chemosynthetic autotrophs obtain energy from inorganic compounds.
    D-photosynthetic autotrophs synthesize organic compounds.

    • ANSWER:
      c. Energy from inorganics

  9. QUESTION:
    The tubeworms that live near oceanic vents use chemosynthesis. How does this work?

    • ANSWER:
      Deb is awesome!

  10. QUESTION:
    Organisms that derive their chemical energy either from the process of chemosynthesis or photosynthesis r cl?
    a. autotrophs.
    b. parasites.
    c. heterotrophs.
    d. saprophytes.
    e. mutualists.

    • ANSWER:
      autotrophs

  11. QUESTION:
    Explain the diference between photosynthesis and chemosynthesis based on the source of energy?

    • ANSWER:
      chemosynthetic organisms oxidises inorganic compounds for source of energy while photosynthesis photosynthetic organismsharvest sunlight as a source of energy.

  12. QUESTION:
    How does autotrophs organisms that chemosynthesis get traced back to the sun.?

    • ANSWER:
      Chemotrophs are organisms that obtain energy by the oxidation of electron donating molecules in their environments. These molecules can be organic (organotrophs) or inorganic (lithotrophs). The chemotroph designation is in contrast to phototrophs which utilize solar energy. Chemotrophs can be either autotrophic or heterotrophic.

      Chemoautotrophs (or chemotrophic autotroph), (Gk: Chemo = chemical, auto = self, troph = nourishment), in addition to deriving energy from chemical reactions, synthesize all necessary organic compounds from carbon dioxide. Chemoautotrophs generally only use inorganic energy sources. Most are bacteria or archaea that live in hostile environments such as deep sea vents and are the primary producers in such ecosystems. Evolutionary scientists believe that the first organisms to inhabit Earth were chemoautotrophs that produced oxygen as a by-product and later evolved into both aerobic, animal-like organisms and photosynthetic, plant-like organisms. Chemoautotrophs generally fall into several groups: methanogens, halophiles, sulfur reducers, nitrifiers, anammoxbacteria and thermoacidophiles.

      Almost all chemotrophs are dependent to some extent upon phototrophs, which rely upon the sun in producing carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide production from sunlight, primarily via photosynthesis, is important to almost all life, including chemotrophs, since carbon dioxide is the original building block for many organic chemicals, including carbohydrates, nucleic acids (DNA and RNA), lipids, and proteins.

  13. QUESTION:
    How are photosynthesis and chemosynthesis alike? How are they different?
    How are photosynthesis and chemosynthesis alike? How are they different?

    • ANSWER:
      Photosynthesis is when organisms convert light energy into food and chemosynthesis is when organisms use inorganic stuff to make food.

  14. QUESTION:
    What are some examples of chemosynthesis (I need pics)!?
    For science homework, please help! We're creating a collage and I need pics for chemosynthesis

    • ANSWER:
      I just Googled "image chemosynthesis", and got 64,000 results in .23 seconds. Good luck!

  15. QUESTION:
    What does chemosynthesis produce?
    I was taking notes during a science lecture but the teacher moved the slide too fast so I missed the rest of the part on chemosynthesis. This is what I have for the definition on chemosynthesis:
    When organisms use chemical energy to produce _______
    What is the blank?? What do they produce? Thanks in advanced.

    • ANSWER:
      chemosynthesis is the biological conversion of one or more carbon molecules (usually carbon dioxide or methane) and nutrients into organic matter using the oxidation of inorganic molecules (e.g. hydrogen gas, hydrogen sulfide) or methane as a source of energy, rather than sunlight, as in photosynthesis

  16. QUESTION:
    How does algae make it's food? Through photosynthesis or chemosynthesis?

    • ANSWER:
      algae photosynthesis

  17. QUESTION:
    how are photosynthesis and chemosynthesis alike and different?

    • ANSWER:
      alike: they grow sumthin
      different: how they grow sumthin

  18. QUESTION:
    What plants use chemosynthesis?
    I need to know!!!!!!!!!!

    • ANSWER:
      The bacteria that live at the bottom of the sea where thermo vents leak out "volcanic" gas. Thank you.

  19. QUESTION:
    what is the difference between photosynthesis and chemosynthesis?
    HELP PLEASE

    • ANSWER:
      Photosynthesis uses light (photo) energy to create organic molecules. Chemosynthesis uses the energy of inorganic chemical (chemo) reactions to create organic molecules.

  20. QUESTION:
    examples of Chemosynthesis bacteria that live in hydrothermal vents?

    • ANSWER:
      SULFUR BACTERIA
      Sulfur bacteria are found deep in the sea. The first colonies were discovered near the Galapagos Islands around deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Hydrogen sulfide pours from the volcanic vents, creating an environment that scientists thought was inhospitable to life. The sulfur bacteria that live there turn the hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur, while at the same time producing organic molecules that they use as nutrients. Sulfur bacteria are also found in cold seeps in the Gulf of Mexico, where hydrogen sulfide seeps out of the sediment into the sea with no accompanying heat. Around cold seeps, sulfur bacteria are found inside tubeworms. The worms absorb hydrogen sulfide and funnel it to the bacteria, which in turn produce organic molecules that the tubeworm shares.
      http://www.ehow.com/list_7347967_types-chemosynthetic-bacteria.html

  21. QUESTION:
    Which of the following is the source of energy used in chemosynthesis?
    A. Sunlight
    B. Heat from hydrothermal vents
    C. Chemical compounds
    D. Amino acids

    Thanks for help!!

    • ANSWER:
      i think its:
      C. Chemical compounds
      because chemo is chemical....

  22. QUESTION:
    In an ecosystem that thrives on chemosynthesis is oxygen still needed?

    • ANSWER:
      It seems that you have not understood the meaning of the word

      ECOSYSTEM.

      Kindly click on the following link and study the literature thoroughly

      You Will get the answer.

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ecosystem#Types_of_ecosystems

  23. QUESTION:
    chemosynthesis involves all of the following except?
    Oxygen, bacteria, sulfur compounds, or sunlight.

    • ANSWER:
      The exception is probably the last one because photosynthesis involves sunlight, but chemosynthesis can occur in the absence of sunlight.

      BACKGROUND: certain bacteria (hyperthermophiles) cannot rely on photosynthesis for energy production because they live near hydrothermal vents in deep ocean ridges where not even the violet portion of the sun's spectrum can reach. Hyperthermophiles reduce sulfur for energy.

  24. QUESTION:
    are there eubacteria with chemosynthesis?
    can bacteria with peptidoglycan perform chemosynthesis?
    If they can please give me an example of one.

    • ANSWER:
      Yes some of them do just that. E.g the nitrogen fixing bacteria of the rhizobium genus, e.g nitrosomonas and nitrobacter, the bacteria found in the hydrothermal vents, cold seeps and brine pools at the bottom of the oceans, and those found in rocks deep inside the earth.

  25. QUESTION:
    the and differences of the c4 pathway and the calvin cycle and chemosynthesis and photsynthesis?
    similarities and differences of c4 pathway ,calvin cycle and chemosynthesis and photosynthesis

    • ANSWER:
      chemosynthesis is takeing chemicals and makeing food photsynthisis is useing light to make food

  26. QUESTION:
    Do Methanogen bacteria use Chemosynthesis?
    Do Methanogen bacteria use Chemosynthesis?
    i need this for a project. If so, can you tell me more about its metabolism? Thanks

    • ANSWER:
      yes they do

  27. QUESTION:
    is there such thing as a plant that undergoes chemosynthesis?

    • ANSWER:
      No, chemosynthesis is the synthesis of glucose from chemical energy. I think only some bacteria are chemosynthetic organisms. Plants are photosynthetic organisms: they convert radiant energy, not chemical energy, into glucose.

  28. QUESTION:
    derive their chemical energy either from the process of chemosynthesis or photosynthesis are classified as?
    a. autotrophs
    b. parasites
    c. heterotrophs
    d. saprophytes
    e. mutualists

    • ANSWER:
      Autotophs.... this means they produce their own nutrients... so plants and some bacteria use these methods

  29. QUESTION:
    Do bacteria that use chemosynthesis produce oxygen as well as their food or do they make anything else at all?
    I have just recently learned about chemosynthesis where bacteria use it to make their food and i am wondering if there is anything else that they create in addition to food? I already know about photosynthesis and plants making oxygen as well as food and that has caused me to wonder about chemosynthesis. Please answer and thanks for looking!!

    • ANSWER:
      Bacteria also produce H2S and CH4.

  30. QUESTION:
    name two differences between chemosynthesis and photosynthesis?

    • ANSWER:
      Chemosynthesis get energy from oxidation of inorganic substance, photosynthesis get energy from light. Chemosynthesis could occur just about anywhere there are enough suitable chemicals to oxidize, photosynthesis could only occur when there is sufficient light.

  31. QUESTION:
    Chemosynthesis around deep ocean vents?
    Life around deep-ocean vents is often touted as being almost completely novel in its form. Its survival depends ultimately on chemosynthesis by bacteria, rather than photosynthesis by plants.

    Some have said that this is "alien" life -- unaffected by and independent of the life we're familiar with here on the surface.

    But, is it true that this deep life can survive without our surface ecosystem?

    The chemical reaction that the deep bacteria use to make their organic carbon compounds depends on molecular oxygen, O2. Isn't this oxygen a result of surface life?

    Please help me understand if the bacterial life around deep ocean vents could really arise independently, assuming surface life wasn't already in existence.

    • ANSWER:
      This is a really big topic and there have been debates over whether there would be creatures living by the heat vents and cold seeps without surface life. I do know however that they would be able to survive if surface life stopped existing today. Over half of the worlds O2 is actually stored at the bottom of the ocean. If you want more info on the other debates though you can ask me and I can find the articles for you. :)

  32. QUESTION:
    do mushrooms uses ingestion, absorption, photosynthesis or chemosynthesis?

    • ANSWER:
      Mushroom uses absorption. It produces its enzymes that will break down its food externally then absorb the degraded nutrients.

  33. QUESTION:
    What does the term 'chemosynthesis' mean?

    • ANSWER:
      making of organic compounds- the synthesis of organic molecules by an organism using energy derived from chemical reactions, for example, the synthesis of carbohydrates by bacteria

      -this help?

  34. QUESTION:
    what is the source of energy for chemosynthesis?

    • ANSWER:
      heres the definition:
      the formation by cells of carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water with energy obtained from some chemical reaction, rather than from light as in photosynthesis.

      inorganic nutrients produced at the bottom of marine habitats, oceans or seas,

      they usually come from hydro thermal vents at the ocean floor.

      Lava provides the rich nutritious soil for the succession of plants there.
      Primordial soup theory. too.
      Source(s):
      Living in the Environment by Tyller Miller 14th edition

  35. QUESTION:
    What do you mean by chemosynthesis?

    • ANSWER:
      Synthesizing compounds particularly naturally occuring ones through chemical reactions in the lab or industry.

  36. QUESTION:
    which of these communities relies least on chemosynthesis?
    a.thermal vent
    b.cold seep
    c.whale fall
    d.tropical reef

    • ANSWER:
      d.tropical reef

  37. QUESTION:
    bacteria that use chemosynthesis to produce get energy from ????????????????????

    • ANSWER:
      The Black Smoker Ecosystem

      Life is very sparse at this ecosystem's depth, averaging to about 2100
      meters (approximately 207.2532 bar); black smokers are the center of
      entire ecosystems. Because sunlight is virtual nonexistant, the only
      readily available source of energy is in the form of heat, methane and
      various sulfer compounds provided by the black smoke stacks (this form of
      energy synthesis is called chemosynthesis). These organisms, such as
      archaea and extremophiles ("an organism that thrives in and may even
      require physically or geochemically extreme conditions that are
      detrimental to the majority of life on Earth"
      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Extremophile ), are consumed by more
      complex life forms such as tubeworms or clams. The organisms at the base of
      the food chain also deposite minerals into the black smoker's base,
      which completes the life cycle.

      Some photosynthetic organisms can also live at this depth (eg some
      found off the cost of Mexico, which lived off of the faint glow produced
      by black smokers); this was the first organism found to live through
      photosynthesis without the use of sunlight (or artificially synthesized UV
      rays).

      Many organisms at this depth have multiple adaptions to keep them
      alive at the intense depth and pressure; a type of armor-plated gastropod
      discovered in 2001 was found to use iron sulfides for the structure of
      its dermal sclerites (armor) instead of the traditional calcium
      carbonate (found, for example, in human bones). This armor plating is actually
      benefited by the extreme pressure of nearly 250 atmospheres, which
      plays a role in the stabilizing of iron sulfide for such purposes. This
      plating is most likely an adaptation to protect the organism from the
      venomous predatory snails in the community; the snail is also unique, and
      possesses venomous radula (teeth) - it has not yet been named.

      Water at this depth is extremely acidic (PH level as low as 2.8,
      approximately that of vinegar), and can reach temperatures as high as 400
      degrees Celsius (boiling does not occur for the extreme pressure).

  38. QUESTION:
    Identify a similarity and difference between photosynthesis and chemosynthesis.?

    • ANSWER:
      Chemosynthesis and photosynthesis are two types od ways that oranisms can make their food.
      Plant use photosynthesis to make food- microorganisms use chemosynthesis to make their energy.
      The differnece is that photosynthesis needs sunlight to be carried out- whereas chemosynthesis converts certain types of carbon molecules (methane or Carbon dioxide) into organic matter. Chemosynthesis does not need sunlight.

      Hope this was helpful!

  39. QUESTION:
    Multi-choice Q: Photosynthesis, chemosynthesis, and cellular respiration are processes hich demonstrate the:?
    A. 1st Law of Thermodynamics
    B. 2nd Law of Thermodynamics
    C. Law of Conservation of Matter
    D. All three choices

    My guess is D, all three choices, however I'm not too confident about my answer. Please help and explain why, thank you!

    • ANSWER:
      1st Law of Thermodynamics means energy cannot be created or destroyed, only changed in form, ex: food gives us the energy to think and move.

      2nd Law of Thermodynamics means whenever energy is changed in form, some usable energy is turned into a less usable form which is given off to the environment as heat.

      Photosynthesis uses light to turn Carbon Dioxide and Water into Sugar and Oxygen.

      Chemosynthesis uses heat and turn it into Sugar, Oxygen, and SUlfate.

      Cellular Respiration uses energy and turn Sugar and Oxygen into Co2 and Water, it chemically stores energy which is used by organisms, and this should fall under Law of Conservation of Matter.

      So I think all of the above are correct, but I Suggest you do more research on this.

  40. QUESTION:
    What is chemosynthesis?
    What is chemosynthesis?

    • ANSWER:
      It's a process wherein carbon molecules are converted into organic matter. The source of energy is usually methane. It's similar to photosynthesis, but photosynthesis uses sunlight as its source of energy.

  41. QUESTION:
    The Chemosynthetic Formation of Nucleoside Deoxyribosyltransferase via Hydrothermal Chemosynthesis.?
    Hydrothermal chemosynthesis in this case is referring to Charles Robert Darwin's warm pond, or a concentration of the elementary particles, atoms, then into subsequent molecular cells.

    • ANSWER:
      The Miller-Urey experiment, according to "Madman Matthews" (U Chicago), works better at producing amino acids WITHOUT water, and in the primordial atmosphere, water was probably scarce. The amino acids probably formed in the atmosphere, and then fell into the water. The chemosynthesis could have formed in the water, or it could have occurred in the atmosphere, or on a boundary surface. Regardless, the life forms at the hydrothermal vents prove that their is more than one pathway to life, which I find absolutely amazing.

  42. QUESTION:
    What is Chemosynthesis?
    how does chemosynthesis work?

    • ANSWER:
      It's like photosynthesis, in that it's used to provide nutrients to keep a cellular organism alive without using oxygen as an input... except it relies on chemical reactions only, and not sunlight. It works by creating biomolecules through oxidation reactions, using methane, hydrogen sulfate, etc as inputs. Here's an example of a chemosynthesis reaction, using hydrogen sulfide and CO2 as the input.

      CO2 + O2 + 4{H2S} → CH2O + 4{S} + 3{H2O}

      It's most common in unicellular organisms that live underwater in dark areas where sunlight is not available. In other environments, these organisms are outcompeted by phototrophs and eutropic organisms.

  43. QUESTION:
    how do respiration, photosynthesis, chemosynthesis, transcription, translation, & replication interact?

    • ANSWER:
      Well chemosynthesis is kind of the outlier there. All of these other things are either applicable plant cells. However, I suppose you could have some chemosynthesis in plants but it wouldn't be very efficent for them to do this unless specially designed to do so (theres a few plants that dont really get a lot of sunlight or are just really good at extracting carbon from the soil), since photosynthesis is very effective at creating energy for the plant.

      Basically photosynthesis is going to create organic compounds, usually glucose, through sun intake and carbon dioxide intake (respiration) that will be used as chemical energy for protein synthesis.

      Transcription is going to provide the information for coding specific amino acids (by making a copy of DNA in the form of RNA, more specifically Ribosomal RNA)

      Translation is going to decode this message brought in by the RNA in the ribosomes (if your picky sometimes it can happen in the cytoplasm but for your purposes you should probably ignore this) and pumps out a protein, which takes energy (photosynthesis) and is used in most of the cell parts except for membranes, unless they are intermembrane proteins, which will stick through the membrane.

      On occasion the cell will enter a reproduction cycle where it replicates DNA and and splits the cell into two pieces, each genetically identical to each other with the same number of chromosomes. This takes a huge amount of proteins (synthesized above) to do. So its basically a big circle.

  44. QUESTION:
    what would be the chemosynthesis of the Tundra biome?

    • ANSWER:
      chemosynthesis is the biological conversion of one or more carbon molecules (usually carbon dioxide or methane) and nutrients into organic matter using the oxidation of inorganic molecules (e.g. hydrogen gas, hydrogen sulfide) or methane as a source of energy, rather than sunlight, as in photosynthesis.

      I dont know about Chemosynthesis in Tundra biome.

  45. QUESTION:
    Chemosynthesis and photosynthesis?
    what are the differences and similarities between these two ?

    • ANSWER:
      Chemosynthesis is the biological conversion of 1-carbon molecules (usually carbon dioxide or methane) and nutrients into organic matter using the oxidation of inorganic molecules (e.g. hydrogen gas, hydrogen sulfide) or methane as a source of energy, rather than sunlight, as in photosynthesis. Large populations of animals can be supported by chemosynthetic primary production at hydrothermal vents, methane clathrate cold seeps, and whale falls. Chemoautotrophs, which are responsible for the primary production in oxygen-deficient environments, generally fall into four groups: methanogens, halophiles, sulfur reducers, and thermoacidophiles.

      Photosynthesis (photo=light, synthesis=putting together), generally, is the synthesis of sugar from light, carbon dioxide and water, with oxygen as a waste product. It is arguably the most important biochemical pathway known; nearly all life depends on it. It is an extremely complex process, comprised of many coordinated biochemical reactions. It occurs in higher plants, algae, some bacteria, and some protists, organisms collectively referred to as photoautotrophs. This article summarizes some of the major aspects of the process and provides links to more detailed articles explaining the numerous technical details, and implications, involved.

  46. QUESTION:
    difference between photosynthesis and chemosynthesis and what symbiosis is.?

    • ANSWER:

  47. QUESTION:
    "Where Do Bacteria That Carry Out Chemosynthesis Live?"?
    anyone....?

    • ANSWER:
      Often at the bottom of the sea, and usually in regions with no or low oxygen.
      Hydrothermal vents, and cold vents are common locations.

  48. QUESTION:
    WHAT IS CHEMOSYNTHESIS?
    can someone define chemosynthesis really simply to me please?

    • ANSWER:
      Chemosynthesis is just a process that certain microorganisms use to get energy. They synthesize organic compounds as food for themselves, from chemical reactions.

  49. QUESTION:
    What is chemosynthesis?-Biology?
    I need the definition by today if possible it is for 9 grade biology.
    Please give a answer that explains it in detail but just enough for 9th grade biology.

    Also if possible name the colors that plants reflect and what they absorbs during photosynthesis?
    By the way this is for a test tomorrow please help

    • ANSWER:
      Chemosynthesis is an alternate way to generate energy and make sugars to photosynthesis. Instead of using light as the energy source, chemosynthetic organisms use some chemical as the energy source. Typical chemicals for this are hydrogen sulfide, hydrogen or ammonia. You can read more about it here http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chemosynthesis

      As for the color question, plants like almost all objects absorb some wavelengths of light and reflect other wavelengths. The color we see is the light that is reflected. So green plants reflect green and absorb other colors.

  50. QUESTION:
    How does biomass of an organism change as the depth of ocean increases?
    Advanced Higher Biology.

    How does the biomass of an organism change as the depth of the ocean changes? And what are the factors that affect the rate of photosynthesis and chemosynthesis for the increase in biomass?

    Thanks so much in advance!

    • ANSWER:
      If you mean any organsim, then its biomass should not change with increasing depth. e.g. if we plunge you into the deepest ocean trench, assuming you live, the increased pressure will squish you but will not affect your fundamental composition.

      If you mean the biomass in the ecosystem, seafloor, chemoautotroph-based ecosystems will start with a bit less biomass overall as they aren't tragically efficient and there's not a great deal of diversity in those food webs.

      Factors that affect the rate of photosynthesis and chemosynthesis are the same as those that affect all enzyme-mediated reactions; heat, temperature, substrate Kc and enzyme Kc. Photosynthesis also depends on light intensity (which is kind of like a substrate to the light-dependent reactions if you think about it). Chemosynthesis has unique limits of the limiting factors; not being nearly as sensitive to "reasonable" temperatures.

      Hope that helps!


Chemosis

Simply, it is the loss of epithelium and superficial stroma of the cornea and it is usually infective (caused by a microorganism) and for diagnosis it is considered infective until proven otherwise. If you are still not familiar with these structures check the link to corneal micro anatomy.

So how are these layers lost? Let's see the stages of ulceration....

  • Progressive stage: The organism adheres to the corneal epithelium and enters. This process is helped by the enzymes and toxins secreted by the organism. These enzymes and toxins cause tissue destruction. This tissue destruction leads to infiltrstion by acute inflammatory cells as a normal protective immune response. The sloughing of the destructed necrotic tissue leads to ulceration which increases in size and depth at this stage.
  • Regressive stage: where the inflammatory cells infiltration decreases or regresses due to treatment or tissue resistance. This is the stage where invasion by blood vessels occurs which later on may form the vascularized opacities (Vascularised Leucomas).
  • Healing stage: Here the surrounding epithelium multiplies to cover the ulcer superficially, while the stromal keratocytes change into fibroblasts which produce irregular fibrous tissue (due to damage of the basement membrane) causing a permanent opacity and the blood vessels become very thin or empty (ghost blood vessels).

What's the patient's complaint? Tell me about the symptoms.......

  • The cornea is very rich in sensory nerve supply, and the ulceration causes irritation of such nerves causing severe pain, photophobia, blepharospasm and lacrimation.
  • If the central cornea is involved the patient will note a diminution of vision.
  • The patient may also complain of red swollen lids, conjunctiva or both.
  • In cases of Herpes Zoster the patient will mention that he/she had severe neuralgic pain before any symptoms appear.

But how to make my diagnosis? Let's talk about the signs.......

  • Corneal signs: Decrease in the luster and clarity of the cornea and infiltration in the edges and bed of the ulcer. We can use the Fluorescein 1% stain which stains areas devoid of epithelium with green colour in presence of blue light. We can also use Rose Bengal stain 1% but this time to stain the diseased or damaged epithelium.
  • Lids may be edematous.
  • Conjuntival edema (chemosis) and ciliary injection.
  • The anterior chamber may show flare, cells (due to inflammation and tissue destruction) and may even form pus leaing to what we call hypopyon.

Tell me more about the hypopyon ulcer!!

Frequently Asked Questions

  1. QUESTION:
    Why do I always get chemosis on one eye?
    I have been diagnosed with chemosis and angioedema but I'm curious as to why it only happens on one eye. I have considered the contact lenses that I wear but it has happened without them in as well. If it were just usual allergies, why does it ONLY happen in my right eye?

    • ANSWER:
      Its because you havea bad case of yeast infection andyour rubbing your eyes .

  2. QUESTION:
    Does chemosis go away on its own?
    My eye was itching yesterday in the middle of the night and I woke up with the clear gel (which is the swelling of the conjunctiva, so I have chemosis). I'm wondering if this is going to go away on its own if I leave it alone? My eye isn't red, but it's itchy and I'm trying so hard not to scratch it. Do I need eye drops of some sort to make it completely go away?

    • ANSWER:
      yes, true rubbing-induced chemosis should self-resolve.

      where did someone get "insect bite" from???

  3. QUESTION:
    How to cure my chemosis?
    I rubbed my eye too hard earlier on and now it's swollen, red and has this jelly-like substance on the white part of my eye. I put a cold compress on it and the jelly lessened but the inside of my lower eyelid is still swollen. Can I get this to go away with just cold compressing it for a few days? All I have is Terramycin, can I use that for my eye? Please help, I really don't wanna see a doctor. :

    • ANSWER:
      try alternate hot and cold compresses
      hot in morning
      cold in evening

  4. QUESTION:
    Anyone had bad chemosis of the eye(s)?
    REPEAT QUESTION AS THE FIRST WAS NOT ANSWERED. THE HOSPITAL NURSE SAID IT WAS QUITE COMMON.

    Eye swelling up and runny like a nose, virus infection probably like a common cold, possibly bacterial secondary?

    What is the prognosis?

    What antibiotics?

    Mainly left (good) eye?

    Is a swab taken for the lab?

    No funny answers, not in the mood.

    • ANSWER:
      Chemosis is basically swelling of the conjunctiva, causing a water-logged appearance. The most common cause is irritation from an allergen, though it can be caused by other factors. If a hospital nurse has already seen you, I'm assuming you're already being treated for it..? Did a doctor not tell you what it was??

      The main signs of a viral infection are red eye, no pain, watery discharge. The main signs of bacterial infection are red eye, no pain, sticky discharge. Chemosis is not a major sign of conjunctivitis. Is it itchy? If so its probably an allergic reaction. A swab wont be taken unless its really serious.

      Go back and ask the hospital nurse more questions.

  5. QUESTION:
    The white of my eye is swollen. What to do?
    I went to the ER last night becuase my eye was swollen and I have really bad allergies. The doctor looked and said that the white of the eye was swollen. She gave me an eye patch and told me to take some allergy medication. In the morning it is slightly better but still swollen. And the white part is still swollen. No pain just a little itchy.

    It looks very similar to this:http://www.google.ca/imgres?imgurl=http://www.rootatlas.com/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2007/08/chemoticeye.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.rootatlas.com/wordpress/video/221/chemosis-photo/&usg=__RIuBKKdM73RPzWHvGyIChnu-IXk=&h=480&w=640&sz=105&hl=en&start=0&zoom=1&tbnid=_Q3t3PvebImGhM:&tbnh=125&tbnw=167&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dchemosis%2Beye%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN%26biw%3D1575%26bih%3D674%26tbs%3Disch:1&um=1&itbs=1&iact=rc&dur=141&ei=K1MbTYzSNoWgnweY8c3NDQ&oei=K1MbTYzSNoWgnweY8c3NDQ&esq=1&page=1&ndsp=33&ved=1t:429,r:1,s:0&tx=129&ty=69 :…
    How long will it take to recover?

    • ANSWER:
      Ask the doctor.

  6. QUESTION:
    Anyone had bad chemosis of the eye(s)?
    Eye swelling up and runny like a nose, virus infection probably like a common cold, possibly bacterial seocndary?

    What is the prognosis?

    What antibiotics?

    Mainly left (good) eye?

    Is a swab taken for the lab?

    No funny answers, not in the mood.

    • ANSWER:
      It certainly sounds like you might have Pink Eye - which is very contagious and is easily treatable by a generic antibiotic. This does not strike me as a viral infection unless you already know that you have herpes of the eye.

      Be very careful with the good eye because if it is pink eye you can easily put it in the uninfected eye. Drs can use a couple of different antibiotics for pink eye.


Chemoreceptors

Respiratory alkalosis treatment is done at affordable cost in India

Introduction

Background

Respiratory alkalosis is a clinical disturbance due to alveolar hyperventilation. Alveolar hyperventilation leads to a decreased partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2), or partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2). In turn, the decrease in PCO2 increases the ratio of bicarbonate concentration to PCO2 and increases the pH level. The decrease in PCO2 (hypocapnia) develops when a strong respiratory stimulus causes the lungs to remove more carbon dioxide than is produced metabolically in the tissues. Respiratory alkalosis can be acute or chronic. In acute respiratory alkalosis, the PCO2 level is below the lower limit of normal and the serum pH is alkalemic. In chronic respiratory alkalosis, the PCO2 level is below the lower limit of normal, but the pH level is normal or near normal.

Respiratory alkalosis is the most common acid-base abnormality observed in patients who are critically ill. It is associated with numerous illnesses and is a common finding in patients on mechanical ventilation. Many cardiac and pulmonary disorders can manifest respiratory alkalosis as an early or intermediate finding. When respiratory alkalosis is present, the cause may be minor; however, more serious disease processes should also be considered in the differential diagnosis.

Pathophysiology

Breathing is the body's way of providing adequate amounts of oxygen for metabolism and for removing carbon dioxide produced by the tissues. By sensing the body's partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) and PCO2, the respiratory system adjusts pulmonary ventilation so that oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide elimination at the lungs is equal to that used and produced by the tissues. PO2 is not as closely regulated because adequate hemoglobin saturation can be achieved over a wide range of PO2 levels. Oxygen is dependent on pressure gradients whereas, carbon dioxide diffuses much easier through an aqueous environment, making carbon dioxide regulation more complex. The PCO2 must be maintained at a level that ensures hydrogen ion concentrations remain in the narrow limits required for optimal protein function.

Metabolism generates a large quantity of volatile acid (carbon dioxide) and nonvolatile acid. The metabolism of fats and carbohydrates leads to the formation of a large amount of carbon dioxide.1 The carbon dioxide combines with water to form carbonic acid. The lungs excrete the volatile fraction through ventilation, and acid accumulation does not occur.Significant alterations inventilationcan affect the elimination of carbon dioxide andleadto a respiratory acid-base disorder.

PCO2 is normally maintained in the range of 37-43 mm Hg. Chemoreceptors in the brain (central chemoreceptors) and in the carotid bodies (peripheral chemoreceptors) sense hydrogen concentrations and influence ventilation to adjust the PCO2, PO2, and pH. Under this feedback regulator is how the PCO2 is maintained within its narrow normal range. When these receptors sense an increase in hydrogen ions, breathing is increased to ablow offa carbon dioxide and subsequently reduce the amount of hydrogen ions. Various disease processes may cause stimulation of ventilation with subsequent hyperventilation. If hyperventilation is persistent, it leads to hypocapnia.

Hyperventilation refers to an increase in the rate of alveolar ventilation that is disproportionate to the rate of metabolic carbon dioxide production, leading to an arterial PCO2 below the normal range. Two words often used synonymously with hyperventilation are tachypnea, an increase in respiratory frequency, and hyperpnea, an increase in the minute volume of ventilation. These should not be used to describe hyperventilation because they are distinct entities and neither results from nor means a change in PaCO2. Hyperventilation is often associated with dyspnea, but not all patients who are hyperventilating complain of shortness of breath. Conversely, patients with dyspnea need not be hyperventilating.

Acute hypocapnia causes a reduction of serum levels of potassium and phosphate secondary to increased intracellular shifts of these ions. A reduction in free serum calcium also occurs. Calcium reduction is secondary to increased binding of calcium to serum albumin. Many of the symptoms present in persons with respiratory alkalosis are related to the hypocalcemia. Hyponatremia and hypochloremia may also be present.

Acute hyperventilation with hypocapnia causes a small, early reduction in serum bicarbonate levels resulting from cellular uptake of bicarbonate. Acutely, plasma pH and bicarbonate concentration vary proportionately with the PCO2 along a range of 15-40 mm Hg. The relationship of PCO2 to arterial hydrogen and bicarbonate is 0.7 mmol/L per mm Hg and 0.2 mmol/L per mm Hg, respectively. After 2-6 hours, respiratory alkalosis is renally compensated by a decrease in bicarbonate reabsorption. The kidneys respond more to the decreased PCO2 rather than the increased pH. Kidney compensation may take several days and requires normal kidney function and intravascular volume status. The expected change in serum bicarbonate concentration can be estimated as follows:

  • Acute
    • Bicarbonate (HCO3 -) falls 2 mEq/L for each decrease of 10 mm Hg in the PCO2
      • That is,?HCO3 = 0.2(?PCO2)
      • Maximum compensation:HCO3 - = 12-20 mEq/L
  • Chronic
    • Bicarbonate (HCO3 -) falls 5 mEq/L for each decrease of 10 mm Hg in the PCO2
      • That is,?HCO3 = 0.5(?PCO2)
      • Maximum compensation:HCO3 - = 12-20 mEq/L

Note that aplasma bicarbonate concentration of less than12 mmol/L is unusual in pure respiratory alkalosis alone.

The expected change in pH with respiratory alkalosis can be estimated with the following equations:

  • Acute respiratory alkalosis:Change in pH = 0.008 X (40 - PCO2)
  • Chronic respiratory alkalosis:Change in pH = 0.017 X (40 - PCO2)

Frequency

United States

The frequency of respiratory alkalosis varies depending on the etiology. It is the most common acid-base abnormality observed in critically ill patients.

Mortality/Morbidity

Morbidity and mortality of patients with respiratory alkalosis depend on the nature of the underlying cause of the respiratory alkalosis and associated conditions.

Clinical

History

Clinical manifestations of respiratory alkalosis depend on its duration, its severity, and the underlying disease process.

  • The hyperventilation syndrome can mimic many conditions that are more serious. Symptoms may include paresthesias, circumoral numbness, chest pain or tightness, dyspnea, and tetany.
  • Acute onset of hypocapnia can cause cerebral vasoconstriction. Therefore, an acute decrease in PCO2 reduces cerebral blood flow and can cause neurologic symptoms, including dizziness, mental confusion, syncope, and seizures.
  • The first cases of spontaneous hyperventilation with dizziness and tingling leading to tetany were described in 1922 by Goldman in patients with cholecystitis, abdominal distention, and hysteria.2
  • Haldane and Poulton described painful tingling in the hands and feet, numbness and sweating of the hands, and cerebral symptoms following voluntary hyperventilation.3

Frequently Asked Questions

  1. QUESTION:
    chemoreceptors ??
    my quiestion about the chemoreceptors ,, where they are located ?? in the carotid body of carotid sinuses ?? and the chemoreceptors that affect the cardiovasculer system there are the same that affect the respiratory system ??
    im alitille bit confused ,,,
    carotid body or carotid sinuses *

    • ANSWER:
      Central chemoreceptors are located near the DRG (dorsal respiratory group) in the medulla (Brainstem, CNS). They are sensitive to changes in CO2, but not O2. Their info is used by the DRG to control minute changes in ventilation, and respond to changes in the partial pressure of CO2 in the blood (pCO2).

      Peripheral chemoreceptors (glomus cells) are located in the aortic and caritid bodies, and respond to pO2, pCO2 and pH changes and send their info back to the CNS to control respiration. The carotid bodies are located INSIDE the carotid sinuses.

      The chemoreceptors detect information about the gas content of blood, and their information is monitored by the CNS to determine the optimum pumping rate by the heart, and the optimum level of opening of the capillaries in the loungs to provide the right ventilation/perfusion ratio for optimum gas exchange in the lungs.

      Think about it - if the heart is pumping too fast, there will not be enough time for gas exchange, and if the heart is pumping too slow, or there aren't enough capillaries available for gas exchange (recruitment) then you won't have the ideal p02 of 90 mmHg, and you might have too high (>40 mmHg) of a pCO2.

      So both of these receptors are used to monitor the blood content to the brain (central) and tissues (peripheral) so that the medullary repiratory control centers (DRG) can provide the right signals to the lungs to acheive optimum ventilation/perfusion. So yes, the chemoreceptors are for both systems, as they go hand in hand.

  2. QUESTION:
    Which of the following statements regarding chemoreceptors is true?
    Which of the following statements regarding chemoreceptors is true?

    Chemoreceptors are found in skin.

    Chemoreception occurs in response to the pressure that molecules exert on the receptors.

    A chemical binding to a chemoreceptor causes a chain of reactions that eventually causes sodium channels to close.

    Chemoreceptors are neurons whose sodium channels open when a molecule binds to it.

    • ANSWER:
      Chemoreception occurs in response to the pressure that molecules exert on the receptors.

  3. QUESTION:
    Of the chemoreceptors in vertebrates, which is used to detect a source from a distance?
    Of the chemoreceptors in vertebrates, which is used to detect a source from a distance?

    A.Touch
    B.Taste
    C.Olfaction
    D.Visual

    • ANSWER:
      The answer is C - Olfaction (sense of smell)

      Touch is a mechanoreceptor
      Visual is a photoreceptor

      Taste is a chemoreceptor but cannot be done from a distance. You must be in contact with something to taste it.

  4. QUESTION:
    What is the difference between peripheral and central chemoreceptors?
    In terms of their locations and the mechanisms by which they are stimulated.

    • ANSWER:
      The respiratory chemoreceptor control system is comprised of central and peripheral respiratory chemoreceptors that operate in a classic feedback loop to control breathing. The central chemoreceptors detect brain tissue carbon dioxide and the peripheral chemoreceptors detect blood oxygen and carbon dioxide levels. Using different time scales, inputs from central and peripheral chemoreceptors are integrated in the central nervous system to precisely match pulmonary ventilation to metabolic demands and maintain blood gases within narrow limits during wakefulness and sleep.

      Location - Peripheral chemoreceptors (carotid and aortic bodies) and central chemoreceptors (medullary neurons).

  5. QUESTION:
    When are chemoreceptors in the carotic and aortic bodies stimulated?
    during inspiration and expiration?
    also when does this occur?

    • ANSWER:
      There are central chemreceptors (in the brain), and peripheral chemoreceptors. Peripheral chemoreceptor cells are located in the carotid bodies (little bulbs in the carotid arteries that run along both sides of the neck) and in the aorta Both central and peripheral chemoreceptor cells respond to changes in pH status and blood oxygen. At blood oxygen levels of less than 50 mm Hg, or in conditions of acidosis, these cells kick in and send signals to the brain that result in your body increasing it's breathing. Central receptors are more sensitive to small changes in the body, but take longer to kick in than the peripheral (carotid and aortic body) chemoreceptors.

  6. QUESTION:
    what is the function of mechanoreceptors and chemoreceptors?
    what is the function of mechanoreceptors and chemoreceptors?

    • ANSWER:
      A mechanoreceptor is a sensory receptor that responds to mechanical pressure or distortion. There are four main types in the glabrous (hairless) skin of humans: Pacinian corpuscles, Meissner's corpuscles, Merkel's discs, and Ruffini corpuscles. There are also mechanoreceptors in the hairy skin, and the hair cells in the cochlea are the most sensitive mechanoreceptors in transducing air pressure waves into sound.

      A chemoreceptor is a specialized sensory end organ adapted for excitation by chemical substances (for example, olfactory and gustatory receptors) or specialized sense organs of the carotid body that are sensitive to chemical changes in the bloodstream.

  7. QUESTION:
    Which of the following sensory pathways are associated with chemoreceptors?
    Which of the following sensory pathways are associated with chemoreceptors?

    A. olfaction
    B. equilibrium
    C. sight
    D. all of the above
    E. A and B not C

    • ANSWER:
      Answer is A.

      Olfaction requires receptors for chemicals in the air (chemoreceptors) that a single use and internalised after activation.

      Equilibrium is just a red herring... it relies on gradients and potentials

      Sight.. is photoreception with rhodopsin changing in light.

  8. QUESTION:
    What role do the chemoreceptors in the aortic arch and the carotid arteries play in breathing?

    • ANSWER:
      they are extremely well perfused and responds to changes in partial pressure of oxygen in arteries rather than the oxygen content of the blood flowing through it.

  9. QUESTION:
    where are the bodies chemoreceptors and what do they do?
    please dont make your answers too confusing to understand. simple answers are good too.

    • ANSWER:
      medulla, near the brain and heart. they simply measure levels of CO2 in the blood by measuring the bloods acidity (H+ ions).

  10. QUESTION:
    what important function are carried out by the baroreceptors and chemoreceptors and where are they located?

    • ANSWER:
      Baroreceptors are pressure sensors within the body located in the linings of the arteries that sense the blood pressure and return this information to the central nervous system influencing the cardiac output, increasing it when the pressure falls or decreasing it if the pressure becomes too high.

      See this link for more information: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baroreceptors

      Chemoreceptors are located in different regions depending on their type, but they all take a chemical signal and convert that into a nerve impulse one type is the olfactory receptor neurons in the olfactory system in the brain, which are responsible for giving us our sense of smell.

      See this link for more information: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chemoreceptors

  11. QUESTION:
    The glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves carry signals from the peripheral chemoreceptors to..?
    a. the central chemoreceptors
    b. the aortic and carotid bodies
    c. the aortic and carotid sinuses
    d. the pneumotaxic center of the pons
    e. the medulla oblongata

    • ANSWER:
      E

  12. QUESTION:
    How do levels of O2, CO2, and H+ affect the chemoreceptors and respiratory rhythm?

    • ANSWER:
      low levels of O2, high levels of CO2 and a low pH (high conc of H+) result from not enough respirations. Your body will increases breathing rate to try to get more oxygen in and more CO2 out (b/c CO2 levels directly affect pH, which if pH gets out of control death can occur).

  13. QUESTION:
    WHAT IS THE ROLE OF CHEMORECEPTORS IN CONTROLLING RATE OF BREATHING IN HUMAN RESPIRATORY CENTRE?

    • ANSWER:
      Basically, peripheral chemoreceptors (which are types of nerve cells) are found within the the aorta, carotid arteries (and the medulla which controls CO2). The nerve cells in the aorta and carotid artery monitor oxygen concentration levels of the blood and send feed back on the respiratory centres.

      If there is a drop in oxygen levels in the blood, a signal is sent to the respiratory centres to increase the rate of breathing to bring levels back to normal.

      It's the central chemoreceptor in the medulla which monitors carbon dioxide concentration in the CSF that surrounds the brain and spinal cord.

      If carbon dioxide concentration become too high, both types of chemoreceptors signal the respiratory centers to increase the rate of breathing. By doing this, the concentration of CO2 is brought back to normal and the breathing rate then decreases.

  14. QUESTION:
    What senses are dependent on chemoreceptors?

    • ANSWER:
      taste and smell are the senses which are dependant on chemoreceptors.

  15. QUESTION:
    what is the function of chemoreceptors in regulating respiration?

    • ANSWER:
      Chemoreceptors act most importantly to detect variation of the oxygen in the arterial blood, in addition to detecting arterial carbon dioxide and pH.

      These nodes, called the aortic body and carotid body, are located on the arch of the aorta and on the common carotid artery, respectively and send information to the control centre in the medulla of the brain.

      Chemoreceptors detect the levels of carbon dioxide in the blood. To do this, they monitor the concentration of hydrogen ions in the blood, which decreases the pH of the blood. This is a direct consequence of an increase in carbon dioxide concentration, because carbon dioxide becomes carbonic acid in an aqueous environment.

      The response to increased CO2 is that the respiratory centre (in the medulla), sends nervous impulses to the external intercostal muscles and the diaphragm, via the intercostal nerve and the phrenic nerve, respectively, to increase breathing rate and the volume of the lungs during inhalation.

  16. QUESTION:
    what are the function of chemoreceptors in breathing regulation?

    • ANSWER:
      Chemoreceptors, located in the aorta and carotid arteries, respond to low levels of oxyhemeglobin. Notice I did not say hypoxemia. This is an important distinction because they will respond to both a low PaO2 and anemia. If the person is tachypenic it's more often than not hypoxemia as opposed to a patient with hyperpnea whose respiratory center is responding to acidemia or a high PaCO2.There are also baroreceptors in the aortic arch and carotid body which respond with tachypnea to a low blood pressure.
      God bless.

  17. QUESTION:
    Where are the impulses from the chemoreceptors conducted?

    • ANSWER:
      A chemosensor, also known as chemoreceptor, is a sensory receptor that transduces a chemical signal into an action potential. Or, more generally, a chemosensor detects certain chemical stimuli in the environment.
      Breathing rate
      Chemoreceptors detect the levels of carbon dioxide in the blood. To do this, they monitor the concentration of hydrogen ions in the blood, which decrease the pH of the blood. This is a direct consequence of an increase in carbon dioxide concentration, because carbon dioxide becomes carbonic acid in an aqueous environment.

      The response is that the respiratory centre (in the medulla), sends nervous impulses to the external intercostal muscles and the diaphragm, via the intercostal nerve and the phrenic nerve, respectively, to increase breathing rate and the volume of the lungs during inhalation.

      Chemoreceptors which affect breathing rate are broken down into two categories.

      central chemoreceptors are located on the ventrolateral surface of medulla oblongata and detect changes in pH of cerebrospinal fluid. They do not respond to a drop in oxygen, and eventually desensitize.
      peripheral chemoreceptors: Aortic body detects changes in blood oxygen and carbon dioxide, but not pH, while carotid body detects all three. They do not desensitize. Their effect on breathing rate is less than that of the central chemoreceptors.
      [edit] Heart rate
      Chemoreceptors in the medulla oblongata, carotid arteries and aortic arch, detect the levels of carbon dioxide in the blood, in the same way as applicable in the Breathing Rate section.

      In response to this high concentration, a nervous impulse is sent to the cardiovascular centre in the medulla, which will then feedback to the sympathetic ganglia, increasing nervous impulses here, and prompting the sinoatrial node to stimulate more contractions of the myogenic cardiac muscle, increasing heart rate by causing the secretion of nor-adrenaline directly on to the sinoatrial node.

      [edit] Sense organs
      In taste sensation, the tongue is composed of 5 different taste buds: salty, sour, sweet, bitter, and savory. The salty and sour tastes work directly through the ion channels, the sweet and bitter taste work through G protein-coupled receptors, and the savoury sensation is activated by glutamate.

      Noses in vertebrates and antennae in many invertebrates act as distance chemoreceptors. Molecules are diffused through the air and bind to specific receptors on olfactory sensory neurons, activating an opening ion channel via G-proteins.

      When inputs from the environment are significant to the survival of the organism the input must be detected. As all life processes are ultimately based on chemistry it is natural that detection and passing on of the external input will involve chemical events. The chemistry of the environment is, of course, relevant to survival, and detection of chemical input from the outside may well articulate directly with cell chemicals.

      For example: The emissions of a predator's food source, such as odors or pheromones, may be in the air or on a surface where the food source has been. Cells in the head, usually the air passages or mouth, have chemical receptors on their surface that change when in contact with the emissions. The change does not stop there. It passes in either chemical or electrochemical form to the central processor, the brain or spinal cord. The resulting output from the CNS (central nervous system) makes body actions that will engage the food and enhance survival.

  18. QUESTION:
    which chemical stimulates central chemoreceptors. What effects an increase in the chemical has on the heart?

    • ANSWER:
      carbon dioxide, oxygen and pH of cerebrospinal fluid has got stimulant and depressant effect on central chemo receptors, so it also increases or decreases heart rate via autonomic activity.

  19. QUESTION:
    How do chemoreceptors regulate breathing?

    • ANSWER:
      Chemoreceptors in the medulla, carotid arteries and aorta, detect the levels of carbon dioxide in the blood. To do this, they monitor the concentration of hydrogen ions in the blood, which decreases the pH of the blood, as a direct consequence of the raised carbon dioxide concentration.

      The response is that the inspiratory centre (in the medulla), sends nervous impulses to the external intercostal muscles and the diaphragm, via the phrenic nerve to increase breathing rate and the volume of the lungs during inhalation.

  20. QUESTION:
    Chemoreceptors are used in the sense of?
    Chemoreceptors are used in the sense of
    a. taste
    b. sight
    c. smell
    d. hearing
    e. touch

    a or c?

    • ANSWER:
      your question is worded poorly. chemoreceptors sense chemical signals and then turn them into action potentials. taste and smell are both correct though.

  21. QUESTION:
    what are baroreceptors and chemoreceptors in simplest form?

    • ANSWER:
      Baro receptor:
      These are receptor present in the cell which signals the increase or decrease in outside pressure. Thus the cell can maintain its internal osmotic pressure according to outside pressure. This is seen in barophillic bacteria which has capacity to live in above 12 atm which will live at high pressure by efflux out the H+ ions through its channel protein!!!!!!!!
      Chemoreceptors:
      these are also receptor(proteins) which are specific to the particular chemical which involved in cell signaling.

  22. QUESTION:
    central chemoreceptors in (respiration ) respond mainly to what ?
    10 points for a detailed , clear and thorough answer

    • ANSWER:
      Central chemoreceptors. Chemoreceptors are cells that respond to chemical stimuli. There are cells in the floor of the fourth ventricle (part of the brain stem) that respond to the acidity of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and the output from these cells influences breathing. The acidity of any fluid is measured by the pH; this is related to the number of hydrogen ions in the solution. The normal pH of the body is 7.4; values higher than this represent alkaline conditions in the body, with a lower hydrogen ion concentration, and values of pH less than 7.4 represent acidic conditions, with a higher hydrogen ion concentration. The cells in the floor of the fourth ventricle respond to the pH of the CSF. An acidic CSF causes hyperventilation this is the reason for dyspnoea with conditions such as diabetic ketoacidosis. An alkaline CSF inhibits the respiratory centre. Carbon dioxide in the blood can rapidly diffuse across into the CSF, and there is a balance between the level of carbon dioxide, hydrogen ion and bicarbonate ion in the CSF. If the carbon dioxide in the blood increases (eg following exercise), then the carbon dioxide, hydrogen ion and bicarbonate ion concentrations increase correspondingly in the CSF. This increase in CSF acidity causes hyperventilation which lowers the carbon dioxide concentration in the blood. A low blood carbon dioxide level (hypocarbia) has the opposite effect and may occur, for example, following controlled ventilation during anaesthesia. This may delay the return of spontaneous breathing at the end of surgery.

  23. QUESTION:
    Where the chemoreceptors that regulate ventilation located?
    (A) Carotid (B) Medulla (C) Hypotalamus

    • ANSWER:
      The chemoreceptors respond to the level of carbon dioxide or H+ in the blood.

      These receptors are located in the carotid arteries (A).
      They respond to high blood levels of CO2 or H+
      by sending impulses to the medulla (B),
      which in turn sends impulses to the breathing muscles.

  24. QUESTION:
    Describe the location, function and special features of the respiratory chemoreceptors..?

    • ANSWER:
      There are two main classes of the chemosensor: direct and distance.

      Examples of distance chemoreceptors are:
      olfactory receptor neurons in the olfactory system
      neurons in the vomeronasal organ that detect pheromones
      Examples of direct chemoreceptors include
      taste buds in the gustatory system
      carotid bodies and aortic bodies that detect changes in pH inside the body.
      Breathing rate
      Chemoreceptors detect the levels of carbon dioxide in the blood. To do this, they monitor the concentration of hydrogen ions in the blood, which decreases the pH of the blood. This is a direct consequence of an increase in carbon dioxide concentration, because carbon dioxide becomes carbonic acid in an aqueous environment.

      The response is that the inspiratory centre (in the medulla), sends nervous impulses to the external intercostal muscles and the diaphragm, via the intercostal nerve and the phrenic nerve, respectively, to increase breathing rate and the volume of the lungs during inhalation.

      Chemoreceptors which affect breathing rate are broken down into two categories.

      central chemoreceptors are located on the ventrolateral surface of medulla oblongata and detect changes in pH of cerebrospinal fluid. They do not respond to a drop in oxygen, and eventually desensitize.
      peripheral chemoreceptors: Aortic body detects changes in blood oxygen and carbon dioxide, but not pH, while carotid body detects all three. They do not desensitize. Their effect on breathing rate is less than that of the central chemoreceptors.

      [edit] Heart rate
      Chemoreceptors in the medulla oblongata, carotid arteries and aortic arch, detect the levels of carbon dioxide in the blood, in the same way as applicable in the Breathing Rate section.

      In response to this high concentration, a nervous impulse is sent to the cardiovascular centre in the medulla, which will then feedback to the sympathetic ganglia, increasing nervous impulses here, and prompting the sinoatrial node to stimulate more contractions of the myogenic cardiac muscle increasing heart rate by causing the secretion of nor-adrenaline directly on to the sinoatrial node.

      [edit] Sense organs
      In taste sensation, the tongue is composed of 5 different taste buds: salty, sour, sweet, bitter, and savory. The salty and sour tastes work directly through the ion channels, the sweet and bitter taste work through G protein-coupled receptors, and the savoury sensation is activated by glutamate.

      Noses in vertebrates and antennae in many invertebrates act as distance chemoreceptors. Molecules diffused through the air and bind to specific receptors on olfactory sensory neurons, activating an opening ion channel via G-proteins.

      When inputs from the environment are significant to the survival of the organism the input must be detected. As all life processes are ultimately based on chemistry it is natural that detection and passing on of the external input will involve chemical events. The chemistry of the environment is, of course, relevant to survival, and detection of chemical input from the outside may well articulate directly with cell chemicals.

      For example: The emissions of a predator's food source, such as odors or pheromones, may be in the air or on a surface where the food source has been. Cells in the head, usually the air passages or mouth, have chemical receptors on their surface that change when in contact with the emissions. The change does not stop there. It passes in either chemical or electrochemical form to the central processor, the brain or spinal cord. The resulting output from the CNS (central nervous system) makes body actions that will engage the food and enhance survival.

  25. QUESTION:
    please help fast!!!!!on the chemoreceptors of isopod or pillbug?
    i need citations too, but if you don't have it that's ok
    chemoreceptors on how it senses the condition and the behavior created by the sensory system

    • ANSWER:
      Armadillidiidae Isopods and Pillbugs
      all there is to tell
      http://www.udel.edu/msmith/pillbugs.html
      http://asso.univ-poitiers.fr/t%2Disopods/final%20circular.html
      http://insects.ummz.lsa.umich.edu/MES/notes/entonotes3.html
      http://insects.ummz.lsa.umich.edu/MES/notes/entonotes3.html
      http://pagesperso-orange.fr/zenza/cloportes/index.html

  26. QUESTION:
    What do chemoreceptors respond to?

    • ANSWER:
      there are certain receptors present in the body which respond to pressure,chemical changes. chemoreceptors basically sense the chemical change in the blood. if there is too much of carbon dioxide then they sense this change and tell the body to take more oxygen.

  27. QUESTION:
    T/F: chemoreceptors are located in the walls of the carotid and aortic arteries and in the medulla oblongata.?

    • ANSWER:
      true

  28. QUESTION:
    how do peripheral chemoreceptors help the body deal with the increased metabolic rate caused by fever?

    • ANSWER:
      i would assume it has something to do with buffering your body's pH. P. Chemorectors are stimulated by a low Oxygen level, in essence, with a fever i believe your body's pH is lowered, and i sensing a lower o2 level since u have an increase in hydrogen ions. sorry its hard for me to explain. in a more simpler way, all i can say is the buffer system is working.

  29. QUESTION:
    T/F: peripheral chemoreceptors r more sensitive to the partial pressure of O2 than to partial pressure of CO2?

    • ANSWER:
      pO2.

      Peripheral Chemoreceptors known as the Aortic Bodies in the aortic arch and the Carotid Bodies (by the carotid baroceptors) at the bifurcation of the carotid arteries in the neck monitor pO2. The Aortic Bodies are supplied by the vagus nerve, the Carotid Bodies are supplied by the glossopharyngeal nerve. These pO2 receptors send nerve impulses to the medulla to increase respiration when pO2 falls. These centers are actually sensitive to both PO2 and pH.

  30. QUESTION:
    where are the chemoreceptors for the breathing rhythm?

    • ANSWER:
      there are chemoreceptors in the 4th ventricle of the brain, which detect the pH of the blood, if it gets too low it will increase respiration. note that increasing breathing rhythm doesnt first rely on the lack of oxygen but the excess CO2 in the blood. some CO2 actually travels as bicarbonate ions which is HCO3 +H+, the H+ is what the chemoreceptors actually detect and its what actually makes the blood more acid. when bicarbonate and the hydrogen joins it becomes H2CO3 which then turns into CO2 and H20.

  31. QUESTION:
    disscus the effect of dissolving food on gustation, by referring to the action of chemoreceptors? any ideas ?

    • ANSWER:
      That is the exact question on the sensation prac... question 12 lol :)

  32. QUESTION:
    A(n) __________ in the pH of cerebrospinal fluid is detected by __________ chemoreceptors, which trigger?
    a(n) __________ in the rate and depth of breathing.
    a.increase; peripheral; increase
    b.decrease; central; decrease
    c.increase; central; decrease
    d.decrease; central; increase
    e.decrease; peripheral; increase

    • ANSWER:
      d. decrease; central; increase

  33. QUESTION:
    How do chemicals in the blood effect blood pressure?
    I know that chemoreceptors regulate blood pressure by monitoring the levels of H, O2 and CO2 in the blood, but why and how do these chemicals effect blood pressure?

    I know that if too much CO2 and H is found in the blood by chemoreceptors, the medula oblongata will cause vasodialation (or constriction if there is too little im guessing) along with a slower heart rate. But how and why do these chemicals effect the blood pressure?

    • ANSWER:
      Recent scientific research suggests that a problem of the inner lining of blood vessel walls, called the endothelium Singular layer of flat cells that lines the walls of the heart, blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels; inner lining of the tunica intima layer of blood vessels, may contribute to hypertension. Substances released from the endothelium can cause blood vessels to dilate or constrict. Some substances also promote or inhibit growth of the smooth muscle cells in the blood vessel wall.

      Normally, the actions of these substances are held in balance. But in some people, the constriction chemicals may overpower the relaxation chemicals. Arteries narrow, and blood pressure goes up because it is more difficult for blood to circulate.

  34. QUESTION:
    If you are in an airplane encountering turbulence and you start feeling sick to your stomach?
    If you are in an airplane encountering turbulence and you start feeling sick to your stomach, would closing your eyes be a good thing to try, and why?

    Yes; it eliminates the disagreement between the information from your inner ears and the information from your eyes.
    Yes; it eliminates the disturbing information that you are falling and bouncing through the sky.
    No; it focuses your attention on the nausea.
    No; it intensifies the feeling of falling and bouncing by eliminating the sight of the stable cabin.
    Yes; it calms you by allowing the sensory information from your chemoreceptors to properly readjust

    • ANSWER:
      In light aircraft, when you can see outside and see the horizon (and also on boats) it should help (as you said in your first answer above)
      With your eyes open, they are constantly looking out at the horizon and as it moves this adds to the nausea. With eyes shut it is just the movement which will make you feel sick.
      Best thing is to lie as flat as possible, to close your eyes and to relax.

  35. QUESTION:
    What is the reason a person knows that it is time to void the urinary bladder?
    a. Chemoreceptors detect the presence of urine in the bladder.
    b. Nociceptors respond to fullness as if it were pain.
    c. Thermoreceptors detect an increase in temperature as the urinary bladder fills.
    d. Mechanoreceptors in the urinary bladder signal fullness by responding to stretch.

    • ANSWER:
      D

  36. QUESTION:
    If you are in an airplane encountering turbulence and you start feeling sick to your stomach, would closing yo
    If you are in an airplane encountering turbulence and you start feeling sick to your stomach, would closing your eyes be a good thing to try, and why?
    Yes; it eliminates the disagreement between the information from your inner ears and the information from your eyes.
    Yes; it eliminates the disturbing information that you are falling and bouncing through the sky.
    No; it focuses your attention on the nausea.
    No; it intensifies the feeling of falling and bouncing by eliminating the sight of the stable cabin.
    Yes; it calms you by allowing the sensory information from your chemoreceptors to properly readjust.

    • ANSWER:
      I have no idea, I have flown all over the world and experienced turbulence many times but I have never felt sick.

  37. QUESTION:
    What a Chemoreceptors does?

    • ANSWER:
      Chemoreceptors detect the levels of carbon dioxide in the blood. To do this, they monitor the concentration of hydrogen ions in the blood, which decrease the pH of the blood. This is a direct consequence of an increase in carbon dioxide concentration, because carbon dioxide becomes carbonic acid in an aqueous environment.

  38. QUESTION:
    Which structural component is most important for spiders?
    Which structural component is most important for spiders?
    Hair, eyes, chemoreceptors, ears, or antennae?

    • ANSWER:
      I would say HAIR as there are spiders that have special hairs on their legs to help them to make webs and are called comb footed spiders.

  39. QUESTION:
    Our chemoreceptors are mostly for tasting while other animals use them for _____.?
    SELECT ALL THAT APPLY

    a)finding food
    b)finding mates
    c)smelling
    d)sensing danger

    • ANSWER:
      A chemoreceptor is a sensory cell or organ responsive to chemical stimuli.

      a)finding food
      b)finding mates
      c)smelling

      These can all be detected via chemical messages. Danger does not emit chemical signals.

  40. QUESTION:
    Under which condition can you hold your breath longer?
    First breathe in as much as you can and hold your breath, and time it. (Lungs completely inflated)

    After, breathe out as much as you can, hold your breath, and time it. (Maximal expiration).

    Which condition can you hold your breath longer? Why?

    I'm trying to relate all of this with chemoreceptors for carbon dioxide and oxygen. I would really appreciate a useful resource.

    • ANSWER:
      Carotid bodies and aortic bodies detect changes primarily in pH and CO2 inside the body. They also detect Oxygen changes when at high altitude and with COPD
      Please see the web page for self-induced hypocapnia.

  41. QUESTION:
    how come when a child takes a deep breath and hold it, she passes out and heart rate increases?
    It is said that this results from baroreceptor-mediated sympathetic activation causing heart rate to increase, but what does taking a deep breath have to do with blood pressure? Why is this increase in heart rate NOT due to chemoreceptors stimulated but BARORECEPTOR?

    • ANSWER:
      Because it has nothing to do with oxygen levels in your blood and everything to do with the preload going to the heart.

      The child is performing a valsalva maneuver. By taking in a deep breath and holding, she is increasing the pressure within the chest. As a result, less blood flows back into the heart (less preload). Less preload--> less contractility, the less the heart is pumping forward, leading to a drop in blood pressure (it can be enough to make someone pass out). Because your blood pressure has been acutely dropped, the body's baroreceptors speed up the heart to help overcome the drop in pressure.

      While the above poster is right about sinus arrhythmia and how you get small changes in heart rate with breathing, it is not enough typically to make someone pass out. You can breathe deeply all you want, your heart rate may change a little. It's when you hold the breath in and bear down that the preload drops enough to drop your blood pressure.

  42. QUESTION:
    a person with emphysema often needs to be given supplemental oxygen why is it important for this person not to?
    a person with emphysema often needs to be given supplemental oxygen. Why is it important for this person not to get too much oxygen? one thought/hint is chemoreceptors

    • ANSWER:
      because a person whom suffers from emphysema already is used to lower oxygen levels in the brain...so the breathing mechanism in the brain is geared for this..so when you increase oxygen you in fact are actually suffocating them..people whom need oxygen more then the average prescribed 2 liters per minute are given more only thru the medical guidance of a pulmonoligist.

  43. QUESTION:
    The primary regulator of the magnitude of ventilation in normal circumstances is the?
    A. H+
    concentration of the brain extracellular fluid monitored by central chemoreceptors
    B. PO2 of the arterial blood monitored by peripheral chemoreceptors
    C. PCO2 of arterial blood monitored by central chemoreceptors
    D. PCO2 of arterial blood monitored by peripheral chemoreceptors

    • ANSWER:
      A. H+ concentration of the brain extracellular fluid monitored by central chemoreceptors

  44. QUESTION:
    You are sitting on a sunny Mexican beach during spring break among thousands of other students. Identify the h?
    You are sitting on a sunny Mexican beach during spring break among thousands of other students. Identify the how each of the following are functioning.◦thermoreceptors
    ◦chemoreceptors
    ◦mechanoreceptors
    ◦photoreceptors
    ◦nocireceptors

    • ANSWER:
      Thermoreceptors- (Temperature) sensing the temperature of the air,sand,water
      Chemoreceptors- (Chemicals in the air or food) smelling or tasting the environment
      Mechanorecptors- (Touch Receptors) feeling the pressure of the sand against your feet
      Photoreceptors- (Photo = Light) being aware of the amount of light available
      Nocireceptors- (Pain receptors) the sensation of pain from a sunburn or from hot sand.

  45. QUESTION:
    A rise in carbonic acid content in the blood will have what effect on respiration?
    a. respiratory rate increases & breathing becomes stronger & deeper
    b. respiratory rate decreases & breathing becomes shallow & weaker
    c. chemoreceptors are inhibited
    d. baroreceptors are stimulated
    anyones help would be greatly appreciated!!

    • ANSWER:
      The answer is a. CO2 in the blood causes carbonic acid levels to rise. The body's response to adjust breathing is to restore blood pH to its normal level. As your respiration rate and depth increases more oxygen is taken in and CO2 is expelled thus reducing carbonic acid levels.

  46. QUESTION:
    Neural control of blood pressure depends upon?
    a. sensory input from barorecepors in the carotid and aortic sinuses.
    b. sensory input from the chemoreceptors in the carotid and aortic bodies.
    c. Cranial nerves IX and V relaying impulses to the cardiovascular center.
    d. the balance of sympathetic and parasympathetic impulses from the cardiovascular center.
    e. All of these are correct.

    • ANSWER:
      e. These all influence blood pressure

  47. QUESTION:
    What are the other body receptors?
    I am doing Sport Science at A-level and I have write about 3 to 5 body receptors, and so far I have chemoreceptors, thermoreceptors and stretch receptors.
    Any one know of any others? Its not in my book.

    Cheers

    • ANSWER:
      baroreceptors (for detecting blood pressure) and osmoreceptors (for detecting osmotic pressure of the cells)

  48. QUESTION:
    mechanisms that do not help regulate blood pressure include?
    a) nervous system control that operates via reflex arcs involving pressoreceptors, chemoreceptors, and higher brain centers
    b) the dural sinus reflex
    c) renal regulation via the renin-antiotensin syster
    d) chemical control, such as the hormone ANP
    E) all of the above do help regulate blood pressure

    • ANSWER:
      E

  49. QUESTION:
    I have some questions in biology?
    1.In the human male, several hundred million sperm are produced by spermatogenesis occurring in
    a. interstitial cells.
    b. the prostate.
    c. seminiferous tubules.
    d. the vas deferens.
    2.Which statement is true?
    a. Breathing rate and depth are completely under voluntary control.
    b. A person can commit suicide by holding one's breath.
    c. The contraction of the diaphragm and muscle of the rib cage are under the control of the brain.
    d. There are chemoreceptors in the brain that monitor carbon dioxide content in the blood and control breathing.
    e. The contraction of the diaphragm and muscle of the rib cage are under the control of the brain, and there are chemoreceptors in the brain that monitor carbon dioxide content in the blood and control breathing.
    3.The release of DDT into the environment to control some insect pests will result in the highest detectable concentrations

    a. at the bottom of the food chain.

    b. in the targeted insect pest.

    c. in the middle of the food chain.

    d. at the end of the food chain.

    e. in producers.

    • ANSWER:
      I Think, c,e,d, BTW, See Rachel Carson.

      Labsci, Below, Looks to Be Correct.

  50. QUESTION:
    Sensory receptors that respond to changes in blood pressure are called?
    a) proprioceptors
    b) thermoreceptors
    c) baroreceptors
    d) nociceptors
    e) chemoreceptors

    • ANSWER:
      C) Baroreceptors

      Hint: If you think about how a barometer measures atmospheric pressure it makes plenty of sense!


Chemonics

When we think of the Fashion Clothing Industry, we generally think of France, Germany Italy. The thought that Eastern European can produce talented fashion designers, does not come straight to mind. But I hope my article can educate and inform much more people that creativity and quality does travel beyond the confines of Europe. Moldova is one such country that encompasses the workforce needed to fuel companies such as Multitexlondon. Who are providing Fashion clothes throughout Europe? Stefan Cel Mare, formely known as Lenin Boulevard, is in the very centre of Chisinau, the capital of the Republic of Moldova. Between government buildings in the north and hotels at the southern end of the street huddle all the important institutions and agencies as well as the boutiques of well-known brands like Hugo Boss, adidas or Puma.whoever wants to be successful or wants to participate in the meagre fruit of the Moldovan economy has an address here.

Female employees, students, women who moments earlier were crammed together in one of the mini buses bringing them from the districts of Botanica or nearby the city centre, surprise by there elegance. Most popular are jackets made of soft, black leather with a business-like blouse worn with formelly but generously cut trousers.people in Moldova spend an average of 7% of their income on clothes (against 6% in Germany).

With the collapse of the East European COMECON (see Annexe @bottom of this article) market at the beginning of the transformation period ( 1989 -1991), the sewing machines came to a grinding halt. Times have changed since this bleak period and now pockets of business are appearing all over the place, two blocks from Boulevard Stefan Cel Mare toward the east, there can be heard once more the sounds of the machines from the factories of lonel and Steau Reds, former textile conglomerates which have since been privatised and divided into smaller companies.Today, there are about 50 comapnies in the whole country producing mostly garments and some textiles. They rae Italian, Turkish or German owned and financed.

The Republic of Moldova is the poorest country in Europe. The average income is a300 per year. Survival on such a low income is impossible even in the Republic of Moldova. In 1999 already, the cost of a basket of basic commodities, was three times higher than the average income. Many Moldovans only manage to survive because they have relatives in the countryside who help them out with food grown on their own small farms. Furthermore, 800,000 people left Moldova in the past 10 years to go to the West and contribute remittences which are a vital for the famillies they have left behind at home.

Like all other states of the former Soviet Union, Moldova has experienced a dramatic economic declie.1993 and 1994 were marked as being the ablack yearsa as in any other former socialist country; in 1993 alone, the GDP declined by more than 30%. Production broke down and inflation soared - to 116% in 1994. Most of the former state companies had to close. This was only the beginning, another crisis came in 1998 when the Russian market collapsed - the only market of importance that remained for Moldovans products after the break down of the COMEDON. The countries GDP declined even further and Moldova was on the edge of bankruptcy.

The country was bailed out by the usual International creditors. This enatiled a high level of dependance on, the likes of the International Monetary Fund (IMF), which imposed sanctions such as aan unprecedented fiscal adjustment and tight monetary policya to contain the external market shock effect. This meant a severe cutback in social spending in order to reduce inefficieny in the social sectors. Fifty hospitals were closed, education and health next to be imposed of cuts by a third and school fees were brought back.ten percent of public employees were dismissed. Although there has been a slight recovery in the economy since 2000, the Moldovan economy has still not reached its 1990 level. Moldova's Garment Industry

Moldova's garment industry is the countries second most important industry after wine. Its main customer is Italy, which buys 32% of Moldova's exports, followed by Germany with 32% and the USA with 16%.compared to neighbouring Romania, Moldova has a small but increasing share of the European Union's market in garments. Until recently, the advice to source from Moldova as a tip given only to adventurous entrepreneurs. Close to the Black sea, the country was, historically speaking, a kind of plaything between East & West - at least until it became part of the Soviet Union.

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